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Full text of "Astronautics and aeronautics"



ASTRO 

TL 

521.3 

A8A3 

1969 








NASA SP-4014 



ASTRONAUTICS AND 
AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy 



Text by 

Science and Technology Division 

Library of Congress 



Sponsored by 

NASA Historical Division 

Office of Policy 




Scientific and Technical Information Division 

OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION 1970 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

Washington. D.C. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 

Price $2.25 (paper cover) , nnn . 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 66-60096 



Foreword 



History is a word with varied meanings. They range from one conveying 
idealistic images, to fat books of ultimate truth, to the professional's 
prejudices concerning history as an intellectual discipline. To those of us 
who have been privileged to be wholly immersed in science and technology 
of aeronautics and space over a number of years, history perhaps is the 
sense of accomplishment. 

While this chronology volume is not a history, it does attempt to provide 
a first-cut reference to events and commentary during a most crowded year 
and the year that man first set foot upon an extraterrestrial body. When the 
Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made their lunar walk 
on July 20, 1969, it became one of the most vicarious events to date in 
world history. Over a half billion people around the world witnessed this 
momentous occasion live by television relayed via communications satellites. 
Many who did not witness it appear reluctant to admit it today. The full 
consequences of the seven-year Apollo endeavor are as yet in the domain of 
prophets and posterity despite the worldwide enthusiasm. But we have 
already seen evidence of the second thoughts provided by man's perspective 
from the moon of his own planet — a heightened awareness that spaceship 
Earth is perhaps unique and certainly is precious, even with the manifold 
problems of mankind. And we have learned about ourselves as a people. 
We have learned that the United States can set itself a large, difficult, long- 
term objective and mobilize itself and sustain its effort to the successful 
conclusion. 

Aside from being the year that man landed on the moon, 1969 had many 
other significances to students and participants in aeronautics and astro- 
nautics. It was NASA's first year under the Nixon Administration and a new 
Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine. It was the year in which the Space 
Task Group's report to the President reaffirmed the Nation's continued com- 
mitment to space exploration and painted in the broad outline of post- Apollo 
goals in space. It was the year the concept of the space shuttle emerged in 
detail, exciting in its potential as a practical, reusable, economical space 
transportation system. In space science it was the year when Mariner VI and 
VII flew within 2,000 miles of Mars and sent back photographs of the Mar- 
tian surface and 200 times more data on Mars than had Mariner IV in 1964. 
In addition to these more spectacular events, there was solid progress in 
space science, exploration, and applications. All of these events and many 
more find their milestones recorded in this chronology. 

There are both value in and special reservations about this chronology of 
science, technology, and public policy as related to aeronautics and space. 
It provides the historian or any analyst with time-oriented steppingstones 
toward the human and institutional stories. General items are included to 
help create the social environment in which the selected items took place. 
There seems some merit, despite inevitable bias in viewpoints, in validating 



FOREWORD 

entries to sources generally available. This facilitates additional research. 
With its detailed index, the chronology is cross-referenced to dimensions 
other than time and becomes a useful reference available to lay and pro- 
fessional inquiry. 

But beyond this, history-maker, historian, observer, and student alike 
may become more aware of the documentation and reflection yet to be 
performed in comprehending more fully what has transpired. 

George M. Low 
Acting Administrator 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
September 15, 1970 



Contents 



PAGE 

Foreword in 

NASA Acting Administrator George M. Low 

Preface vn 

January 1 

February 37 

March 61 

April 99 

May 127 

June 167 

July 195 

August 259 

September 297 

October 323 

November 359 

December 399 

Appendix A: Satellites, Space Probes, and Manned Space Flights, 

a Chronicle for 1969 427 

Appendix B: Chronology of Major nasa Launches, 1969 459 

Appendix C: Chronology of Manned Space Flight, 1969 465 

Appendix D: Abbreviations of References 471 

Index and List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 475 



Preface 



The brief, chronological record of 1969 events in aerospace science, tech- 
nology, and policy has been prepared as events occurred and were reported 
in the immediately available, open sources — the news media, press releases, 
speech texts, transcripts, testimony before Congress, and test and study 
reports. A first collection of clues to significant occurrences and background 
climate for future historians, the volume is also intended to serve for 
immediate reference uses. It does not attempt to analyze but to cite the 
who, what, when, and where in sequence and as near real time as possible. 

Within these limitations, we make a considerable effort to ensure accuracy 
and comprehensiveness. Our NASA Archives, under Lee D. Saegesser, collects 
the current documentation. Under an exchange of funds agreement, the 
Science and Technology Division of the Library of Congress drafts the 
monthly segments in comment edition form. These are edited and aug- 
mented by the NASA Historical Division, published, and circulated for com- 
ment and use. At the end of the year the entire manuscript is reworked and 
augmented by the comments that have come in and by documentation that 
has become available since the comment edition was prepared. The Library 
also prepares the extensive index. 

The 1969 annual volume is the work of a number of hands. The entire 
NASA Historical Division participated in source collection, review, and 
publication. The general editor was Dr. Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Deputy 
nasa Historian. Technical editor was Mrs. Carrie Karegeannes. At the Li- 
brary Mrs. Patricia Davis, Mrs. Carmen Brock-Smith, and Mrs. Shirley 
Singleton prepared the monthly texts, which were circulated throughout 
nasa for comments as to completeness and accuracy of nasa items and then 
revised for annual publication. Arthur G. Renstrom prepared the index. 

Appendix A, "Satellites, Space Probes, and Manned Space Flights, a 
Chronicle for 1969," and Appendix C, "Chronology of Manned Space Flight, 
1969," were prepared by Leonard C. Bruno of the Library. Appendix B, 
"Chronology of Major NASA Launches, 1969," was prepared by William A. 
Lockyer, Jr., of the Historical and Library Services Branch, Kennedy Space 
Center. Appendix D, "Abbreviations of References," was prepared by Mrs. 
Brock-Smith. Creston Whiting of NASA's Information Services Branch, 
Scientific and Technical Information Division, kept the process abreast of 
Russian releases. At the NASA Centers the historians and historical monitors 
submitted local material for the chronology. Validation was the work of 
many busy persons throughout NASA and in other relevant branches of the 
Federal structure. 

A chronology is but the first step toward history and even it is never 
completed. Comments, additions, and criticisms are always welcomed. 

Eugene M. Kmme 

NASA Historian 



January 1969 

January 1: Washington Evening Star editorial said of success of Dec. 21—27, 
1968, Apollo 8 mission: "Modern science undercut man's bland belief 
that he was the center of the universe, and modern philosophy reduced 
him to a trivial atom of matter in the larger cosmos. To be able to 
sail around at will in that vast cosmos may give man back some of the 
confidence he once had, not the arrogance of thinking that he under- 
stands the whole pattern, but the quiet sense that he will not flinch 
from what he may yet learn." (W Star, 1/1/69, A15) 

• U.S.S.R. disclosed that converted MiG fighter was prototype used for 

testing design features and performance of Tu-144, Soviet supersonic 
aircraft. Soviet aviation writer for Pravda K. Raspevin said four-man 
crew aboard Tu-144 maiden flight Dec. 31, 1968, was one of most 
experienced in U.S.S.R. Pilot was Eduard V. Yelyan. Copilot Mikhail 
V. Kozlov had won title Hero of the Soviet Union for testing Tu-22 
supersonic strategic bomber. Tu-144 was constructed of light alloys 
with titanium on leading edges and other areas subjected to high 
temperatures. At cruising speed, outside skin temperature was 150° C. 
Air conditioning system cooled cabin. Tail unit was minus horizontal 
guiding surface. Crew members had catapult seats as safety precaution 
during test flights. (NYT, 1/2/69, 7) 

• World Data Center A for Rockets and Satellites, established at National 

Academy of Sciences in June 1958, moved to location adjacent to 
National Space Science Data Center at gsfc. (nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 
2/69, 11) 
January 2: In Washington Evening Star, Judith Randal said world's first 
successful heart transplant and Apollo 8 mission made 1968 year "of 
spectacular scientific achievement" but that critics of both events had 
charged that technology "was being exploited at the expense of basic 
research and social worth." It did no harm, she said, to celebrate 
heart transplants and voyages to moon, "but, with the advent of a new 
administration, it also is worth reflecting what the price may be — 
when so much else needs doing — of deciding to climb Mount Everest 
just because Mount Everest is there and we have learned how to climb 
it." (WStar, 1/2/69, A14) 

• NASA awarded Boeing Co. $32,815,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee supplemental 

agreement extending for additional 12 mos Apollo program technical 
integration and evaluation support initiated by Boeing June 15, 1967. 
(nasa Release 69-1) 

• President Johnson announced 12 recipients of 1968 National Medal of 

Science, Government's highest award for distinguished achievement in 
science, mathematics, and engineering. Detlev W. Bronk, President 
Emeritus of Rockefeller Univ., past president of nas (1950-1962) 
and Johns Hopkins Univ. (1948-1953), received award for "highly 
original research in the field of physiology and for his manifold con- 



January 2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tributions to the advance of science and its institution in the service 
of society." Herbert Friedman, Superintendent, Atmosphere and Astro- 
physics Div., Naval Research Laboratory, won award "for pioneering 
work in rocket and satellite astronomy and in particular for his con- 
tributions to the field of gamma ray astronomy." (PD, 1/6/69, 11; 
nasa biog, 9/8/68) 
January 3: H.R. 16, 17, and 204, bills to authorize award of Congressional 
Medal of Honor to Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. 
Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders, were introduced during first ses- 
sion of 91st Congress. {CR, 1/3/69, H33-42) 

• Time named Apollo 8 astronauts its Men of the Year for 1968. "For all 

its upheavals and frustrations, the year would be remembered to the 
end of time for the dazzling skills and Promethean daring that sent 
mortals around the moon. It would be celebrated as the year in which 
men saw at first hand their little earth entire, a remote, blue-brown 
sphere hovering like a migrant bird in the hostile night of space." 
{Time, 1/3/69, 9) 

• New York State Supreme Court Justice Frederick M. Marshall issued 

temporary injunction to block sale of Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory 
by Cornell Univ. to edp Technology, Inc., of Washington, D.C., for 
$25 million. He directed case be given preference on trial calendar. 
(NYT, 1/4/69, 23) 

January 4: At Explorers Club symposium in New York scientists, educators, 
community leaders, and students discussed significance of Apollo 8 
mission. William Booth, Chairman of Commission on Human Rights 
in New York, said, "I still am quite disturbed by the fact that we're 
dying at home, people are about to starve. There's overpopulation and 
underproduction of food in the world. We haven't been able to solve 
these problems and here we are going off to the moon." Dr. Robert 
Jastrow, Director of nasa's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said 
flights were "a means of concentrating our energies toward building 
a technological capability." Moon flight had played "same role as 
Lindbergh's flight to Paris" in that it demonstrated new capability. 
Space program was paying economic dividends in communications, 
mineral exploration, and new materials. Dr. Maynard M. Miller, Chair- 
man of Explorer Club's World Center for Exploration Foundation, said, 
"The word 'impossible' has a different meaning after Apollo 8. Perhaps 
its real contribution will be as a symbol of man's willingness to dare 
to do something great." (Wilford, NYT, 1/5/69, 26) 

January 5: Venus V unmanned probe was successfully launched by U.S.S.R. 
on four-month journey to Venus. Tass announced that 2,491-lb space- 
craft had been launched into parking orbit and then injected on 
trajectory toward Venus to softland, conduct extensive scientific re- 
search, and continue studies begun by Venus IV, which landed on 
Venusian surface Oct. 18, 1967. All equipment was functioning nor- 
mally. Spacecraft carried pennants with bas-relief of Lenin and Soviet 
coat of arms and "greater range of scientific and measuring equipment, 
making it possible to improve the accuracy of measurements and to 
obtain additional data on planet's atmosphere," Moscow News said. 
(Winters, B Sun, 1/6/69, 1; AP, W Star, 1/6/69, A3; Reuters, 
W Post, 1/6/69, A3; Moscow News, 1/18-25/69, 3) 

• Washington Sunday Star editorial commented on proposals made at 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 5 

aaas meeting in Dallas, Tex., Dee. 26-31, 1968, for agency to estab- 
lish priorities for Federal spending in research, education, technology, 
weapon development, and science. Dr. James V. Shannon, former nih 
director, had proposed creation of top-level council equal in stature 
to National Security Council and Council of Economic Advisers. Dr. 
Donald F. Hornig, President Johnson's Science Adviser, had recom- 
mended adding Secretary of Science to Presidential Cabinet. Star 
said, "There will be strong opposition to both of these proposals. The 
cry of centralization will be raised." However: "What is proposed . . . 
is a body of informed advisers, whose duty it is to suggest ... to in- 
struct the President, the Congress and public on the potentialities for 
good and evil that could result if a given path were followed. The Pres- 
ident would still have to make the executive decisions. Congress would 
still control the purse. The public would still have the final verdict of 
the ballot. But all of them could use some responsible, expert guidance 
through the awesome and fantastic new world that lies just ahead." 
(W Star, 1/5/69, Gl) 
January 6: Oao II I launched Dec. 7, 1968) completed 30 days of flight 
operation and was adjudged successful by NASA. Experiments had ob- 
tained 65 hrs of scientific data over range of eight magnitudes and 
4,200 A— 1,100 A wavelengths. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
celescope experiment made 18 mappings and Univ. of Wisconsin experi- 
ment made detailed observations of 100 stars. Some 40,000 separate 
commands had been sent to Oao II and more than 4 million pieces of 
information had been collected, with 20 times more uv information 
from stars in 30 days than in 15 yrs of sounding rocket launchings. 
Satellite's 11 telescopes were studying extremely young, hot stars 
which emitted most of their energy in uv portion of spectrum, not 
visible to ground observatories because of earth's atmosphere. (NASA 
Proj Off; nasa Release 69-7) 

• Budget squeeze had forced NASA to drop 16 institutions from its sustain- 

ing university program, Scientific Research said. Four others were 
dropped in 1968; 30 remained. Contracts of the 16 would not be re- 
newed as they expired unless institutions devised exceptional research 
proposals. Then money would probably have to be taken from other 
universities. Grants had ranged from 875,000 to $300,000, with total 
saving of $4 million over FYs 1969, 1970, and 1971 expected from can- 
cellation. Program funding had declined from $45 million in FYs 
1965 and 1966 to $30 million in FY 1967, $10 million in FY 1968, 
and $9 million in 1969. FY 1970 budget level was expected to be $9 
million. (Scientific Research, 1/6/69, 15-17; NASA FY 1970 Budget 
Briefing] 

• faa announced it had moved to reverse "escalation of aircraft noise" 

around airports by proposing maximum noise standards and noise ob- 
jectives for new subsonic transport aircraft, including those under de- 
velopment. Proposal was first regulatory action taken under P.L. 
90—411, which granted faa broad authority in noise control. Noise 
limits on approach would be 102 to 108 effective perceived noise deci- 
bels (epndb), depending on aircraft weight; sideline noise limits 
would be same; and takeoff limits would be in 93- to 108-ejmdb 
range, (faa Release 69-1; Bisen, W Post, 1/7/69, A3; WSJ, 1/9/69, 
4) 



January 6 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Defense Secretary-designate Melvin R. Laird announced at press confer- 

ence that Stanley R. Resor would remain as Secretary of the Army, 
Rhode Island Gov. John H. Chafee would be nominated Secretary of 
the Navy, and former NASA Deputy Administrator, Dr. Robert C. Sea- 
mans, Jr., would be nominated Secretary of the Air Force in Nixon 
Administration. (Wilson, W Post, 1/7/69, 1) 
January 6—8: Three-article series on "The Cost of Preparedness" by Orr 
Kelly in Washington Evening Star quoted interviews with outgoing 
Johnson Administration defense experts who agreed U.S. might be 
entering peaceful era in international relations though defense cost 
would remain high — at least $50 billion annually — in foreseeable fu- 
ture. Secretary of Defense Clark M. Clifford thought, "cautious and 
forceful steps" could be taken "to improve the lot of the people of the 
world." 

USN saw post-Vietnam war need for modernization, with emphasis 
on nuclear-powered escort ships; USAF wanted new fighter, manned 
bomber, deployment of interim bomber, and revamping of U.S. air 
defense force. 

Dr. John S. Foster, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, 
said: "The Soviets have four characteristics of special concern to the 
R&D community. They are technically advanced, they are strong eco- 
nomically, they have an aggressive military posture — and they work 
behind a veil of secrecy. The one that makes competition difficult is 
secrecy. To counter it, the United States must have technological su- 
periority. We must have been there, technically, before them." (W 
Star, 1/6-8/69) 
January 7: U.S. patent No. 3,420,471 was granted to John D. Bird, Howell 
D. Garner, Ernest D. Lounsberry, and David E. Thomas, Jr., LaRC 
engineers who assigned rights to NASA for jet shoes to enable astronauts 
to move in space. Wearer could rotate body by natural ankle and leg 
motions and control direction by turning body and aiming head in 
swimming motion. Previous devices for similar purpose required use of 
one or both hands or operation of complex arrangement of control jets 
and gyroscope sensors. Toe pressure in new shoes would release nitro- 
gen through thruster in sole of each shoe. With electrical control, pres- 
sure would be applied to switch. Alternate method would be fluidic 
control, with toes pressing syringe. (Pat Off pio; NYT, 1/11/69, 39) 

• Once Vietnam war was over, Michael Harrington said in Washington 

Evening Star, there would be "money enough for both slums and space 
if the nation has the political will to appropriate it." Space exploration 
could provide "economic alternative to war." It was "simply not true 
that the United States must choose between the heavens and earth. By 
the mid-Seventies, this country will have achieved a $1 trillion gross 
national product and because of this . . . there will be almost $30 
billion in 'extra' federal funds by 1972. That projection does not re- 
quire any increase in taxes and it assumes that there will be a fairly 
high level of military spending." (W Star, 1/7/69, A7) 

• Christian Science Monitor editorial asked, "Would it not be possible, as 

America's eventual space aim, to see the moon treated much as Ant- 
arctica today is treated?" That is "as a 'continent' where nationality 
does not play a significant role. There could be a research station on 
the moon, manned the year around — not merely by Americans but by 

4 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 7 

invitation to the scientists and technicians of other interested nations." 
(CSM, 1/7/69) 

January 8: Apollo 9, carrying Astronauts James M. McDivitt (commander), 
David R. Scott (cm pilot), and Russell L. Schweickart ( lm pilot), 
would be launched from KSC Launch Complex 39A at 11:00 am EST 
Feb. 28, NASA announced. The 10-day earth orbital mission would 
include simulated translunar insertion; CSM separation, transposition, 
and docking with lm; onboard LM systems evaluation; extravehicular 
maneuvers between LM and CM; manned LM active rendezvous; and 
six sps burns, (nasa Release 69—3) 

° U.S.S.R.'s supersonic transport, Tu-144, made second test flight. Of 
50-min duration, flight did not achieve supersonic speed, according to 
Pravda. (Reuters, NYT, 1/11/69, 65) 

• NASA Acting Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, asked review board 

created May 17, 1968, to restudy its findings in May 6, 1968, crash of 
Lunar Landing Training Vehicle because of second lltv crash, Dec. 8, 
1968. Both craft were destroyed in accidents at Ellington afb, Tex.; 
pilots escaped uninjured. Accident board at MSC was investigating 
latest crash, (nasa Release 69-5) 

January 9: USAF released three-volume Scientific Study of Unidentified Fly- 
ing Objects, report of Univ. of Colorado scientists directed by Dr. Ed- 
ward U. Condon. It concluded that "nothing has come from the study 
of UFOs in the past 21 years that has added to scientific knowledge. . . . 
Further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified in the 
expectation that science will be advanced thereby." Scientists felt "the 
reason that there has been very little scientific study of the subject is 
that those scientists who are most directly concerned, astronomers, at- 
mospheric physicists, chemists, and psychologists, having had ample 
opportunity to look into the matter, have individually decided that UFO 
phenomena do not offer a fruitful field in which to look for major 
scientific discoveries." 

In review of study, NAS special review panel had concluded, "On the 
basis of present knowledge the least likely explanation of UFOs is the 
hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitations by intelligent beings." 

Condon report recommended dod handle lfo sighting reports in 
normal surveillance operations and found no basis for contention that 
UFO data were "shrouded in official secrecy." Report stated, "The his- 
tory of the past 21 years has repeatedly led Air Force officers to the 
conclusion that none of the things seen, or thought to have been seen 
. . . constituted any hazard or threat to national security." Report of 
two-year study, commissioned by USAF for $500,000, had been approved 
by nas panel." (Text; Sullivan, NYT, 1/8/69, 1; 1/10/69, 32; Boffer, 
Science, 1/17/69, 260-2) 

° nasa named Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong I commander I, Michael Collins 
I cm pilot), and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (lm pilot), as prime crew of 
Apollo 11 lunar landing mission scheduled for summer 1969. Backup 
crew would be Astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr. (commander), William 
A. Anders (cm pilot), and Fred W. Haise, Jr. (lm pilot), (nasa 
Release 69-9) 

• NASA submitted to bob proposed FY 1970 NASA authorization bill in 

which FY 1969 "Administrative Operations" category had been re- 
designated "Research and Program Management." Bill requested 



January 9 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

$3,051 billion for R&D, $58.2 million for construction of facilities, and 
$650.9 million for research and program management — for total 
budget of $3,761 billion. (Text; nasa LAR, VIII/8) 

• In farewell speech to J PL as President of Cal Tech, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, 

Science Adviser-designate to President-elect Richard M. Nixon, said: 
"I am sure that under the new administration a change in the general 
structure of the space program may occur principally because the 
Apollo landings for 1969 will be carried out. . . . [And] that ends an 
era, so to speak, in the space program which President Kennedy started 
when he proposed attainment of a landing on the moon by the end of 
this decade." Question would be raised "in Congress and in the ad- 
ministration and by the people of the country, 'OK we're all through 
now, let's save that four billion or five billion dollars a year and settle 
back and do something less expensive.' I don't believe that this is a 
very widespread view in the top levels of the new administration. I 
think the Apollo 8 program came at a very critical moment" to make 
everyone see that "by lifting the eyes of the people to something be- 
yond this little planet on which we live that the spiritual effect . . . the 
elevation of morale which has occurred, the pride which the country 
has taken in this sort of achievement, following on the many other 
achievements, is going to be a stimulus to redirecting the program, yes, 
but certainly not abandoning it, and deciding what are the great things 
that can be done in the future of the space program." (Transcript) 

• nasa Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket with VAM— 20 booster, success- 

fully launched from wsmr, carried Johns Hopkins Univ. payload to 
103.2-mi (166-km) altitude. Primary objective was to measure 
vacuum uv spectral emission lines from Venusian atmosphere. Rocket 
and instruments worked satisfactorily, but experiment failed to receive 
strap acquisition and ACS failed to receive tracker lock-on. Except for 
terrestrial airglow, no useful spectral information on Venus or Pro- 
cyon was received, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• Apollo 8 astronauts were honored in Nation's Capital. 

Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, and William A. Anders 
received nasa Distinguished Service Medal from President Johnson at 
White House. Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Acting Administrator, read 
citation, identical for each astronaut except for designation as com- 
mander, command module pilot, or lunar module pilot. Borman 
received award "for outstanding contributions to space flight, engi- 
neering, technology and exploration as Commander of Apollo 8, man- 
kind's first venture beyond Earth into orbit around the Moon. During 
this flawless mission from December 21 to December 27, 1968, he 
made critical decisions and carried out complex maneuvers to fly into 
precise translunar injection, lunar orbit, and transearth injection flight 
paths to a successful reentry and splashdown within 5,000 yards of 
the recovery vessel. His scientific observations during the journey to 
and from the Moon and during 10 orbits of the Moon have added 
significantly to man's knowledge. He displayed outstanding leadership, 
courage, professional skill and devotion to duty in accomplishing all 
planned mission objectives, significantly advancing the nation's capa- 
bilities in space. As one of history's boldest explorers, he has blazed a 
new trail for mankind out into the vastness of extraterrestrial space." 

President Johnson said: "Our space program, and this, its most 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 9 

spectacular achievement, have taught us some very invaluable lessons. 
We have learned how men and nations may make common cause in 
the most magnificent and hopeful enterprises of mankind. We in the 
United States are already engaged in cooperative space activities with 
more than 70 nations of the world. We have proposed a variety of ad- 
ventures to expand international partnership in space exploration. This 
morning I renew America's commitment to that principle and to its 
enormous promise. The flight of Apollo 8 gives all nations a new and 
a most exciting reason to join in man's greatest adventure." President 
Johnson presented retired NASA Administrator James E. Webb as "the 
single man most responsible for successfully administering this pro- 
gram and, I think, the best Administrator in the Federal Government." 

Astronauts gave President Johnson miniature copies of recent inter- 
national space treaties which they had carried aboard Apollo 8 space- 
craft and "picture of the ranch" (photo of earth taken from space). 
(PD, 1/13/69, 35-6) 

After awards ceremony astronauts were driven in motorcade to ad- 
dress joint assembly of Congress attended by nine Supreme Court 
Justices. Borman told Congress: "The one overwhelming emotion that 
we carried with us is the fact that we really do all exist on the small 
globe. And when you get to 240,000 miles, it really isn't a very large 
earth." He said voyage was not just an American achievement; "we 
stood on the shoulders of giants," from Newton and Galileo to present 
day scientists and space explorers. "If Apollo 8 was a triumph at all," 
Borman said, "it was a triumph of all mankind." 

At State Dept. Auditorium press conference, NASA Assistant Admin- 
istrator for Public Affairs Julian Scheer announced Astronaut Frank 
Borman had been appointed Deputy Director of Flight Crew Opera- 
tions at MSC. 

During conference astronauts disclosed they had not seen moon 
during approach to lunar orbit; presented slides indicating presence 
of volcanics on back of moon; and announced their conclusion that 
conditions on pseudolanding site, B— 1, indicated "lighting conditions 
are . . . adequate for a lunar landing, which was one of our objectives 
of the flight." Borman said, "I came away with the idea that the moon 
may be more homogeneous than I had realized . . . that you could get 
a spoon one place and find it just about the same as the samples some- 
where else." In answer to question, he said, "I don't believe we found 
anything that would be of concern to future flights. We flight-tested the 
ground system. We flight-tested the airborne system. The command 
module and service module have effectively performed their designed 
task, their designed mission, with the exception of docking. We have 
got magnificent machinery. We have superb ground support." 

Following press conference, astronauts and their families were guests 
at Smithsonian Institution dinner in Washington, D.C. (Transcript; 
nasa Release 69-8; Wilford, NYT, 1/10/69, 1; Maynard, W Post, 
1/10/69, 1; Sehlstedt, B Sun, 1/10/69, 1) 
January 10: U.S.S.R. launched unmanned Venus VI probe — second in five 
days [see Jan. 5] — into parking orbit and then on trajectory toward 
Venus. Tass said 2,491-lb spacecraft would attempt slow descent 
through Venusian atmosphere and softlanding on part of surface not 
illuminated by sun. Probe was expected to reach Venus in mid-May. 



January 10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Tass said Venus V had completed 863,700 mi of 155-million-mile 
journey. Venus VI was last reported 40,762 mi above earth. Informa- 
tion radioed from both spacecraft indicated equipment was working 
normally, (upi, W Star, 1/10/69, A8; AP, B Sun, 1/11/69, 1; Mos- 
cow News, 2/1-8/69, 11) 

• New York City held ticker-tape parade for Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank 

Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders, followed by 
presentation at City Hall Plaza of Medals of City of New York, 
luncheon at Lincoln Center, appearance at U.N., and Waldorf-Astoria 
dinner attended by 2,500 political leaders and guests. (NYT, 1/10/69, 
30; Aarons, W Post, 1/11/69, Al; AP, B Sun, 1/11/69, A4) 

• Special six-cent postal stamp honoring Dec. 21-27, 1968, Apollo 8 mis- 

sion had been approved by Post Office Dept., Postmaster General W. 
Marvin Watson announced. Stamp would be issued May 5, seventh 
anniversary of Freedom 7, first U.S. manned suborbital space flight, 
by Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (PO Dept Release 14) 

• nasa released "Debrief: Apollo 8," 28-min, 16-mm color film showing 

first manned lunar orbit, (nasa PAO; Nelson, Science, 1/24/69, 371) 

• National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena challenged 

usaf's Condon Report on UFOs [Jan. 8]. At Washington, D.C., press 
conference Maj. Donald E. Keyhoe (usmc, Ret.), head of private com- 
mittee, said investigation examined only "about 1%" of "reliable, un- 
explained" UFO sightings supplied to it. He said his files contained 
11,000 reports of sightings, of which 3,000 were unexplained, (upi, 
W Star, 1/11/69, 1) 

• Dr. Frederick Seitz, nas President, appointed 12-member Universities 

Organizing Committee for Space Sciences, chaired by Frederick T. 
Wall, Vice Chancellor of Graduate Studies and Research at Univ. of 
California at San Diego. It would serve NAS as national Board of Gov- 
ernors of Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Tex., establishing policy, 
reviewing operations and budgets, and advising Institute's director on 
program development. Committee also would draft objectives and 
procedures for consortium of universities operating the facilities for 
research, development, and education associated with space science 
and technology, (nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 2/1969, 2) 

• New York Times editorial commented on USAF UFO report: "Evidently 

many committed to the belief that reported UFO sightings prove this 
planet is being reconnoitered and even visited by beings from else- 
where in space will remain unpersuaded that earth has a current 
monopoly on space voyagers. . . . But outside the ranks of true be- 
lievers, we suspect this document and its conclusions will find wide 
acceptance. Professor Condon and his colleagues did make a careful 
and extensive investigation. They enlisted specialists in the relevant 
branches of science, interviewed alleged witnesses, examined photo- 
graphs purporting to show UFO sightings and studied cases of claimed 
radar detection. . . . Those believers will keep on trying, but the rest 
of society can dedicate themselves to worrying about more serious 
matters — unless and until there is new and more persuasive evidence 
than any now available." (NYT, 1/10/69, 46) 

• Washington Evening Star commented on USAF UFO report: "Man needs 

his myths and his irrational beliefs — his goblins and witches and mon- 
sters. He needs to be reminded that the universe is still a wondrous, 

8 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 10 

awesome and unknown place. He needs to cling to the hope that there 
is, somewhere, some product of creation more frightening, more power- 
ful and more wise than he. The UFO was the space-age thing that goes 
bump in the night. It should have been left alone." (W Star, 1/10/69, 
A10) 

• faa announced proposed rule which would require issuance to airline 

passengers and crew of fireproof, lightweight, plastic smoke hoods to 
protect against fire and smoke during evacuation following crash land- 
ing, (faa Release 69-4) 

• Japanese Cabinet approved National Defense Council's decision to pro- 

duce 104 Phantom F— 4E jet fighter aircraft by FY 1977 under licens- 
ing agreement with McDonnell Douglas Corp. {NYT, 1/11/69, 15) 
January 11: In Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, J. F. Ter Horst commented 
on designation of Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., former NASA Deputy Ad- 
ministrator, as Secretary of the Air Force in Nixon Administration 
Cabinet: "It's highly unlikely that the Nixon Administration will 
merge civilian and military space programs — they were back in 1958 
when he was Vice President. But if it becomes easier to sell Congress 
a space budget with a military label than with a civilian one, Mr. 
Nixon undoubtedly will move in that direction. If he does, he has an 
uncommonly qualified administrator in Seamans." (P Bull, 1/11/69, 
14) 

• NASA successfully launched two Nike-Cajun sounding rockets from Point 

Barrow, Alaska, carrying GSFC payloads. First launch was to develop 
experimental techniques for determining atmospheric composition pro- 
files in mesospheric region and to measure distribution of ozone by 
chemiluminescent technique and of water vapors by aluminum-oxide 
hygrometer in 40.4- to 12.4-mi (65- to 20-km) region. Rocket and 
instruments performed satisfactorily. 

Second rocket was launched to obtain data on wind, temperature, 
pressure, and density in support of first launch by detonating gre- 
nades and recording sound arrivals. Rocket and instruments performed 
satisfactorily, (nasa Rpts SRL) 

• Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources recom- 

mended in report Our Nation and the Sea creation of new agency, 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (noaa), to coordinate and 
accelerate oceanology research and development. It proposed agency 
be composed initially of U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Fisheries, 
plus some functions of Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Na- 
tional Sea Grant Program, U.S. Lake Survey, National Oceanographic 
Data Center, and essa. (Pasadena Star-News, 1/12/69; Nelson, Sci- 
ence, 1/17/69, 263-5) 

January 11-12: After being feted at Newark, N.J., airport by 1,500 persons 
in 15° temperature, Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. 
Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders flew to Miami, Fla., for Jan. 12 
Super Bowl game. Dade County, Fla., Mayor Chuck Hall presented 
astronauts and their families keys to county and tickets to game. (UPI, 
NYT, 1/12/69, 35) 

January 12: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXI1I into orbit with 362-km 
(224.9-mi) apogee, 207-km (128.6-mi) perigee, 89.6-min period, 
and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered Jan. 20. (upi, W Star, 
1/13/69, Al; gsfc SSR, 1/15/69; 1/31/69) 



January 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• USAF launched an Advanced Ballistic Reentry System (abres) vehicle 

from Vandenberg afb by Atlas-F Booster. (AP, C Trib 1/17/69) 

• In Washington Evening Star, Orr Kelly said U.S.S.R. appeared to be de- 

veloping new multiple warhead missile to deliver "string" of as many 
as 10 one-megaton nuclear bombs. Missile was similar to, but less 
sophisticated than, U.S. mirv system. Both countries were reportedly 
at same development stage, with deployment scheduled for early 1970s. 
(W Star, 1/12/69, 13) 
January 13: Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and 
William A. Anders returned to Houston, Tex., for biggest parade in 
city's history, with quarter million spectators filling sky with ticker 
tape and balloons. Astronauts received city's highest honors, bronze 
medals for heroism with motto "per aspera ad astra." (AP, B Sun, 
1/14/69, A8; upi, W Post, 1/14/69, A4) 

• In ceremony at MSC, NASA presented awards including 12 Distinguished 

Service Medals, recognizing contributions to Apollo 8 space mission 
by groups and individuals in NASA, DOD, and industry. 

dsm, NASA's highest award, was presented to Dr. Kurt H. Debus, 
Director, ksc; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, Director, MSC; Christopher C. 
Kraft, Jr., Director of Flight Operations, MSC; George M. Low, Man- 
ager, Apollo Program Office, MSC; Dr. George E. Mueller, nasa Associ- 
ate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; Rocco A. Petrone, 
Director of Launch Operations, KSC; l/g Samuel C. Phillips, NASA 
Apollo Program Director; Dr. Eberhard F. M. Rees, Deputy Director 
(Technical), MSFC; Arthur Rudolph, Manager, Saturn V Program 
Office, msfc; William C. Schneider, Manager, Apollo Applications Pro- 
gram; Gerald M. Truszynski, nasa Associate Administrator for Track- 
ing and Data Acquisition; and Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director, 
msfc. 

Exceptional Service Medals were awarded to 62 persons and Public 
Service Awards to 22. Group Achievement Awards went to U.S.S. 
Yorktown (CVS— 10) and Embarked Air Group, Manned Space Flight 
Network, and NASA Office of Public Affairs. Public Service Group 
Achievement Award was presented to Apollo 8 Communication Net- 
work and Certificate of Appreciation was awarded to University-NASA 
Scientific and Technology Advisory Committee (stac). (nasa Special 
Release 1/13/69; nasa pao) 

• At nonpartisan farewell dinner given to President Lyndon B. Johnson in 

New York, former NASA Administrator James E. Webb read statement 
on accomplishments in space effort under Johnson Presidency: "Lyn- 
don Baines Johnson has done more than lead the United States forward 
in space. He has stamped on our program its significant characteristics: 
that it be conducted in the open for all the world to see; that it be 
carried out so as to strengthen and not to undermine the basic institu- 
tions and values of our society; that it be dedicated to the cause of 
peace and the benefit of all mankind. 

"Of all the debts the American people owe President Johnson, none 
is likely to loom larger over time than that he started them on the road 
to mastery of this new, unlimited environment by means of the new 
rocket technology. ... It is the lasting tribute to Lyndon Baines John- 
son that he has seen from the beginning that accomplishments in space 
and the capability which can sustain and increase these accomplish- 

10 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 13 

merits constitute a new barometer of the stature of our Nation." (CR, 
1/17/69, S496) 

• NASA announced termination of joint nasa-dod XB-70 flight research 

program, for which it had assumed management responsibility in 
March 1967. Aircraft had been productive for studying sonic boom, 
flight dynamics, and handling problems peculiar to advanced super- 
sonic aircraft. Of two XB-70s constructed by North American Rock- 
well Corp., one had been destroyed in June 8, 1966, midair collision. 
Remaining aircraft would be flown from FRC to Wright-Patterson afb, 
Ohio, where it would be delivered to usaf Museum. During 2,000-mi 
flight NASA planned to obtain data on its handling qualities and struc- 
tural response to air turbulence. 

First flight of XB-70 was made Sept. 21, 1964. Top speed of mach 
3 (2,000 mph) and peak altitude of 74,000 had been attained in four- 
year flight program. (NASA Release 69—10) 

• nsf released Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science 

(traces), report by Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute 
which traced key scientific events leading to five major technological 
innovations: magnetic ferrites, video tape recorder, oral contraceptive 
pill, electron microscope, and matrix isolation. In all five, nonmission, 
or basic, research "provided the origins from which science and tech- 
nology could advance toward the innovation which lay ahead." Ap- 
proximately 70% of key events documented were nonmission research, 
20% mission-oriented, and 10% development and application. Ten 
years before innovation — i.e., shortly before conception of that inno- 
vation- — 90% of nonmission research had been accomplished. (Text) 

• Defense Secretary-designate Melvin R. Laird announced retention of Dr. 

John S. Foster, Jr., as Director of Defense Research and Engineering. 
(Kelly, W Star, 1/13/69, A5; upi, W Star, 1/14/69, A6) 

• msfc announced award of $1,311,702 contract to LTV Aerospace Corp. 

for construction of temperature control devices for Apollo Telescope 
Mount, or manned solar observatory. 

msfc also had issued bid requests on 5 control relay packages, 4 
horizon sensor scanner systems, 11 solar sensors (4 for attitude con- 
trol system and 7 for solar panel control system), and 5 computer 
component control packages for guidance, control, and power systems 
for Saturn I Workshop, scheduled to be flown in 1971—72 in Apollo 
Applications Program. (MSFC Releases 69—6, 69—8) 
January 14—18: U.S.S.R.'s Soyuz IV, carrying Cosmonaut Vladimir Shata- 
lov, was successfully launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome into orbit 
with 224-km (139.2-mi) apogee, 213-km (132.4-mil perigee, 88.8- 
min period, and 51.7° inclination. Soviet news media reported launch 
quickly and in detail and within one hour video recording of launch 
was shown on Moscow TV. Soon afterward viewers received live TV 
coverage from spacecraft and description of flight by Cosmonaut Shat- 
alov. Western speculation, later confirmed, was that Soyuz IV would 
rendezvous with another spacecraft. 

Soyuz V, carrying Cosmonauts Yevegeny Khrunuv, Boris Volynov, 
and Aleksey Yeliseyev, was launched Jan. 15 into orbit with 212-km 
(131.7-mi) apogee, 196-km (121.8-mi) perigee, 88.6-min period, 
and 51.7° inclination. Tass said spacecraft would conduct joint experi- 
ments with Soyuz IV. Spacecraft established radio contact, coordinated 

11 



January 14-18 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




January 14-18: First manned transfer in space. Launched on successive days, Soyuz IV 
(carrying one cosmonaut) and Soyuz V (carrying three) rendezvoused and docked in 
space. Yevegeny Khrunov and Alexey Yeliseyev performed experiments outside their 
Soyuz V and then joined Vladimir Shatalov in Soyuz IV for return to earth, leaving 
Boris Volynov to return alone in Soyuz V. Full-scale configuration of the docked space- 
craft was photographed at Expo '70 in Japan in May 1970. (Aviation Week Photo) 



scientific programs, transmitted TV pictures to earth, photographed 
earth's surface, and conducted midcourse maneuvers. 

On Jan. 16 the two spacecraft automatically approached to within 
110 yds of each other and Soyuz IV was then steered manually until it 
docked with Soyuz V. Tass announcement said: "After the docking 
there was a mutual mechanical coupling of the ships, they were rigidly 
tightened up and their electrical circuits were connected. Thus, the 
world's first experimental cosmic station with four compartments for 
the crew was assembled and began functioning as an artificial earth 
satellite." 

Moscow TV viewers watched as Soyuz V crew members Khrunov 
and Yeliseyev put on special spacesuits with new regenerative life- 
support systems and went out into space through service compartment 
hatch. Cosmonauts remained in space for one hour, conducting obser- 
vations and experiments, and then entered service compartment of 
other spacecraft, Soyuz IV, to join Shatalov. After 4 hrs 35 min of 
docked flight in low, nearly circular orbit, spacecraft were uncoupled 
and continued their flights separately. Soyuz IV, with three-man crew, 
landed Jan. 17 and Soyuz V, Jan. 18. (upi, W Star, 1/14-19/69; 
Shub, W Post, 1/15-19/69; Winters, B Sun, 1/15-18/69; Moscow 
News, 1/25-2/1/69, 3; 2/1-8/69, Supplement; gsfc SSR, 1/15/69; 
1/31/69) 



12 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 14 

January 14: In his last State of the Union message, President Johnson told 
Joint Session of Congress: ". . . if the Nation's problems are continu- 
ing, so are this Nation's assets. Our economy, the democratic system, 
our sense of exploration, symbolized most recently by the wonderful 
flight of the Apollo 8, in which all Americans took great pride, the 
good common sense and sound judgment of the American people, and 
their essential love of justice." Quest for durable peace "has absorbed 
every Administration since the end of World War II. It has required 
us to seek a limitation of arms races not only among the superpowers, 
but among the smaller nations as well. We have joined in the test ban 
treaty of 1963, the outer space treaty of 1967, and the treaty against 
the spread of nuclear weapons in 1968." (PD, 1/20/69, 60-8) 

• In fourth big city welcome within one week, Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank 

Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders received tribute 
from estimated 1.5 million persons in Chicago reception at which they 
were made honorary citizens of city, (upi, NYT, 1/15/69, 1) 

• msfc announced Dr. Arthur Rudolph, special assistant to msfc Director, 

Dr. Wernher von Braun, and formerly manager of Saturn V rocket 
program, would retire Jan. 31. Dr. Rudolph had been awarded NASA 
Distinguished Service Medal Jan. 13 and on Nov. 15, 1968, had re- 
ceived NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal "for distinguish- 
ing himself by meritorious achievement" as manager of Saturn V 
program from August 1963 to May 1968. Starting career in rocketry 
in Germany in 1930, he later received patents for liquid-fuel rocket 
engines and demonstrated operation of liquid-fuel rocket. He came to 
U.S. with more than 100 other rocket experts in "Operation Paperclip" 
in December 1945. (msfc Release 69-10) 

• Secretary of the Air Force-designate, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., 

thought space activity should be major part of USAF, Christian Science 
Monitor said. He had said, "My prime objective will be to develop 
equipment for national defense, and my emphasis will be on whatever 
kind of equipment will be most suitable for the mission at hand." 
(CSM, 1/14/69, 5) 

• Senate adopted S.R. 13 establishing numerical size of Senate standing 

committees for 91st Congress and adopted S.R. 14 and S.R. 15 elect- 
ing majority and minority standing committee membership. Senate 
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences was reduced from 16 
to 15 members, with Republican Sens. Len B. Jordan (R-Idaho) and 
Charles E. Goodell (R-N.Y.) dropping off. Senate also approved ap- 
pointment of Sens. Barry Goldwater (R-Ariz.), Charles McC. Mathias, 
Jr. (R-Md.), and William B. Saxbe ( R-Ohio ) to committee. Demo- 
cratic assignments on committee remained unchanged. (CR, 1/14/69, 
S152-87) 

• USN announced it had selected Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. as 

prime contractor for new F-14A supersonic carrier-based fighter. 
F-14A was expected to make maiden flight in early 1971 and to be 
operational with fleet in 1973. (dod Release 33-69) 

• Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner was undergoing final ground 

trials at Toulouse-Blagnac airfield in southwest France in preparation 
for inaugural flight expected toward end of January or early February, 
Reuters reported. Aircraft was expected to enter commercial service 

13 



January 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

in 1972 and to halve London-New York flight time, to 3 hrs 32 min. 
It had five-year lead over U.S. SST, which was still in blueprint stage. 
(NYT, 1/15/69, 77) 

• NASA announced it had signed $2,919,000 supplemental agreement 

with Div. of Sponsored Research of mit for fabrication and delivery 
of 40 inertial reference integrating gyros (miGs) for Apollo guidance 
and navigation system, bringing total contract to $81,000,000. (NASA 
Release 69-11) 

• McDonnell Douglas Corp. received $1,000,000 initial increment to 

$3,900,000 fixed-price usaf contract for development, fabrication, and 
testing of Titan IIIC payload fairing subsystem. Contract was managed 
by usaf Space and Missile Systems Organization, (dod Release 34—69) 
January 15: President Johnson in message transmitting FY 1970 budget to 
Congress said major recommended decreases in budget authority from 
1969 to 1970 included $235 million for the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, which "will provide for a program level equal 
to 1969 when combined with prior year funds." Major increases 
included "522 million for airway modernization, highways, and other 
activities" in dot. Of estimated $11.6 billion increase in total budget 
outlays, $0.5 billion was for national defense, "largely for improve- 
ments in our strategic forces, modernization of our tactical air forces, 
and other increased research and development efforts needed to assure 
sufficient deterrent power in the future. These increases will be sub- 
stantially offset by reduced outlays for Vietnam resulting from chang- 
ing combat patterns and revised supply requirements. ... In keeping 
with national priorities, major social programs account for largest 
portion" of increase. 

President said: "The record of achievements of the past 5 years is 
an impressive one. We have witnessed a period of unprecedented eco- 
nomic growth, with expanded production, rising standards of living, 
and the lowest rates of unemployment in a decade and a half. Our 
military forces today are the strongest in the world. . . . Last month 
saw man's first successful flight to the moon. In domestic matters, the 
legislative and executive branches, cooperatively, have forged new 
tools to open wider the doors of opportunity for a better life for all 
Americans. 

"This Nation remains firmly committed to a world of peace and 
human dignity. In seeking these goals, we have achieved great military 
strength with the sole aim of deterring and resisting aggression. We 
have continued to assist other nations struggling to provide a better 
life for their people. We are successfully pushing forward the frontiers 
of knowledge to outer space and promoting scientific and technological 
advances of enormous potential for benefit to mankind." {PD, 
1/20/69, 70-90; CR, 1/15/69, S195-208) 

• President Johnson sent $195.3-billion FY 1970 budget request to Con- 

gress, including total space budget of $5,946 billion. Of this sum, NASA 
would receive $3,599 billion (plus $7.89 million for aircraft tech- 
nology and $117 million in unobligated funds from prior years to be 
applied to 1970 program) ; dod would receive $2,219 billion; aec, 
$105 million; essa, $10 million; nsf, $4 million; Dept. of Interior, $6 
million; and Dept. of Agriculture, $4 million. 

Total nasa FY 1970 budget request of $3,878 billion was below $4 

14 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 15 

billion for first time since FY 1963 request. Expenditures were budg- 
eted to decline nearly $300 million from FY 1969 level of $4,250 
billion, to $3,950 billion. Of budget request, $3,168 billion would go 
for R&D, $58.2 million for construction of facilities, and $650.9 million 
for program management. Slightly more than 50% of total FY 1970 
authority — $2,008 billion — would be in manned space flight, including 
Saturn IB Workshop and Apollo Telescope Mount. Space science and 
applications were allotted $558.8 million; advanced research and tech- 
nology, $290.4 million. 

Larger proportion of NASA funds would go to research than to de- 
velopment in FY 1970 as Apollo costs declined. Increases would go to 
Apollo Applications I total $308.8 million in FY 1970), 1971 Mariner- 
Mars flight ($45.4 million). Viking project ($40 million), 1973 
Mariner-Mercury ($3 million), Planetary Explorers ($8 million), Ap- 
plications Technology Satellites ( $44.2 million ) , and Earth Resources 
Survey program ($25.1 million). Aeronautical vehicle technology pro- 
gram, up from $74.9 million to $78.9 million, included $21.78 million 
for advanced research, $500,000 for general aviation, $11.25 million 
for v/stol, $16.19 million for subsonic aircraft, $20.9 million for 
supersonic aircraft, and $8.28 million for hypersonic aircraft. 

DOD space funding would include satellite development, certain por- 
tions of missile development and operating costs, mol (increased to 
$576 million), Titan III booster, and supporting R&D. In addition, air- 
craft R&D funds of $1.4 billion would include $500 million for new 
USN F— 14A fighter to replace F— 11 IB, $1 billion for series of advanced 
jet aircraft, $75 million for long-range bomber to succeed B— 52, and 
funds for usaf F— 15 fighter and usn vsx antisubmarine aircraft. 

AEC space funding included amounts for nuclear rocket propulsion 
technology and nuclear power sources for space applications, including 
production of isotopic fuels and aerospace safety, essa funds would 
support Earth Resources Technology Satellite (erts) program re- 
search, nsf's total request was up from $400 million in FY 1969 to 
$497 million. Of this amount, its $4-million space funds were for 
research in astronomy using rockets and satellite-borne observation 
instruments. Dept. of Interior would conduct experiments with data 
from erts spacecraft. 

faa's R&D budget would increase from $49 million in FY 1969 to 
$59 million in FY 1970. Principal increases were for research on air 
traffic control and noise abatement. President Johnson requested no 
additional funds for sst program, (nasa Release, 1/15/69; bob Special 
Analysis Q; Dale, NYT, 1/16/69, 1; Schmeck, NYT, 1/16/69, 24; 
Lindsey, NYT, 1/16/69, 81; W Post, 1/16/69, A12) 
• NASA released transcript of Jan. 14 briefing on NASA FY 1970 budget at 
which Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Acting Administrator, said $3,878- 
billion budget approved by President Johnson had been developed "to 
maintain an austere but balanced NASA aeronautics and space program 
aimed at major program goals of high national priority." 

Goals were continuing advances in space applications, including in- 
itiation of experimental earth resources technology satellites and 
slightly decelerated research on space environment; achieving manned 
lunar landing and additional Apollo moon missions, with limited pro- 
vision for studies — not for development — of equipment to achieve 

15 



January 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

longer lunar stay-times and mobility for future exploration; proceeding 
with Saturn I Workshop and Apollo Telescope Mount; proceeding 
with Viking Project to land instruments on Mars in 1973; initiating in 
FY 1970 Mariner flyby in 1973 of Venus and Mercury; producing 
family of small planetary Explorers for orbiting Mars and Venus; 
making preliminary observations of Jupiter with previously approved 
Pioneer spacecraft; continuing work on unmanned orbiting astro- 
nomical observatories; continuing advanced aerospace technology work 
at about current levels; emphasizing noise reduction, with construction 
of special noise research laboratory; developing full potential of civil 
and military aeronautics; and undertaking NEKVA project for develop- 
ment of flight-weight nuclear engine. 

Dr. Paine noted FY 1970 budget, as approved by President Johnson, 
"would halt a four-year downward trend in NASA budget." It was 
"austere and does not make full use of the aerospace capabilities that 
the nation has developed. . . ." But it permitted "a balanced program 
of useful work in critical areas." Budget left "the major new program 
decisions, especially in the manned flight area, for the next Administra- 
tion," and was " 'holding budget' that provides for progress, but defers 
critical program and funding decisions to the new Administration." 
(Transcript) 

• Apollo Program Director, l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf), addressed 

National Space Club luncheon in Washington, D.C., on impact of 
Apollo 8: "Many, if not most, of the world's newspapers heralded the 
flight as evidence of the greatness of the United States. I'm told jour- 
nalists in Germany, England and France speculated on the improved 
position that the U.S. would enjoy in the diplomatic arenas in which 
it is engaged in very important discussions. I'm told that a French 
paper went so far as to say that the lunar flight had vindicated Capi- 
talism as the best system of government, and vindicated our free enter- 
prise system as the most effective way to make progress. I'm aware 
from personal correspondence and discussions as well as reports in the 
press that scientists throughout the world have been equally impressed 
and that they've applauded the progress that this flight indicates for 
us." 

Gen. Phillips described Apollo 9 mission as "far less spectacular 
than Apollo 8, but . . . more complex." It would be "certainly one of 
the most vital missions that we've had in our mission sequence over 
the years that leads us to a lunar landing." Risks would be different 
but "I personally think they're a little greater than the risks which we 
knowingly accepted in committing the Apollo 8 mission." 

Apollo 10 would be fifth Saturn V — 505 — with 106 command and 
service module and LM— 4. Crew would be Astronauts Thomas P. 
Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan. Scheduled for May, 
its objectives were "to demonstrate the performance of the crew, the 
space vehicle, and the mission support facilities during a manned 
lunar mission with the Command and Service Module and Lunar 
Module, and to evaluate the performance of the Lunar Module in a 
cislunar and lunar environment." (Text) 

• Astronomers at Univ. of Arizona detected for first time existence of 

rapidly flashing star in Crab Nebula with rhythm coinciding with that 
of pulsar observed by radio telescope at same position. Flashing was 

16 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 15 

confirmed during week by McDonald Observatory of Univ. of Texas 
and by Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. Presumably star 
and pulsar were identical. Discovery was first unequivocal observation 
of pulsar in visible light. (Sullivan, NYT, 1/21/69, 291 

• Boeing Co. announced it had made Jan. 15 deadline in submitting to faa 

specifications for fixed-wing, 280-ft, titanium SST, weighing 635,000 
lbs and having 141%-ft wingspan. General Electric Co. engines 
would propel aircraft to 1,800 mph. Boeing said 299-passenger air- 
craft's first flight was scheduled for 1972, with commercial operation 
possible in 1976. (WSJ, 1/15/69, 7; faa Release 69-6) 

• Underwater test program begun at msfc's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator 

several years earlier was providing information essential for design of 
first U.S. space station, NASA reported. Technicians, design engineers, 
and professional divers in spacesuits and scuba gear were conducting 
tasks similar to those necessary to activate space orbiting workshop, in 
1.4-million-gal water tank containing mockups of aap cluster elements 
(Saturn I Workshop, lunar module ascent stage, Apollo Telescope 
Mount solar observatory, and airlock and multiple docking adapter), 
simulating weightlessness of space. Weightlessness was impossible to 
duplicate on earth for longer than fraction of minute. Conclusions from 
tests would be reflected in workshop's final design, with decision ex- 
pected in May 1969. (nasa Release 69-4) 

• Penn Central Railroad began electric-powered Metroliner service thai 

would cut traveling time of 226-mi New York-Washington trip to 2 
hrs 59 min — 36 min faster than swiftest previous trains and, according 
to Penn Central Chairman Stuart T. Saunders, comparable to airplane 
journey which took 45 min in sky but added airport-access and airway 
delays. (Aug, W Star, 1/15/69, Al; Eisen, W Post, 1/16/69, Bl > 

January 15—17: Space Science Education Conference, to inform educational 
TV directors and teachers of ways NASA could assist in explaining space 
program to students and educational TV audiences, was held at msfc 
and attended by educators and TV representatives from six states. 
(msfc Release 69-11) 

January 16: Secretary of Defense would exercise option to buy 57 addi- 
tional C— 5A aircraft from Lockheed Aircraft Corp. and General Electric 
Co., DOD announced. Expenditures and commitments would be limited 
to first 23 aircraft; decision on whether to authorize expenditures for 
remaining aircraft would be made later. Predicted cost for total 120 
C— 5As (six squadrons) was 14.343 billion, (dod Release 43—69) 

January 17: President Johnson submitted to Congress report on U.S. Aero- 
nautics and Space Activities for 1968. In transmittal message he wrote: 
"Our astronauts have now flown 18 manned space missions, during 
which they experienced 3,215 man hours in space flight. Together 
with the activities of the Soviet Union, this makes a total to date of 28 
manned flights and 3,846 man hours in space. Through this investment 
we have obtained new products, services, and knowledge; we have 
enhanced our national security ; we have improved our international 
relations; and we have stimulated our educational system. Our Nation 
is richer and stronger because of our space effort. I recommend that 
America continue to pursue the challenge of space exploration." 
{Pres Rpt 68; CR, 1/17/69, H405, S524) 

• Christian Science Monitor reported interview with Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, 

17 



January 17 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

President-elect Richard M. Nixon's Science Adviser-designate: "The 
balance between manned and unmanned [space] exploration has to 
be studied. But there comes a time, place, and activity where the judg- 
ment and quick reaction of men are needed to do the job or make 
emergency repairs. There may even be situations in which it is cheaper 
to have men do this than to have automated instruments. That time 
has not yet arrived. Manned flight is still very expensive. But I foresee 
the time when you will run beyond the ability of automatic instru- 
ments to do a job either adequately or economically in space explora- 
tion." (Cowen, csm, 1/17/69) 

• NASA terminated Nimbus II flight operations. Spacecraft, launched May 

15, 1966, to flight-test instrumentation and observe region of electro- 
magnetic spectrum not previously studied, had accomplished all pri- 
mary and secondary objectives and had operated on three-axis 
stabilization 32 mos, greatly exceeding design lifetime. Automatic pic- 
ture transmission had operated 7,900 hrs over nearly 23 mos. (nasa 
Proj Off) 

• NASA Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was successfully launched from Kiruna, 

Sweden, to study sudden upper-atmosphere warming conditions by 
detonating grenades between 24.9- and 55.9-mi (40- and 90-km) alti- 
tudes. Launch was first in series of four scheduled under agreement 
between Swedish Space Research Committee (ssrc), British Science 
Research Council (SRC), and NASA, ssrc provided ground equipment, 
instrumentation, and grenade payloads and was responsible for launch 
operations. NASA supplied Nike-Cajun rockets and dovap transponders. 
Second launch would be conducted Jan. 19. (NASA Release 69—16; 

NASA Rpt SRL) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by nasa from Wallops Station 

carried gsfc payload to 69.6-mi (112-km) altitude to collect data on 
wind, temperature, pressure, and density in 21.7- to 59.0-mi (35- to 
95-km) range during atmospheric warming by exploding grenades. 
All 19 grenades exploded as programmed and sound arrivals were 
recorded. Launch was first in series of four to obtain upper-atmosphere 
data. ( NASA Rpt SRL) 

• Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), Chairman of House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, introduced H.R. 4046, FY 1970 NASA authori- 
zation bill, totaling $3,760 billion, in House. {CR, 1/17/69, H403) 

• Areas sounding rocket was launched by nasa from Andoya, Norway, 

carrying Swedish payload to study ionosphere. Rocket and instru- 
ments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj Off) 

• ComSatCorp announced TV coverage of Presidential inauguration of 

Richard M. Nixon would be transmitted via comsals across Atlantic 
and Pacific to viewers in Europe, Latin America, Caribbean, and 
Pacific areas during more than 13 hrs of overseas transmissions. 
(ComSatCorp Release 69-4) 

• NAS— nrc Space Science Board released Physiology in the Space En- 

vironment, Vol. 1, Circulation, prepared at NASA request. Report found 
systematic program of ground-based and inflight biomedical experi- 
mentation was essential for planning of long-duration manned space 
missions, such as to Mars. Knowledge of circulatory system and effects 
of space flight must be greatly expanded. It recommended experimenta- 
tion with animals, man, simulations, laboratory investigations, com- 

18 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 17 

prehensive literature studies, and physiological measurement before, 
after, and during flight to obtain all possible data from ground-based 
work. Flight experiments should be limited to those requiring weight- 
lessness and other conditions not reproducible on ground. (Text; 
N \s Release) 

• Xeu York Times commented on Soviet linking of Soyuz spacecraft: "It is 

probably not too soon to begin planning for standardization of space 
vehicles — a move that would permit joining these vehicles regardless 
of their national origin. It would be tragic, for example, if a group 
of Soviet spacemen needed rescue and could not be saved because the 
onlv available vehicle was an American space ship impossible to link 
with the Soviet ship. Here is an area in which international cooperation 
could not onlv save lives but help pave the way for the joint operation 
of stations in space for the benefit of all mankind." (AIT, 1/17 69, 
46) 

• National Transportation Safety Board recommended to fa a new flight 

regulations to reduce aircraft landing and approach accidents respon- 
sible for 56% of fatal crashes since jet-age inception in 1957. During 
the 60 days before release, 10 airliners had crashed in U.S., Latin 
America, and Europe on landing or approach. Board called for review 
of policies, practices, and training to increase crew efficiency. It urged 
development of audible and visual warning devices to alert pilot when 
fl\ ing below safe altitude. I ntsb Release SB69-5 I 

• faa announced it was considering amendment of flight recorder rules 

to require increase in instrument's capability so as to provide 14 addi- 
tional kinds of information in accident investigation, including data 
on altitude, response to aerodynamic forces, flight-control surface posi- 
tions, and engine performance. Underwater locator device also was 
proposed, to go into operation upon submersion. Proposal would re- 
quire installation of new equipment on newly manufactured aircraft 
within three years of effective date of final rule and within five years 
on aircraft already in service. ( faa Release 69—9 1 

• NASA announced appointment of Charles G. Haynes, Director of Inspec- 

tions since 1961, as Director of Hq. Administration effective Jan 19. 
He would succeed Alfred S. Hodgson, who retired after 35 yrs of 
Government service. Ralph F. Winte would serve as Acting Director 
of Inspections until permanent appointment was made. (NASA Ann I 

° National Academy of Sciences announced Dr. Philip Handler. Chairman 
of Dept. of Biochemistry at Duke Univ., had been declared President- 
elect of nas after tally of mail ballots. There had been no other nomi- 
nee. Dr. Handler would begin six-year term July 1, succeeding Dr. 
Frederick Seitz, President of Rockefeller Univ. Dr. Handler, with 
career in enzyme research, had been National Science Board member 
since 1962 and its Chairman since 1966. From 1964 to 1967 he had 
been member of President's Science Advisorv Committee. ( nas Re- 
lease; W Post, 1/19/69, A5l 

January 18: Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Point 
Barrow, Alaska, carrying gsfc payload to obtain data on wind, tem- 
perature, pressure, and density during period of atmospheric warming 
by detonating grenades and recording sound arrivals on ground. All 
grenades were ejected and exploded as programmed. Launch was first 
in series of four to be launched from Point Barrow. (NASA Rpt SRLI 

19 



January 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Areas sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Andoya, Norway, 

carrying Swedish payload to study ionosphere. Rocket and instru- 
ments functioned satisfactorily. (NASA Proj Off) 

• Washington Daily News editorial commented on Condon Report on UFOs: 

"Dedicated disciples of the little green men from Mars school no 
doubt will find the Condon report represents another diabolical plot 
to suppress truth. But most Americans will find the report something 
less than a surprise. Apart from wasting time, continuing study would 
waste taxpayer money." ( W News, 1/18/69) 
January 19: NASA Nike-Cajun sounding rocket, second in series of four 
[see Jan. 17] in NASA— SSRC— src cooperative program, was successfully 
launched from Kiruna, Sweden, to study sudden upper-atmosphere 
warming conditions by detonating grenades between 24.9- and 55.9-mi 
1 40- and 90-km ) altitudes. Vehicle underperformed but satisfactory 
scientific data were expected. (NASA Release, 69—16; NASA Rpt srli 

• nasa announced appointment of Robert W. Kamm, Assistant to Director 

of Space Institute of Univ. of Tennessee, as consultant to Harold B. 
Finger, nasa Associate Administrator for Organization and Manage- 
ment. Kamm had been director of NASA's Western Support Office, Santa 
Monica, Calif., for nearly nine years, (nasa Special Release) 
January 20: Administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson ended as 
President Richard M. Nixon was sworn in as President of U.S. John- 
son had served U.S. space program continuously since Sputnik I in 
October 1957, first on Capitol Hill as Chairman of Select and then 
permanent Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. As 
Vice President under late President Kennedy, he had served as Chair- 
man of National Aeronautics and Space Council, post held by Vice 
President Hubert H. Humphrey during Johnson Administration. ( EH I 

• In inaugural address following his taking oath of office as President of 

U.S., Richard M. Nixon said: "Those who would be our adversaries, 
we invite to a peaceful competition — not in conquering territory or 
extending dominion, but in enriching the life of man. As we explore 
the reaches of space, let us go to the new worlds together — not as new 
worlds to be conquered but as a new adventure to be shared. . . . Only 
a few short weeks ago, we shared the glory of man's first sight of 
the world as God sees it, as a single sphere reflecting light in the dark- 
ness. As the Apollo astronauts flew over the moon's gray surface on 
Christmas Eve, they spoke to us of the beauty of Earth — and in that 
voice so clear across the lunar distance, we heard them invoke God's 
blessing on its goodness. In that moment, their view from the moon 
moved poet Archibald MacLeish to write: 

' 'To see the Earth as it truly is, small and blue and beautiful in that 
eternal silence where it floats, is to see ourselves as riders on the 
Earth together, brothers on that bright loveliness in the eternal cold — 
brothers who know now they are truly brothers.' 

"In that moment of surpassing technological triumph, men turned 
their thoughts toward home and humanity — seeing in that far per- 
spective that man's destiny on earth is not divisible; telling us that 
however far we reach into the cosmos, our destiny lies not in the 
stars but on Earth itself, in our hands, in our own hearts." (PD, 
1/21/69, 150-154; CR, 1/20/69, S561) 
• Inaugural parade following President Nixon's address included nasa 

20 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 20 

float carrying mockup of lunar module to be used for moon landing 
and Apollo 7 capsule. Apollo 7 Astronauts Walter M. Schirra, Jr., 
Donn F. Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham rode in convertible auto- 
mobile in front of NASA float. (NASA PIO) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carrying gsfc grenade payload to obtain data on atmos- 
pheric parameters. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. 
(NASA Proj Off) 

• "The ability to rescue a stranded astronaut is something the U.S. does 

not have," John Lannan said in Washington Evening Star. "And — 
despite claims by both the Soviet Union and the foreign press — neither 
does the Soviet Union." NASA Deputy Director of Manned Space Flight 
Safety Philip H. Bolger had said NASA was not likely to have real 
space rescue capability before "second generation" of manned space 
stations. Agency was now funding rescue studies at cost of $600,000 
yearly. Amount would probably rise to $1 million within two years. 
Immediate goal was to examine method that would fit into existing 
systems and bring it to hardware stage. Bolger had said "bail-out" 
mechanism seemed likelier than earth-based rescue system. ( W Star, 
1/20/69, A8) 

• At Moscow news conference, U.S.S.R. Foreign Ministry spokesmen 

Leonid Zamayatin and Kirill Novikov released statement reaffirming 
U.S.S.R.'s readiness to discuss missile control proposals contained in 
July memorandum to other governments. (Shub, W Post, 1/21/69; 
NYT, 1/21/69) 
January 21: At annual aiaa dinner, in New York, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, 
Jr., Secretary-designate of the Air Force and former NASA Deputy 
Administrator, was installed as President of aiaa for 1969, succeeding 
Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, who continued as a director. In interview 
following dinner, Dr. Seamans said NASA should maintain its open 
space program and its freedom for international exchange of informa- 
tion. USAF, with current MOL program, "has special problems which 
can be resolved by the Department of Defense." Value of dual space 
program, he said, was that one element could learn from another. 
Of U.S.S.R. space program, Dr. Seamans said, "They're awfully good 
at doubling in brass . . . getting the most out of their program," but 
"our program has more breadth and depth and if we're imaginative 
about what we're doing, we're not going to take second place." 

aiaa presented its Goddard Award to Dr. Stanley Hooker, Technical 
Director of Bristol-Siddeley Engine Div. of Rolls-Royce, Ltd., and 
Perry W. Pratt, Vice President and Chief Scientist of United Aircraft 
Corp., for work on turbine engines. 

Dr. Charles P. Sonnett, Chief of Space Sciences Div. at ARC, received 
annual Space Science Award of $500 for "his personal contribution 
as a planner, leader, and individual experimenter in major space 
science vehicle programs which have contributed to the field of space 
physics." 

LaRC Director Edgar M. Cortright and Charles W. Harper, NASA 
Deputy Associate Administrator, Aeronautics, OART, were elected aiaa 
directors. (Lannan, W Star, 1/22/69, A13; NYT, 1/22/69, 33; aia 
Releases) 

• Look published interview in which former astronaut M. Scott Carpenter 

21 



January 21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

announced that infarcts in lower thigh bones, indicating calcification, 
would terminate his career as active deep-sea diver. He would remain 
senior aquanaut on Sealab III project as deputy on-scene commander 
of Sealab III command ship Elk River. (Look, 1/21/69, 68-74) 

• Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.) introduced on Senate floor S.R. 33 calling 
on U.S. representatives to U.N. to place before U.N. Committee on 
the Peaceful Uses of the Seabed and Ocean Floor set of detailed prin- 
ciples to govern activities in ocean space of all nations of world. Reso- 
lution was referred to Committee on Foreign Relations. (CR, 1/21/69, 
S597) 

January 21—28: Harris survey of 1,544 U.S. households showed widespread 
disenchantment with Federal commitments on space and Vietnam. 
Greatest number, 39%, selected space as program they would cut first, 
while 2% voted to keep or increase space program. Second favorite 
for funding cut was Vietnam war financing, with 18% of votes. Anti- 
crime and law enforcement programs received greatest number of 
"keep or increase" votes — 22%. (Harris, Federal Times, 3/5/69, 9) 

January 22—29: NASA's Oso V (oso-f) Orbiting Solar Observatory was 
successfully launched from etr by three-stage Thor-Delta ( DSV— 3C) 
booster to study the sun and its influence on earth's atmosphere. Or- 
bital parameters: apogee, 353.1 mi (568.2 km) ; perigee, 337.8 mi 
(543.6 km) ; period, 95.8 min; and inclination, 32.96°. Primary mis- 
sion objective was to obtain high-resolution spectral data from pointed 
experiments in 1 A— 1,250 A range during one solar rotation and con- 
duct raster scans of solar disc in selected wavelengths. Secondary ob- 
jective was to obtain useful data from nonpointed and pointed experi- 
ments for more than one solar rotation with extended observations of 
single lines and solar flares. 

Fifth of eight spacecraft launched in NASA's oso program to provide 
direct observation of sun during most of 11-yr solar cycle, Oso V 
weighed 636 lbs, carried eight experiments, was designed with six- 
month lifetime, and had two main sections — wheel (lower) section, 
which provided stability by gyroscope spinning and housed telemetry- 
command equipment, batteries, gas-spin control arms, and five experi- 
ment packages; and sail (upper) section, which contained solar cells 
and solar pointing experiments and was oriented toward sun. Experi- 
ments, designed to continue and extend work of preceding oso space- 
craft, were provided by University College (London) and Univ. of 
Leicester, Univ. of Paris, Univ. of Colorado, Univ. of Minnesota, 
Naval Research Laboratory, and GSFC. 

Both tape recorders were turned on and were operating satisfactorily 
and all spacecraft subsystems were operating nominally, nrl wheel 
x-ray experiment was turned on during 11th orbit and was obtaining 
good data. By Jan. 29 Oso V had received 707 commands and had 
completed 102 orbits. All eight experiments had been turned on and 
obtained good scientific data. All spacecraft systems — including raster 
scan and both tape recorders — had operated satisfactorily. Data from 
gsfc x-ray experiment were being used to plot spectrum of sun. Data 
from nrl uv pointed experiment had been used to obtain Oso Vs first 
Lyman-alpha spectroheliograph. 

Oso I (launched March 7, 1962) and Oso II (launched Feb. 3, 
1965) had surpassed their six-month design lifetimes and, together, 

22 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 22-29 

provided 6,000 hrs of scientific information. Oso III (launched March 
8, 1967) and Oso IV (launched Oct. 18, 1967) continued operating 
satisfactorily, each providing l l /> hrs of real-time data daily, oso pro- 
gram was managed by GSFC under OSSA direction, (nasa Proj Off; 
nasa Release 69-13) 
January 22: usaf launched unidentified satellite on Titan IIIB-Agena D 
booster from Vandenberg afb into orbit with 672.5-mi ( 1,082-km) 
apogee, 92.0-mi (148-km) perigee, 96.9-min period, and 106.1° in- 
clination. Satellite reentered Feb. 3. (GSFC SSR, 1/31/69; 2/15/69; 
Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• nasa announced it would conduct 26 major launches from etr and WTR 

during 1969. First launch was Oso V Jan. 22. Launches from ETR 
would include five manned missions: Apollo 9, scheduled for Feb. 28, 
would place three-man crew in earth orbit for 11 days to flight-test 
lunar module; Apollo 10 would place three astronauts in lunar orbit 
and two would fly LM to within 50,000 ft of lunar surface; and 
Apollo 11 would land two members of three-man crew on lunar sur- 
face. Two additional lunar landings would be conducted if first landing 
was successful. Unmanned launches from etr would include two 
Intelsat III comsats, two Mariner-Mars missions, Tiros weather satel- 
lite, Biosatellite carrying monkey, Pioneer E interplanetary spacecraft, 
Applications Technology Satellite (ats), Orbiting Solar Observatory 
(oso), Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (oao), and two U.K. com- 
sats. WTR launches would include three Tiros weather satellites, Ex- 
plorer (imp— g), Canadian International Satellite for Ionospheric 
Studies (isis), Nimbus weather satellite, and Thor-Agena (ogo— f) 
mission to test experimental ion-thruster. ( ksc Release 19—69; NASA 
ossa) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carrying GSFC grenade experiment to obtain data on 
atmospheric parameters. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfac- 
torily. (NASA Proj Off) 

• Communist Party General Secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev told Soviet 

gathering in honor of four Soyuz IV and Soyuz V cosmonauts U.S.S.R. 
was "fully justified in saying that the successful flight . . . [see Jan. 
14—18] is a great achievement of Soviet science and engineering, and 
a new triumph of the courage, boldness, intellect and labour of the 
Soviet people. The recent outstanding flight made by the American 
astronauts round the Moon, the confident start made by the Soviet 
automatic interplanetary stations 'Venus-5' and 'Venus-6' towards 
their distant target, and the successful flight made by the . . . [Soyuz] 
spaceships — all this constitutes man's new, major steps along the road 
to conquering the mysterious world of outer space. . . ." {Moscow 
News, 2/8-15/69, Supplement, 3-5) 

• During day climaxed by shots from what U.S.S.R. Foreign Ministry 

called "schizophrenic" gunman, Soyuz IV and V Cosmonauts Vladimir 
Shatalov, Boris Volynov, Yevgeny Khrunov, and Aleksey Yeliseyev flew 
from Baikonur Space Center, Kazakhstan, to Moscow for Kremlin 
ceremony honoring success of Soyuz missions. Attack occurred as 
motorcade escorting cosmonauts approached Kremlin's Borovitsky 
Gate. Reports said driver of cosmonauts' limousine and security guard 
had been injured by bullets and that Cosmonaut Beregovoy had been 

23 



January 22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

slightly injured by flying glass. Communist Party General Secretary 
Leonid I. Brezhnev and Soviet President Nikolai V. Podgorny, riding 
several cars behind cosmonauts, were not injured. Western newsmen 
had already been admitted to Congress Hall for ceremony at which 
cosmonauts received Medal of the Order of Lenin. Reports said gun- 
man had been apprehended, (upi, W Star, 1/22/69, A13; AP, W Star, 
1/23/69, Al; NYT, 1/23/69, 10; Shabad, NYT, 1/24/69, 1; Shub, 
W Post, 1/24/69, Al) 

• State Dept. announced U.S.S.R. had accepted U.S. invitation to partici- 

pate in international conference on communications satellites scheduled 
Feb. 24 in Washington, D.C. U.S. had notified all U.N. members it 
would extend "observer" invitations to any nation having "serious 
interest" in possibility of becoming Intelsat member. Bulgaria and 
Yugoslavia also would attend. At least 80 nations were expected to 
participate. (Finney, NYT, 1/23/69, 1; AP, W Post, 1/24/69, A5) 

• Sen. Clinton P. Anderson (D-N. Mex.), Chairman of Senate Aeronautical 

and Space Sciences Committee, introduced S. 539, FY 1970 NASA 
authorization bill totaling $3,760 billion. {CR, 1/22/69, S659-60) 

• Saturn V 2nd stage (S— II— 7) was successfully captive fired for full 

flight duration, 369 sees, by North American Rockwell Corp. personnel 
at Mississippi Test Facility. Stage developed thrust equivalent to 1 
million lbs at operating altitude, (msfc Release 69—25) 

• aec announced it had completed and successfully tested world's largest 

superconducting magnet at Argonne National Laboratory near Chi- 
cago. Consisting of 110-ton circular-coil assembly in 1,600-ton steel 
yoke, magnet formed part of world's largest bubble chamber facility 
for high-energy physics research. Chamber, holding 6,400 gals of 
liquid hydrogen, would be placed inside magnet, which was expected 
to operate at approximately 1/10 cost of equivalent conventional 
magnet, (aec Release M-19) 

• Washington Post editorial said: "The fact that the Russians may be able 

to complete a floating [space] station substantially before the United 
States is ready to attempt it should be of no great concern. Although 
the psychological impact of knowing that men are up there looking 
down on us constantly is bound to be great, this should be more than 
offset by the successes of the Apollo program. The important things are 
for the American space effort to proceed in a logical fashion designed 
to reap the largest possible scientific benefits and to remain largely 
under civilian control." {W Post, 1/22/69, A26) 
January 23: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXIV into orbit with 295-km 
(183.3-mi) apogee, 208-km (129.3-mi) perigee, 89.5-min period, 
and 69.9° inclination. Satellite reentered Feb. 5. (gsfc SSR, 1/31/69; 
2/15/69) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Kiruna, Sweden, 

carried Swedish Space Research Committee (ssrc) and British Science 
Research Council (src) payload to 72.1-mi (1164un) altitude. 
Launch, third in series of four [see Jan. 19], was made to obtain data 
on atmospheric parameters of wind, temperature, pressure, and density 
during atmospheric warming by detonating grenades and recording 
their sound arrivals on ground. Rocket and instruments performed 
satisfactorily; 17 of 25 grenades detonated and were recorded, (nasa 
Rpt srl) 

24 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 23 

• msfc announced it had signed $2,022,500 supplemental agreement to 

basic contract with International Business Machines Corp. for assurance 
and reliability testing on Saturn IB and Saturn V instrument units. 
MSFC also announced modifications totaling $2,093,760 to contract 
with Bendix Corp. for 26 ST-124 "stable platforms," related equip- 
ment, and support in Saturn programs. ( msfc Releases 69—23, 69-2 1 i 

• FAA announced it had awarded $665,241 contract to Pratt & Whitney 

Div. of United Aircraft Corp. for two-year study to develop compres- 
sor/fan noise-prediction methods for design of quieter jet aircraft 
engines. Contract represented Government's 55% share of total 
$1,209,530 cost-sharing contract. Pratt & Whitney would fund remain- 
ing 45%. (faa Release 69-11) 

• Australia announced it had asked U.S. to use nuclear explosives to blast 

out harbor on Australia's northwest coast at Cape Keraudren, on In- 
dian Ocean. U.S. State Department officials confirmed aec had been 
authorized to begin talks with Australian officials on feasibility of using 
nuclear explosion to develop port. I Unna, W Post, 1/24/69, Al; 
Reuters, A IT, 1/24/69, 10) 
January 24: NASA released Annual Procurement Report FY 1968. NASA pro- 
curements during FY 1968 totaled $4,133 million — 11% less than in 
FY 1967. Approximately 83% of net dollar value was placed directly 
with business firms, 4% with educational and other nonprofit institu- 
tions, 5% with Cal Tech for JPL operation, and 7% with or through 
other Government agencies. Of latter, 90% resulted in contracts with 
industry. About 72% of NASA funds placed under JPL contracts re- 
sulted in subcontracts or purchases with business firms. Thus about 
93% of NASA procurement dollars went to private industry. During FY 
1968, 49 states and D.C. participated in NASA prime contract awards 
of $25,000 and over. They went to 1,299 business firms, 165 univer- 
sities, and 68 other nonprofit organizations. ( Text) 

• NASA launched Nike-Cajun sounding rocket from Wallops Station carry- 

ing GSFC grenade experiment to collect data on atmospheric param- 
eters. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. (NASA Proj 
Off) 

• Mstislav V. Keldysh, President of Soviet Academy of Sciences, said dur- 

ing Moscow interview with Soyuz cosmonauts there were "some ad- 
vantages" to joint space experiments with U.S. "We have no objection 
in principle," he said, "and the setting of this type of goal has some 
merit. Even now the two countries participate in a number of inter- 
national programs." He added, "One would have to think, and choose 
this kind of joint program carefully. Maybe one of the flights to a 
planet in the future, or maybe around the earth also could be interest- 
ing. It is difficult to say exactly what I would like to see." Keldysh said 
Soviet scientists had not received special technical data on Apollo 8 
flight from U.S. However, "Certainly the success of such an outstand- 
ing flight, even if it does not produce any concrete new data, still gives 
something to all mankind." (Winters, B Sun, 1/25/69, A2; Shabad, 
NYT, 1 25 69, 6) 

• msfc announced it had awarded $173,000, 11 -mo contract to Boeing Co. 

for study of cost-reduction methods in future space vehicle logistics 
systems, including expendable and reusable systems. Major emphasis 
of study would be on space station logistics missions in 100- to 300-mi 

25 



January 24 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

orbits, with 5,000- to 50,000-lb payloads, and capable of holding 12 
passengers and 3,000- to 12,500-lb cargo, (msfc Release 69-26) 

• Sen. James B. Pearson (R-Kan.) introduced S. 608, bill to create National 

Aviation Planning Commission responsible for planning development 
of national air travel system and establishment of air transportation 
policy. Commission would consist of Assistant Secretary of Transporta- 
tion for Policy Development, faa Administrator, cab Chairman, NASA 
Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, Assistant Secretary 
of Housing and Urban Development for Metropolitan Development, 
and not more than 10 others to be appointed by Secretary of Trans- 
portation. (CR, 1/24/69, S869-70) 

• In Science, Karl D. Kryter, Director of Sensory Sciences Research Center 

of Stanford Research Institute, Calif., concluded that sonic booms from 
sst and Anglo-French Concorde — operating during daytime after 1975 
at frequencies projected for long-distance supersonic transport of pas- 
sengers over U.S. — would result in extensive social, political, and legal 
reactions against such flights at start, during, and after years of ex- 
posure to sonic boom from flights. (Science, 1/24/69, 359—67) 

• New York Times commented on Soviet decision to participate in Febru- 

ary INTELSAT conference [see Jan. 22] and on Soviet coverage of 
Apollo 8 which was "treated more generously in the Soviet press than 
any earlier American space accomplishment." Editorial said: "These 
indications of a positive shift in Kremlin thinking seem to enhance 
hopes that President Nixon will have an opportunity for creative diplo- 
macy and action of the kind he envisaged in his Inaugural Address. 
Thought might be given, for example, to inviting Moscow to designate 
a Soviet astronaut to participate in an Apollo flight late this year or 
early next year. Or Washington might suggest that the United States 
and the Soviet Union coordinate their programs of planetary explora- 
tion with one nation, say, having primary responsibility for studying 
Venus and the other Mars. With the landing of men on the moon now 
probably only months away it is certainly not too early for the two 
nations that have pioneered most actively in space to discuss concrete 
means for involving the United Nations directly in the future explora- 
tion and exploitation of the moon, as well as of the planets when men 
reach them." {NYT, 1/24/69, 46) 
January 25: Apollo 9 prime crew — Astronauts James A. McDivitt (com- 
mander), David R. Scott (cm pilot), and Russell L. Schweickart (lm 
pilot) — held press briefing at Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp.'s 
Bethpage, N.Y., plant. Describing 10-day mission scheduled to begin 
Feb. 28 as primarily engineering evaluation of lunar module, McDivitt 
said: ". . . we will be giving the . . . LM hardware a very close scrutiny. 
We don't expect to find anything, but our job is to go up there and 
look for it. Now after we have discovered that the LM is a good vehicle, 
we have ... to prove the joint operations techniques that we've tried 
to develop on the ground over the last 3 years. It's one thing to fly one 
spacecraft in orbit, and have it controlled by the ground, but when 
you get 2 of them up there, they are trying to look at 2 vehicles simul- 
taneously so that . . . you find the ground talking to 2 spacecraft and 
2 spacecraft talking back to each other and also to the ground, and it 
becomes a rather unwieldly communications effort." He added re- 

26 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 25 

minder that "only one of these vehicles has the capability to land — 
safely, I guess I should add. They both have the capability of landing. 
We only have one set of parachutes and one heat shield."' He described 
lm as "a tissue paper spacecraft," explaining it did not have to reenter 
earth's atmosphere and there was no atmosphere on moon. 

Scott said they now had "a new vehicle ... a command module LM 
combination ... a particularly unique situation, in that . . . we have 
to do the lunar orbit insertion [in lunar mission] with the two vehicles 
joined together with a very large mass on the end of the command 
module, so it's a completely new guidance task" to be checked out. 

McDivitt explained separation of lm from CM on rendezvous day, 
with two vehicles pulling away from each other and performing ma- 
neuvers, moving up to 100 mi apart: "The object ... is to evaluate our 
systems from a propulsion standpoint, electrical standpoint, the staging 
sequence, all of the components that we can and still get back safely to 
the command module." 

In response to question on relation of Apollo program to life on 
earth, McDivitt replied: ". . . if you're not moving forward ... the 
rest of the world is and they're going to pass you by. We're gaining 
something and we're gaining knowledge. . . . We're going to move for- 
ward on all fronts, we're not moving forward on just the space front. 
. . . Any organized system of intelligence moves forward in all direc- 
tions, and . . . that is what we are doing." (Transcript) 
\ike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Kiruna, Sweden, 
carried Swedish Space Research Committee (SSRC) and British Science 
Research Council payload to 73.3-mi (118-km) altitude to obtain at- 
mospheric data by detonating grenades and recording their sound ar- 
rivals on ground. Flight, last in series of four [see Jan. 23], was 
successful; 24 of 25 grenades detonated and were recorded. (NASA Rpt 

SRL) 

• Dedication ceremonies were held at site of new earth station for comsats 

near Cayey, Puerto Rico. ( ComSatCorp Release 69-5; ComSatCorp 

PRO) 

• NR— 1, world's first nuclear-powered deep submergence research and 

ocean engineering vehicle, was launched at Groton, Conn. Developed 
jointly by USN and AEC, 140-ft-long submarine would carry five crew 
members and two scientists over ocean bottom to study and map ocean 
floor, temperature, currents, and other oceanographic parameters for 
military, commercial, and scientific uses. ( dod Release 64—69; UPI, 
P Inq, 1/26/69) 
January 26: NASA launched two sounding rockets from Wallops Station. 
Aerobee 350 carried MSC experiment to 168.4-mi (271-km) altitude 
to produce artificial aurora with electron accelerator. An 85-ft-dia 
aluminum mylar foil, deployed as planned at 60-mi ( 96.5-km ) alti- 
tude, acted as current selector for ionospheric electrons and electrically 
neutralized experiment. Series of 100 beam pulses aimed downward 
toward Wallops ground station by accelerator were recorded on film 
by very sensitive TV camera and observations of artificial aurora were 
observed visually by scientists on ground. Analvses were under way to 
determine if auroral intensity, location, and shapes were as predicted. 
Nike-Tomahawk, launched 148 sees later to study acceleration beam 

27 



January 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

from Aerobee 350, carried DeHavilland antenna and Langmuir probe 
to 11.8-mi (19-km) altitude. Second stage failed to ignite; no useful 
data were obtained. (WS Release 69-2; nasa Rpts srl) 

• NASA launched Nike-Cajun sounding rocket from Point Barrow, Alaska, 

carrying GSFC grenade experiment to collect data on atmospheric param- 
eters. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj 
Off) 

• In New York Times, Walter Sullivan said data returned by Oso V and 

other oso satellites had begun to deepen understanding of sun. "It has 
become sufficient so that, from information gathered in space, as well 
as by a globe-encircling network of stations, those in charge of the 
Apollo 8 flight to the moon and back last month were able to ignore 
a variety of ominous manifestations on the sun during the flight." He 
said enough radiation measurements had been made during previous 
"space storms" to indicate Apollo astronauts were reasonably safe as 
long as they remained inside their spacecraft. {NYT, 1/26/69, E6) 

• Observers in Wisconsin, Iowa, Michigan, and Illinois reported sighting 

large meteorite or space debris flashing across sky and burning itself 
out as it entered earth's atmosphere. Several airline pilots had seen it 
at O'Hare International Airport, Chicago. Northwestern Univ. astron- 
omer James Wray said it probably was large meteor breaking up in 
atmosphere. UFO expert Dr. J. Allen Hynek, Chairman of North- 
western's Astronomy Dept., said flash could also have been reentering 
debris of U.S. or Soviet space rocket, (upi, W News, 1/27/69, 30; AP, 
W Star, 1/27/69, B4) 

• In Washington Evening Star, William Hines said, "If a successful farmer 

suddenly started economizing on seed, his neighbors and family would 
begin to doubt his judgment, if not his sanity. Yet this is precisely 
what Uncle Sam is doing in cutting back the financing of scientific 
research. Despite denials from budget officials in the past weeks, 
federal support of science in fiscal 1970 continues on an alarming 
down-trend that has been apparent for several years. It has been said 
that in an advanced economy like ours, research expenditures are 'seed 
money' and the analogy is apt. Like individual seeds in a field, not 
every research dollar germinates, and not all those that do mature. But 
total return is vastly greater than outlay — and that is the story of 
science as well as of agriculture." (W Star, 1/26/69, C4) 
January 27: Boosted Areas II sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wal- 
lops Station carried GSFC experiment to 63.5-mi (102-km) altitude to 
evaluate rocket performance for possible use at Resolute Bay, Canada. 
Vehicle underperformed according to predicted trajectory; peak alti- 
tude was below predicted and tone ranging appeared too weak for 
Resolute Bay. (nasa Rpt srl) 

• aec announced that S8DR nuclear reactor system developed in its SNAP 

(Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) Program was producing 600 
thermal kw at 1,300°F during tests in underground vacuum chamber 
at Santa Susana, Calif. Electrical power ranging from 20 to 75 kw 
could be generated by such a reactor to provide power for manned 
orbiting laboratories and bases on moon's surface. It was being con- 
sidered for these uses because of its potentially high reliability, small 
size, and long life (two to five years) without refueling or maintenance. 
(aec Release M-22) 

28 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 28 

January 28: In New York news conference, NASA Associate Administrator 
for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, said U.S. was in 
danger of going "out of the manned spaceflight business" unless more 
funds were provided in Federal budget for projects beyond Apollo. He 
said U.S.S.R. probably would surpass U.S. in space exploration in 
1970s. Current Soviet space expenditure was "about 50 percent greater 
than ours." (Wilford, NYT, 1/29/69, 11; AT News, 1/30/69) 

• In speech before New York Society of Security Analysts, NASA Associate 

Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, said: 
"I believe that if we wanted to we could have our space shuttle in oper- 
ation by 1976. ... To achieve the desired economy, it will be necessary 
to operate this transportation system in the successful jet transport 
mode. Our space shuttle will probably take off from major airports 
with little or no noise. It will not create a sonic boom along the route. 
It will go into orbit, deposit and take on crew and cargo, and return 
for a horizontal airport landing." He foresaw an international demand 
for reusable space vehicles. (Text) 

• Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 

carried Univ. of Wisconsin experiment to 139.2-mi (224-km) altitude 
to examine isotropic component of cosmic x-rays in wavelength region 
of X> 5 A, using collimated, thin-window gas proportional counters. 
Peak altitude was 3.5% over predicted but x-ray counters failed to 
reach design pressure. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• M2-F2 lifting-body vehicle damaged in accident May 10, 1967, would 

be repaired, modified, and returned to service as M2— F3, NASA an- 
nounced. Modifications would include center-stabilizing fin, special 
equipment for use as test bed for lateral control systems research, jet 
reaction roll control system, and improved internal components for 
precise maneuvering by pilot. M2— F3 would rejoin HL— 10 and X— 24 
in NASA— usaf flight research program to evaluate wingless vehicles for 
manned horizontal landings at airfields after return from space, (nasa 
Release 69-15) 

• Eastern Airlines, Inc., Vice President A. Scott Crossfield told Aero Club 

in Washington, D.C., that seven-week experiment with STOL aircraft 
at Boston, Washington, and New York airports begun Sept. 1968 had 
been "unqualified success." Airline's engineers were drafting specifica- 
tions for stol aircraft to carry 125 passengers at 250 mph, capable of 
maneuvering at speeds of 70 mph. It could double landing capacity of 
airports by using taxiways and ends of unused runways. McDonnell 
Douglas version of French-designed Breguet 941 aircraft used by 
Eastern in experiments had used onboard computer-controlled system, 
"heart" of which was manufactured by Decca in England. It used 
existing navaids and was accurate within 25-ft altitude and 100-ft 
latitude. (Koprowski, W Post, 1/29/69, A8) 

• S. 705 was introduced in Senate by Smithsonian Institution regent Sen. 

Clinton P. Anderson (D-N. Mex.), for himself and regents Sens. J. 
William Fulbright (D-Ark.) and Hugh D. Scott (R-Pa.) to authorize 
S2 million for planning and land acquisition for world's largest radio- 
radar astronomical telescope. Proposed 440-ft "big dish" antenna 
would be enclosed in 550-ft geodesic dome and cost about $37 million. 
It would be made available to appropriate scientists everywhere. (CR, 
1/28/69, S967-8; W Star, 4/1/69, Bl) 

29 



January 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Following conference with President Nixon, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, aec 

Chairman since 1961, announced he would continue in that position in 
Nixon Administration. Current term would expire June 30, 1970. (W 
Star, 1/29/69, A2) 
January 29: ComSatCorp announced it had applied to FCC for permission 
to reduce rates for TV transmissions through Atlantic satellites by 
about 40% and to eliminate extra charge for color TV through these 
satellites. Reductions were possible because of availability of Intelsat 
III F-2 (launched Dec. 19, 1968) over Atlantic. (ComSatCorp 
Release) 

• NASA selected Electro Mechanical Research Aerospace Sciences Div. 

of Weston Instruments, Inc. for contract negotiations on $1.37-million 
cost-plus-award-fee contract for spacecraft integration and ground 
support services for Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (imp) mis- 
sions H, I, and J. (nasa Release 69-19) 

• President Nixon announced selection of Gerard C. Smith, former Assist- 

ant Secretary of State for Policy Planning, as Director of Arms Con- 
trol and Disarmament Agency. Adrian S. Fisher had been acting 
director since resignation of William C. Foster. (PD, 2/3/69, 188) 
January 30: Canadian Isis I (isis— a) International Satellite for Ionospheric 
Studies was successfully launched by NASA from wtr by three-stage 
Thrust- Augmented Improved Thor-Delta ( DSV— 3E) booster. Satellite 
entered orbit with 2,188.5-mi (3,522-km) apogee, 356.7-mi 
(574-km) perigee, 128.3-min period, and 88.4° inclination. Primary 
NASA objectives were to place Isis I into elliptical earth orbit that 
would permit study of topside of ionosphere above electron peak of F 
region and to extend cooperative Canadian-U.S. program of iono- 
spheric studies initiated by Alouette I (launched Sept. 28, 1962) by 
combining sounder data with correlative direct measurements for time 
sufficient to cover latitudinal and diurnal variations during high solar 
activity. 

Third in series of five satellites to improve understanding of iono- 
spheric physics, Isis I weighed 520 lbs and carried six Canadian and 
four American experiments. First launch in series (isis x project, Nov. 
28, 1965) orbited Canada's Alouette II and U.S. Explorer XXXI. ISIS 
program was joint undertaking of NASA and Canadian Defence Re- 
search Board (drb) under December 1963 Memorandum of Under- 
standing. DRB was responsible for spacecraft design, fabrication, 
electrical testing, experiment integration, and satellite control. NASA 
provided launch vehicles, launch facilities. (NASA Proj Off; NASA Re- 
leases 69-14, 69-22) 

• nasa launched two Nike-Cajun sounding rockets from Point Barrow, 

Alaska, carrying gsfc experiments. First rocket was launched to obtain 
data on variation of temperature, pressure, and wind profile by deto- 
nating grenades at prescribed times and recording sound arrivals on 
ground. All 19 grenades ejected and detonated and sound arrivals were 
recorded. Launch was third in series of four launches from Point Bar- 
row during stratospheric warming [see Jan. 26]. 

Second rocket was launched in conjunction with Jan. 11 launch to 
develop experimental techniques for determining atmospheric compo- 
sition profiles in mesosphere and to measure ozone and water vapor 
distribution in 12.4- to 40.4-mi (20- to 65-km) region by separating 

30 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



January 30 



X 



^c 




January 30: Canadian Isis I International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies, launched 
by nasa from wtr, carried six Canadian and four U.S. experiments into orbit to study 
the topside of the ionosphere during a period of high solar activity. Isis I, photo- 
graphed before mating to its Thor-Delta launch vehicle, combined the capability for 
direct and indirect ionospheric measurements in one spacecraft for the first time. 



payload from 2nd stage and deploying parachute near apogee. Ozone 
was measured by chemiluminescent technique and water vapor by 
aluminum-oxide hydrometer. All major events occurred as planned and 
good data were obtained, (nasa Rpts srl) 

Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Research 
Range carried gsfc payload to 77.1-mi (124-km) altitude to obtain 
data on variation of temperature, pressure, and wind profile by deto- 
nating grenades at prescribed times and recording sound arrivals on 
ground. All 19 grenades were detonated and sound arrivals were re- 
corded. Launch was third in series of four rockets to be launched from 
Churchill during stratospheric warming period [see Jan. 22]. (nasa 
Rpt srl) 

Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket was launched by NASA from wsmr with 
VAM-20 booster to 111.2-mi (179-km) altitude. Objectives were to 



31 



January 30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

obtain stellar spectra with 1 A resolution in 1,000-1,600 A far uv 
wavelength range and to obtain photometric data on stellar fluxes in 
1,050-1,180 A, 1,230-1,350 A, and 1,350-1,470 A wavelength ranges. 
All experimental objectives were achieved and pay load was recovered 
promptly, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• faa Government-industry conference in Washington, D.C., discussed faa 

role in STOL development, stol noise sources, stol operational con- 
siderations related to noise abatement, noise source reduction tech- 
niques, and review of existing aircraft certification concepts and 
considerations for STOL noise certification, (faa Release 69—5) 

• At White House press briefing President Nixon introduced Apollo 8 

astronauts and announced that Astronaut Frank Borman would make 
eight-nation goodwill trip to Western Europe. Tour would point out 
"what is the fact: that we in America do not consider that this is a 
monopoly, these great new discoveries that we are making; that we 
recognize the great contributions that others have made and will make 
in the future; and that we do want to work together with all peoples 
on this earth in the high adventure of exploring the new areas of 
space." Later, Press Secretary Ronald Ziegler announced Borman 
family would visit England, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, West 
Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. (PD, 2/3/69, 189-90; AP, W 
Post, 1/31/69, A2) 

• President and Mrs. Nixon watched Apollo 8 films at White House show- 

ing attended by Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and 
William A. Anders. Borman narrated. (Shelton, W Star, 1/31/69, Bl; 
PD, 2/3/69, 194) 

• Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Acting Administrator, presented Public Serv- 

ice Group Achievement Award Certificates to 12 representatives of 
communications organizations which had supported Apollo 8 mission. 
Award to Apollo 8 Communications Network cited "the dedication and 
skill of the leaders and all personnel in these organizations in main- 
taining reliable communications which insured the success of the first 
manned lunar orbit mission." British External Telecommunication 
Executive and Hawaiian Telephone Co. had received same award. 
(nasa Release 69-20) 

• President Nixon issued directives to cabinet officers and agency heads. 

He directed dot to establish committee to investigate all aspects of SST 
program and some aspects of airport development, air traffic control, 
and FAA regulations. 

Bureau of Budget was informed that President was disturbed by re- 
ports that Government was not fulfilling obligations to colleges and 
universities whose grants had been abrogated by NSF because of FY 
1969 expenditure ceiling, bob was directed to check facts, estimate cost 
required to eliminate inequities, and adyise President on need for con- 
tingency reserve for FY 1969 and desirability of thorough budget 
revision for FY 1970. (PD, 2/3/69, 192-3) 

• NASA awarded United Aircraft Corp.'s Pratt & Whitney Div. and General 

Electric Co. separate fixed-price contracts to design, fabricate, and test 
experimental quiet jet engines. Each contract would have two phases. 
Six-month first phase would include detailed engine design and pro- 
curement of selected engine components. NASA would have option of 
authorizing construction of two engines and test program of at least 

32 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 January 30 

250 hrs of engine operation. In second phase, expected to take 30 mos, 
each contractor would refurbish and deliver one engine to LeRC for 
additional testing. Program was expected to cost $50 million over 
three-year period. (NASA Release 69—21) 

• Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space 

Flight, told meeting of National Security Industrial Assn. at KSC, "It is 
very clear that just as we have had substantial payoffs from communi- 
cations, navigation, geodetic, and weather satellites in the first decade 
of the space age, earth resources satellites will represent extremely 
promising investment opportunities in the second decade." They would 
require "close cooperation among many agencies in Washington, and 
in the long run with new commercial and international institutions that 
can bring the benefits of the space age to many people around the 
world." (Text) 

• At his first news conference, Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird said 

he would prefer to deal from strength — including Sentinel ABM system 
— in future missile talks with U.S.S.R. "I think it's most important, as 
we go into these talks, to have defensive as well as offensive missile 
systems up for discussion and debate and negotiation." (Maffre, W 
Post, 1/31/69, Al) 

• Moscow sources reported "Lt. Ilyin" of U.S.S.R. Army Engineers had 

been identified as attempted assassin who fired on Moscow motorcade 
carrying cosmonauts and high Soviet officials into Kremlin Jan. 22, 
Anatole Shub said in Washington Post. He reportedly had died almost 
immediately after taking poison and being slugged by Kremlin guards 
at scene [see Feb. 4]. {W Post, 1/31/69, Al) 
January 31: Eleventh anniversary of Explorer I, first U.S. satellite. Since 
its launch Jan. 31, 1958, the 30.8-lb stovepipe-shaped satellite had 
completed nearly 60,000 revolutions around earth and on Dec. 31, 
1968, was in orbit with 632-mi (10,170.8-km) apogee, 199.9-mi 
(321.7-km) perigee, and 98.1-min period, (msfc Release 69-26) 

• Apollo 9 press briefing was held at NASA Hq. Countdown would begin 

Feb. 22, for launch from etr at 11 am est Feb. 28. Ten-day earth- 
orbital mission would demonstrate LM manned crew performance for 
first time and carry out intervehicular activities between spacecraft, 
through-docking-tunnel activities, and EVA. Number of small aluminum- 
alloy brackets and fittings had been replaced or reinforced in LM— 3 
and LM— 4 because they were sensitive to stress or corrosion. Both 
vehicles were ready for flight. 

Apollo Program Director George H. Hage said number of activities 
would be performed on Apollo 9 that had not been done before "in 
the sense of wringing out the spacecraft." NASA was "working the 
hardware launch readiness of Apollo 10 to a late April date" so that 
"if we have difficulty on Apollo 9 and need to repeat some element or 
all of the D mission, we can get that mission off as early as possible." 
If Apollo 9 was successful Apollo 10 could be launched as early as 
May 17 on lunar landing mission. (Transcript) 

• NASA successfully launched two Nike-Cajun, one Areas, and three Nike- 

Apache sounding rockets from Wallops Station, carrying experiments 
to measure meteorological, ionospheric, and composition characteristics 
of upper atmosphere during "winter anomaly" — unusual absorption of 
radio waves — which occurred during January or early February. 

33 



January 31 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Launches would contribute to specimen day program, coordinated in- 
vestigation of winter variability of D region of ionosphere above 
Wallops. 

Nike-Cajuns carried gsfc payloads to 75.2-mi (121-km) and 
12.4-mi (20-km) altitudes. All 19 grenades on each rocket detonated 
as planned and sound arrivals were recorded, but poor vehicle per- 
formance of second rocket prevented acquisition of useful data. 

Areas carried Naval Weapons Center payload to 33.2-mi (53.4-km) 
altitude to measure ozone concentration in 18.6- to 37.3-mi (30- to 
60-km) region during parachute descent, but parachute did not deploy 
satisfactorily and payload descended too rapidly for recovery. 

First Nike-Apache carried Univ. of Illinois-GCA Corp. payload to 
141.1-mi (227-km) altitude to investigate winter variability of D 
region of ionosphere and measure differential absorption, Faraday 
rotation, and probe current to determine electron density, collision 
frequency, and temperature. Second Nike-Apache carried Univ. of 
Colorado payload to 71.5-mi (115-km) altitude to obtain vertical 
profile of nitric oxide density, using scanning monochromoter. Third 
Nike-Apache carried GSFC payload to 72.1-mi (116-km) altitude to 
measure degree of polarization and intensity of nitric oxide emission 
at 2,147 A to determine whether resonance scattering of sunlight was 
responsible for emission in D and E regions. Secondary objective was 
to determine altitude profile in 46.6- to 65.2-mi (75- to 105-km) 
region. Desired spectrum was not observed, apparently because of 
mechanical failure in payload. (NASA Rpts SRL; WS Release 69—3) 

• President Nixon, accompanied by Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird, 

visited DOD employees at Pentagon. President recalled reference made 
by Astronaut Frank Borman at White House Apollo 8 briefing Jan. 30 
to "400,000 men and women in the Nation who at one time or another 
had played a part in making this great, spectacular feat possible." 
President said, "I was glad to see Colonel Borman bring it home that 
way. Four hundred thousand made it possible for this magnificent 
achievement to occur. I trust that all of you can convey that kind of 
spirit to those who work in the Defense Department." (PD, 2/3/69, 
194) 

• Sen. Kenneth McC. Anderson, Australian Minister for Supply, accepted 

NASA Group Achievement Award for Dept. of Supply at NASA Hq. 
luncheon for "outstanding contributions in the establishment and oper- 
ation of the stations and associated facilities in Australia which as- 
sured the success of the Apollo 8 mission. . . ." Sen. Anderson also 
received awards for Apollo 8 support by msfc stations at Canberra 
and Carnarvon and dsn station at Canberra, (nasa Release 69-23) 

• faa said preliminary figures showed its 27 air route traffic control centers 

handled 19.5 million aircraft in 1968, an increase of 17% over 1967. 
Chicago, New York, and Cleveland each logged 1.5 million operations 
— first time any center had reached this mark, (faa Release 69-15) 
During January: jpl Senior Staff Scientist Albert R. Hibbs summarized 
results of NASA's Surveyor program in Astronautics and Aeronautics. 
Experiments on five Surveyor spacecraft which successfully landed on 
moon between May 30, 1966, and Jan. 7, 1968, indicated surface 
material was granular and very fine with 10 3 dynes/cm 2 cohesion. 
Slightly deeper material had lower normal albedo than undisturbed 

34 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During January 

surface. Chemical composition of surface material was similar to ba- 
saltic rocks on earth; mare material contained more iron elements 
than highland material; and highland material had higher albedo than 
mare material. Chemical analyses indicated material did not resemble 
chondritic meteorites. From observed data scientists concluded that 
moon had undergone significant chemical differentiation during its 
history and had been subjected to basaltic lava flows; surface was con- 
tinually being "churned and pulverized" by meteoroid impacts; some 
undefined process lightened optical surface and darkened buried 
material; and mare areas were "surprisingly similar and offer numer- 
ous safe-landing zones for future lunar missions." {A&A, 1/69, 50—63) 

• U.S.S.R. was testing 150-ton, 250-passenger "compound" helicopter, 

American Broadcasting Co. reported. Largest helicopter in Western 
world was 19-ton Sikorsky CH-54H Flying Crane. Soviet 47-ton 
Mi-10 was world's largest. New compound helicopter had wings that 
assumed lifting function from rotors at cruising speed; it obtained 
most of its thrust from conventional propulsion when it converted from 
vertical to cruising flight. Sikorsky had proposed 32.5-ton compound 
helicopter to dod and U.S. civilian transportation authorities. I NYT, 
1/12/69, S23) 

• MIT scientist Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner in Technology Review said reorgan- 

ization and strengthening of Federal mechanisms for planning and 
supporting r&d was only solution to "present antagonisms and . . . 
skepticism" about the value of a continued high level of R&D support. 
He proposed new agency with NSF at core for planning R&D and to 
"indicate resource allocation for all public endeavors, including foreign 
aid and national security." {Technology Review, 1/69, 15—17) 

• Systems approach was needed in applying "human and technological 

resources to domestic problems," Space /Aeronautics said. Growth 
areas for aerospace industry spinoff included urban, environmental, 
surface-transportation, medical, and ocean systems. Lessons to be 
learned in dealing with these systems were: (1) massive problems 
required efforts on massive scale; (2) R&D cycle for civil system was 
always longer than political cycle being counted on to support it; and 
(3) even when system was built jurisdictional prerogatives could "make 
a mess of the implementation." Aerospace companies should employ 
their capabilities "to assess their experience in high technology and 
their managerial skills" and apply experience "to new systems chal- 
lenges." (S/A, 1/69, 106-7) 



35 



February 1969 



February 2: Development of laser tracking techniques permitting accurate 
24-hour tracking of orbiting spacecraft was announced by NASA. New 
technique — particularly important in geodetic studies, which required 
precise angle and distance measurements between satellite and ground 
stations — offered greater measuring accuracy than RF methods, re- 
quired only lightweight reflectors on satellite, and was less affected by 
transmission-impeding environmental disturbances. First operational 
daylight tracking with laser had been accomplished by GSFC team Oct. 
21, 1968. (nasa Release 69-18; A&A 68) 

• Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and family departed on USAF jet for 

18-day Presidential goodwill mission to Europe. Itinerary: London, 
Feb. 2-5; Paris, Feb. 5-7; Brussels, Feb. 7-10; The Hague, Feb. 
10-11; Bonn, Feb. 11-12; West Berlin, Feb. 12-13; Rome, Feb. 
13-17; Madrid, Feb. 17-19; and Lisbon, Feb. 19-21. (nasa Int Aff; 
W Star, 2/2/69, A3) 

• NASA's Apollo 8 mission and USN navigation satellite system developed by 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory had been named 
two of top four engineering achievements of 1968 by National Society 
of Professional Engineers. (W Star, 2/2/69, B2) 

• In New York Times Magazine, Dr. Ralph E. Lapp, physicist, wrote: 

"... I would urge that we alter the U.S. space program as follows: 
First, make a firm decision to terminate the manned space program 
soon after the initial lunar landing. ... I would reserve the remaining 
Apollo craft for future unmanned missions to the planets and I would 
mothball the single-purpose manned space flight facilities. At the same 
time, I would continue a n.a.S.a. program of long-range space develop- 
ment aimed at advanced modes of propulsion, compact energy sources 
and improved long-distance communication. High priority would be 
assigned to the development of nuclear energy both for propulsion and 
for on-board power. 

"Second, greatly expand n.a.S.a.'s present program for exploiting 
applications of space science and technology. The potential of satellites 
for communications . . . needs to be enhanced by the development of 
new techniques. It should not be too difficult to develop orbital systems 
for the control of intercontinental air traffic. Perhaps the greatest bene- 
fits from satellites are to be expected in the survey and evaluation of 
earth resources, such as underground water, mineral deposits and 
plant-forest cover. . . . 

"Third, establish a high priority within N.A.S.A. for fundamental re- 
search using unmanned space vehicles ... 10 to 20 years in duration 
and . . . aimed at finding out more about our planet, the sun and the 
rest of the solar system. The most expensive — and probably the most 
dramatic — of these projects would be the planetary probes designed to 
fly by, orbit or land on the nearby planets." (NYT, 2/2/69, 32-40) 

37 



February 3 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

February 3: NASA announced it had extended $69,692,000 contract with 
Bellcomm, Inc., to provide systems analysis, study, planning, and tech- 
nical support of manned space flight. Value of one-year cost-plus-fixed- 
fee contract extension was $11,483,000. (nasa Release 69-25) 

February 3—5: London accorded Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and 
family full celebrity status, including frontpage newspaper coverage, 
taped TV interviews, and cheers from schoolchildren. Borman lectured 
before Royal Society of Scientists Feb. 3 and on Feb. 4 was presented 
to Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace and visited Prime Min- 
ister Harold Wilson and House of Commons. Borman at U.S. Embassy 
presented nasa's Manned Spaceflight Group Achievement Award to 
Station Manager James McDowell of NASA Communications Switching 
Station in London and Public Service Group Achievement Award to 
C. James Gill, director of U.K.'s postoffice telecommunications system. 
(Lee, NYT, 2/4/69, 4; W Post, 2/5/69, A18; C Trib, 2/5/69; nasa 
Int AfT) 

February 4: President Nixon sent directive to Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Science 
Adviser to the President, asking assessment of proposal to appoint in- 
teragency committee to advise President on post-Apollo space program. 
Directive also asked report on "possibility of significant cost reduc- 
tions in the launching and boosting operations of the space program," 
with judgment on "how best to assess future developments in this 
area." White House announcement from Key Biscayne, Fla., Feb. 8 
said directive had asked assessment of recommendations that dod and 
NASA be directed to coordinate activities in this area. (PD, 2/17/69, 
249; 3/10/69, 349-51) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carried Univ. of Minnesota Institute of Technology 
payload to 115.6-mi (186-km) altitude to study neutral composition 
of polar atmosphere with neutral mass spectrometers. Rocket and in- 
struments performed satisfactorily and experimental data showed 
"some extremely interesting results." (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Point Bar- 

row, Alaska, carrying gsfc experiment to obtain data on variation of 
temperature, pressure, and wind profile by detonating grenades at 
prescribed times and recording sound arrivals on ground. Rocket, last 
in series of four launched during period of atmospheric warming [see 
Jan. 30], performed satisfactorily. All 19 grenades ejected and deto- 
nated as planned and sound arrivals were recorded. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• President Nixon accepted pro forma resignation of Dr. Edward C. Welsh, 

Executive Secretary of National Aeronautics and Space Council. Ap- 
pointed by President Kennedy in 1961, Dr. Welsh had been Council's 
first and only appointed executive secretary. (W Post, 2/5/69, A7; AP, 
W Star, 2/5/69, 1) 

• XB-70 supersonic research aircraft was flown from Edwards afb, Calif., 

to Wright-Patterson afb, Ohio, to be placed on exhibit at Air Force 
Museum. Flight had been delayed until turbulent air conditions pre- 
vailed so testing could continue until end of aircraft's service. During 
final flight, crew collected data on aircraft handling and structural 
response to air turbulence at subsonic flight. NASA had announced end 
of XB-70 flight research program Jan. 13. (nasa Proj Off; UPI, NYT, 
2/5/69, 73; AP, W Star, 2/5/69, A19) 

38 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 4 

• In Look, science writer Arthur C. Clarke, Nobel Prize nuclear physicist 

Dr. Isidor I. Rabi, novelist C. P. Snow, and Catholic theologian Prof. 
Leslie Dewart wrote personal reactions to Apollo 8 mission. Clarke 
said: "The Apollo 8 mission marks one of those rare turning points in 
human history after which nothing will ever be the same again. The 
immense technical achievement is already obvious to every one and 
has been universally praised; yet the psychological impact may be 
even more important and will take some time to make itself fully felt. 
We no longer live in the world which existed before Christmas 1968. 
It has passed away as irrevocably as the earth-centered universe of the 
Middle Ages." 

Dr. Rabi said: "It would be misleading to talk of the events that led 
to the journey of Apollo 8 in terms of the vast sums of money that are 
involved, even though it cost several times as much as the development 
of the first atomic bomb. What is more important and more impressive 
is that Apollo 8 represents the cooperation of hundreds of thousands 
of people over a period of years in a gigantic effort with no clearly set 
practical goals, except perhaps the profound desire of mankind to 
prove to itself that it had the knowledge and the ability to overcome 
its earthbound limitations." 

Prof. Dewart said: "Man has taken his first, halting steps into the 
cosmos beyond that earthly world in which he was born and within 
which he had always lived. The impact of Apollo 8 in other areas of 
human experience is obvious; in religion, it is much less immediately 
evident. And yet, in the end, it may be more significant for the de- 
velopment of man's religious consciousness." ( Look, 2/4/69, 72—8 1 

• In letter to Astronaut Frank Borman, Board of Education of Glendale 

Union High School District No. 205, Glendale, Ariz., said it had 
named planned high school "Apollo" in "honor and appreciation of the 
accomplishments of the participating astronauts." It invited Apollo 8 
crew to participate in 1970 dedication ceremony. {CR, 2/21/69, 
E1216) 

• USN announced award of $40,000,000 contract to Grumman Aircraft En- 

gineering Corp. for engineering development phase of F— 14A super- 
sonic fighter (formerly vfx), replacement for F— 111B. Funding during 
four-year development was expected to total $388,000,000. Idod Re- 
lease 92-69) 

• In letter from Chairman L. Mendel Rivers (D-S.C.) to Secretary of De- 

fense Melvin R. Laird, House Armed Services Committee informed 
DOD that, because of uncertainty over ABM, Committee would take no 
action to approve Sentinel antiballistic missile sites until Nixon Ad- 
ministration positively expressed interest in project. (Sell, W Post, 
2/6/69, Al) 

• In New York Times, Theodere Shabad said Moscow sources indicated 

Soviet investigators had ruled out possibility of political conspiracy in 
Jan. 22 shooting during Kremlin ceremonies for Soyuz cosmonauts 
because of amateurish behavior of gunman identified as "Lt. Ilyin" of 
Soviet Army. Sources denied earlier reports that gunman had taken 
poison after shooting and was dead. They said he was undergoing 
medical and psychological testing to determine his sanity and motives. 
( NYT, 2/5/69, 2 1 
February 5-16: Intelsat-III F-3 was successfully launched by NASA for 

39 



February 5-16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

ComSatCorp on behalf of International Telecommunications Satellite 
Consortium. The 632-lb cylindrical satellite, launched from etr by 
Long-Tank Thrust-Augmented Thor (lttat) -Delta (DSV-3M) 
booster, entered elliptical transfer orbit with 23,496.9-mi (37,- 
814.6-km) apogee, 157.3-mi (253.1-km) perigee, 671.9-min period, 
and 29.8° inclination. All systems were functioning normally. On Feb. 
7 apogee motor was fired to kick satellite into planned near-synchro- 
nous orbit over Pacific at 173.8° east longitude with 22,000-mi 
(35,719.84cm) apogee, 22,190-mi (35,703.7-km) perigee, 23-hr 56- 
min period, and 1.3° inclination. 

Intelsat-Ill F—3 was second successful launch in Intelsat III series. 
Intelsat-III F-2 had been launched Dec. 18, 1968, as backup to Intelsat- 
III F-l, which had been destroyed minutes after launch Sept. 18, 1968. 
Satellite began commercial service Feb. 16, handling up to 1,200 voice 
circuits or 4 TV channels, (nasa Proj Off; ComSatCorp Releases 69-7, 
69-27; AP, B Sun, 2/6/69, A3; Pres Rpt. 70 [69]; ComSatCorp pio) 

• February 5: DOD launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg 

afb by Thor-Agena booster. One entered orbit with 171.0-mi 
(275-km) apogee, 91.7-mi (147.6-km) perigee, 88.7-min period, 
and 81.6° inclination and reentered Feb. 24. Second satellite entered 
orbit with 894.9-mi (1,439.9-km) apogee, 866.4-mi (1,394.0-km) 
perigee, 114.1-min period, and 80.4° inclination. (Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• President Nixon authorized immediate SlO-million increase in expendi- 

ture ceiling placed on National Science Foundation by Johnson Ad- 
ministration in 1968. He said: "The colleges and universities of this 
Nation provide a critical resource which needs to be fostered and 
strengthened. Our higher educational system provides the advanced 
training needed for tomorrow's leaders in science and technology, in- 
dustry and government, and also conducts the basic research which 
uncovers the new knowledge so essential to the future welfare of the 
country. It is essential that these programs of education and research 
be sustained at a level of high excellence." (PD, 2/10/69, 224-5) 

• New tempest was brewing in national scientific community over whether 

defense establishment absorbed exorbitant portion of U.S. scientific 
and technological energies, John Lannan said in Washington Evening 
Star. In New York, younger physicists had called for political activism 
at annual meeting of American Physical Society Feb. 3. MIT group, 
Union of Concerned Scientists, had scheduled day-long "research stop- 
page" March 4 and initiated letter campaign to spread its views to 
other institutions. Union's proposals included "a critical and continu- 
ing examination of government policy in areas where science and 
technology are of actual or potential significance"; redirection of re- 
search from defense-oriented to environment-oriented projects; oppo- 
sition to antiballistic missile system; and organization of scientists into 
effective and vocal political action group. (W Star, 2/5/69, A7; 
Sullivan, NYT, 2/9/69, E7) 

• Report on aviation safety for 1968 was submitted to House Committee on 

Interstate and Foreign Commerce by Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr., Chair- 
man of National Transportation Safety Board. For all scheduled air 
carrier services there had been one fatal accident for about every 
500,000 hrs, or for every 100,000 transcontinental flights. One pas- 

40 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 5 

senger had been lost for every 370 million passenger miles flown. 
Number of fatalities in scheduled domestic and international passenger 
service had been second worst of decade; but accident rates, fatal and 
nonfatal, continued downward for total scheduled air carriers. In 
general aviation, rate for fatal accidents per hours flown had increased 
but remained below rates of 1965 and before and was third best in 
decade. Total number of fatal accidents — 692, killing 1,374 persons — 
was highest in history. (Text; NYT, 2/9/69, 94) 

• In message to Senate, President Nixon urged prompt ratification of 

nuclear nonproliferation treaty: "I believe that ratification of the 
Treaty at this time would advance this Administration's policy of 
negotiation rather than confrontation with the USSR. I believe the 
Treaty can be an important step in our endeavor to curb the spread of 
nuclear weapons and that it advances the purposes of our Atoms for 
Peace program." (PD, 2/10/69, 219) 
February 5-7: During two-day Paris visit Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Bor- 
man met with President Charles de Gaulle. At dinner given by Ambas- 
sador R. Sargent Shriver, Jr., on Eiffel Tower, Borman received offer 
of racing car from French manufacturer who had presented similar 
gift to Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in 1965. During Paris news confer- 
ences and on TV interview, Borman stressed international character of 
space exploration. He said, "I don't know why we aren't going to 
Russia. I would like to visit Russia. ... I think we have some fair 
means of cooperation in space and I would hope to see more." (Garri- 
son, NYT, 2/6/69, 2; 2/7/69, 3) 
February 6: NASA launched four sounding rockets from Wallops Station to 
obtain upper-atmosphere data on normal winter day. Areas carried 
Naval Weapons Center payload to 34.9-mi (56.1-km) altitude to 
measure ozone concentration at altitudes between 18.6 and 37.3 mi 
(30 and 60 km), using photometer and optical filter wheel. Failure of 
recovery parachute to open satisfactorily caused fast descent and pre- 
vented payload recovery. Obtaining useful information was expected 
to be difficult, but good data were expected. 

Nike-Cajun carried GSFC payload to 79.4-mi (127.7-kml altitude 
to obtain temperature, pressure, density, and wind data in upper at- 
mosphere by detonating grenades and recording sound arrivals on 
ground. All 19 grenades were ejected and detonated as planned and 
sound arrivals were recorded. 

Nike-Apache carrying Univ. of Colorado payload reached 72.7-mi 
(117-km) altitude on flight to obtain vertical profile of nitric oxide 
density in 15.5- to 65.3-mi (25- to 105-km) region. Rocket and in- 
struments functioned satisfactorily. 

Second Nike-Apache carried Univ. of Illinois payload to collect data 
on ionosphere. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. (NASA 
Rpts srl; NASA Proj Off) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Research 

Range carried GSFC payload to 80.2-mi (129-km) altitude to obtain 
data on variation of temperature, pressure, and wind profile by deto- 
nating grenades at prescribed times and recording their sound arrivals 
on ground. Rocket, last in series of four launched from Churchill dur- 
ing stratospheric warming [see Jan. 30], performed satisfactorily. All 

41 



February 6 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

19 grenades ejected and detonated as planned. Sound arrivals were 
recorded for 14—15 grenades because of power failure at receiving 
station. (NASA Rpt SRJ.) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carried Univ. of Minnesota Institute of Technology pay- 
load to 83.2-mi (133.8-km) altitude to study neutral composition of 
polar atmosphere with neutral mass spectrometers. Rocket underper- 
formed; burnout occurred at 42 sees. All instruments worked perfectly. 
Useful data were obtained in 68.4- to 87.0-mi (110- to 140-km) 
region. (NASA Rpt srl) 

• At confirmation hearing on his appointment as Director of Office of 

Science and Technology before Senate Labor and Public Welfare Com- 
mittee, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge said he would place his energies on analy- 
sis of weapon systems, environment and effect of technology and 
pollution on environment, and utilization of science and technology by 
Government departments. He planned to concern himself with social 
problems and hoped to increase social scientists on President's Science 
Advisory Committee from one to two. He hoped for increased funding 
for hud and DOT, and regretted allocations for basic research were 
declining in DOD, NASA, and aec because such agencies "will profit by 
good relations with universities." (Nelson, Science, 2/14/69, 657) 

• U.S.S.R.'s Venus V (launched Jan. 5) and Venus VI (launched Jan. 10) 

were on course and functioning normally, Tass announced. Spacecraft 
were expected to reach Venus in late May. Venus V was 4,785,000 mi 
from earth; Venus VI, 4,050,000 mi. (Reuters, NYT, 2/7/69, 14) 

• NASA sponsored one-day meeting to review progress in its five-year re- 

search program on fog-shrouded airports. In one test during NASA- 
sponsored work by Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory in Project Fog 
Drops, small aircraft carrying 700 lbs of salt had opened wide path in 
dense warm fog in five minutes. (NASA Release 69—17; Transcript) 

• Sperry Rand Corp. announced election of former nasa Administrator 

James E. Webb to Board of Directors. He had been vice president of 
company's Sperry Gyroscope Div. in 1943. (Sperry Rand Release 
2/6/69; sbd, 2/11/69, 140) 

• Univ. of California astronomers Dr. E. Joseph Wampler and Dr. Joseph 

S. Miller reported they had photographed winking of pulsar in Crab 
Nebula — first of pulsars to be unequivocally associated with observable 
star — by spinning disc before star's image projected by 120-in tele- 
scope at Lick Observatory, Calif. Hole in disc, spun slower than flash 
rate of pulsar, permitted light from star to penetrate once each revo- 
lution. For first time star was shown photographically to be flashing 
on and off. Rate of light pulses was identical to that of previously 
observed radio pulses. {NYT, 2/7/69, 22; upi, W Post, 2/7/69, A6) 

• Cambridge Univ. announced radioastronomy team under Sir Martin 

Ryle, professor and astronomer, would build world's largest, most 
sensitive radiotelescope, to cost $4.8 million. It would be operational 
in two years and capable of picking up signals which started to earth 
8,000 million yrs ago. Cambridge team had discovered pulsars, (upi, 
W Post, 2/7/69, A20) 

• NASA awarded Grumann Aircraft Engineering Corp. $3,438,400 supple- 

mental agreement for changes in Apollo lunar module contract. Modi- 
fications — to documentation and reporting procedures for LM test and 

42 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 6 

checkout, to flight and ground test hardware, to test and effect analyses, 
and to crew safety hardware — brought total value of contract to $1.6 
billion since January 1963. (msc Release 69-14) 

• Washington Evening Star said: "As man's horizon of space expands, the 

costs of maintaining an effective program expand in direct proportion. 
Already, the first limited steps have resulted in an economic burden 
that the richest nation in the world finds almost intolerable. If the ad- 
venture is to continue much longer, it will have to be as an inter- 
national effort. Nixon's inaugural statement raises the possibility that 
some international body, a sort of United Nations for space explora- 
tion, could be established to pool the talents and the resources of all 
nations. It is an idea well worth pursuing. (W Star, 2/6/69, A10) 

• DOD announced month delay in site acquisition and construction work on 

Sentinel ABM system. Action had been taken previous week to permit 
review of program. At White House news conference President Nixon 
said, "I do not buy the assumption that the ABM system, the thin Senti- 
nel system, as it has been described, was simply for the purpose of 
protecting ourselves against attack from Communist China." System, 
like those U.S.S.R. already deployed, "adds to our overall defense 
capability." (PD, 2/10/69, 228; WSJ, 2/7/69, 6) 

• State Dept. announced aec would join Australia in exploring economic, 

technical, and safety aspects of producing deep-water harbor at Cape 
Keraudren in northwestern Australia using atomic explosives. (W Post, 
2/7/69, A5) 
February 7: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXV into orbit with 457-km 
(284-mi) apogee, 272-km (169-mi) perigee, 91.8-min period, and 
71° inclination. Satellite reentered May 1. (GSFC SSR, 2/15/69; 
5/15/69) 

• Aerobee 150 MI launched by NASA from WSMR carried Johns Hopkins 

Univ. payload to 101.7-mi (163.6-km) altitude to measure vacuum 
uv spectral emission lines from Venusian atmosphere. Experiment 
worked satisfactorily except for one second near end. No fine-mode 
acquisition was received and Vernier star-tracker could not track. No 
data on Venus were obtained. Terrestrial airglow data were obtained. 

(NASA Rpt SRL) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Research 

Range carried Southwest Center for Advanced Studies payload to 
826-mi (133-km) altitude to investigate auroral disturbances. Rocket 
and instruments performed satisfactorily and payload was recovered 
successfully, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• Senate confirmed appointment of Dr. Lee A. DuBridge as Director of 

Office of Science and Technology. (CR, S1536— 7) 

• Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe said in Washington, D.C., 

that committee of academicians, committee within DOT, and committee 
representing other agency executives had begun extensive review for 
Nixon Administration to determine whether Government should con- 
tinue subsidizing sst development. (Herbers, NYT, 2/8/69, 1; Reuters, 
W Post, 2/8/69, A2) 

• Royal Crown Cola International announced former Astronaut John H. 

Glenn, Jr., had become its president. He had been chairman since 
January 1967. (NYT, 2/8/69) 

• Committee of air traffic controllers said it had evolved program which 

43 



February 7 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

would enable FAA to postpone restrictions scheduled to go into effect 
April 27 at five major airports. Professional Air Traffic Controllers 
Organization would petition Secretary of Transportation John A. 
Volpe to substitute "revamped procedures which would make opera- 
tions safer and more efficient," said F. Lee Bailey, counsel. Restrictions 
would curtail services into New York, Chicago, and Washington, D.C. 
(NYT, 2/8/69) 

• In Science, Walter Orr Roberts, President of University Corp. for At- 

mospheric Research, wrote: "Manned exploration of the moon will 
provide answers to age-long speculation about its nature. Perhaps even 
more important than what we find will be the fact that we have done 
it. The event will mark the successful attainment of a goal that de- 
manded technological attainments of unprecedented complexity and 
difficulty. Our sights were set upon this goal nearly a decade ago by 
President Kennedy. I was, I confess, one who feared he had asked the 
impossible." 

Weather forecasting — one example of earth-oriented use of space 
science — would require space satellites of new and sophisticated 
character. "We will not solve this problem unless we can somehow 
inspire atmospheric scientists of all the world to commit themselves to 
the goal. . . . Space technology is perhaps the most important single 
component of the technology development needed for success. What 
better use could be found for our incredible talents in space? After the 
moon, the earth!" {Science, 2/7/69) 
February 9: dod's Tacsat I Tactical Communications Satellite was success- 
fully launched from ETR at 4:09 pm EST by Titan IIIC booster into 
synchronous equatorial orbit over Pacific. Orbital parameters: apogee, 
22,387 mi (36,020.7 km) ; perigee, 22,332 mi (35,932.2 km) ; period, 
1,446.6 min; and inclination, 0.6°. The $30-million, 1,600-lb, cylin- 
drical satellite would test feasibility of using satellite system to com- 
municate over great distances with small military units such as aircraft, 
ships, and small ground stations. Tacsat I was powerful enough for 
ground forces to use portable receiving antennas as small as one foot 
in diameter. It also would test new gyrostat stabilization system. (W 
Star, 2/9-10/70; AP, W Post, 2/10/69, Al; gsfc SSR, 2/15/69; dod 
Release 64-68; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• Supercritical wing would be flight-tested on USN F— 8 fighter at FRC, NASA 

announced. Airfoil shape had been developed in four-year wind-tunnel 
studies at LaRC by Dr. Richafd T. Whitcomb. If wind-tunnel perform- 
ance was achieved in flight, wing could improve performance and 
efficiency of future aircraft, particularly jet transports. It would allow 
efficient cruise flight near speed of sound at 45,000-ft altitude and 
reduce operational cost of subsonic flights by increasing operational 
range or permitting less fuel and more payload on faster schedules. 

Supercritical wing shape was developed to delay rise of drag force 
and onset of buffeting at high speeds. Flattened top was designed to 
reduce intensity of airflow disturbances; downward curve at rear of 
wing supplied lift lost by flattening. Flight program would evaluate 
behavior of wing in actual flight with both high-lift maneuvering and 
off-design performance, and determine sensitivity of supercritical wing 
to wing-contour variations associated with manufacturing processes 
and deformations due to flight loads, (nasa Release 69-27) 

44 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



February 9 




February 9: nasa announced the supercritical wing, a new airfoil shape developed in 
four years of wind-tunnel studies at Langley Research Center, would be flight-tested 
on a usn F-8 fighter at the Flight Research Center. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb, inventor 
of the design expected to improve performance of subsonic jet transports, stood with 
his model in the test section of the wind tunnel at LaRC. 

• Meteorite broke into fragments in air and fell near Pueblito de Allende, 

Chihuahua, Mexico. Scientists at msc Lunar Receiving Laboratory and 
Oak Ridge National Laboratory later reported from tests of fragments 
that meteorite was chondrite (C3 and C4) with opaque and micro- 
crystalline matrices. Gamma rays from short-lived isotopes were ob- 
served in specimens brought to low-background gamma counter less 
than 4V 2 days after fall. (Science, 2/28/69, 928-9) 

• Boeing Co. test pilot Jack Waddell flew 355-ton, $20-million prototype 

of 490-passenger Boeing 747 jet transport from Paine Field, near 
Seattle, Wash., for 1 hr 15 min of scheduled 2 1 /2-hr maiden flight. 
Waddell returned aircraft to field after encountering "minor malfunc- 
tion" of wing surface control while lowering wing flaps to 30° angle. 
Later he said aircraft was "a pilot's dream" which could be "flown 
with two fingers" and indicated flap misalignment would not delay 



45 



February 9 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

further testing. The 210-ft-long 747 used only 4,500 ft of runway to 
become airborne at 170 mph. Spectators were impressed with quietness 
of its engines. (W Post, 2/10/69, 1; AP, W Star, 2/10/69, A5) 

• Lunar module was "first manned spacecraft ever built that's not tough 

enough to survive a return to earth," said Thomas O'Toole in Wash- 
ington Post. Vehicle from which two astronauts would descend to 
moon's surface in summer 1969 was 23 ft high, weighed 8,000 lbs, and 
carried 12 tons of propellant. It contained 25 mi of electrical wiring 
and more than a million parts, most of which had been designed "from 
scratch," held together by 216,000 "pins." Pin bent more than five 
degrees out of shape would have to be replaced. NASA had contracted 
for 15 LMs at total cost of $1.9 billion from Grumman Aircraft En- 
gineering Corp., which had taken six years to get it from drawing 
board to launch pad. [W Post, 2/9/69, B2) 

• In Brussels, Astronaut Frank Borman and family attended dinner given 

in his honor at palace by King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Borman 
showed Apollo 8 film, (nasa Int Aff; AP, B Sun, 2/10/69) 

• Hungary and Romania had issued souvenir stamps commemorating 

Apollo 8 mission and astronauts, U.S. newspaper philatelic columns 
announced. Photograph taken from Gemini IV of Arabian coast pro- 
vided design for new stamp in sultanate of Muscat and Oman. (Faries, 
W Star, 2/9/69, D10; AP, W Post, 2/9/69, K8) 

• Johns Hopkins Univ. associate professor of mechanics, Dr. Robert L. 

Green, had designed and perfected "visualization apparatus for X-ray 
crystallography," device which permitted continuous observations of 
changes in structure of atoms in metal under stress. Device could lead 
to discovery of hitherto unknown properties of metals, nonmetallic 
crystals, and living molecules; enable scientists to study changes in 
internal structure of metals during deformation caused by air and 
water pressure; enable scientists to project image of atomic structure 
on closed-circuit TV screen; and result in development of stronger 
submarine hulls, aircraft wings, and spacecraft. (Reuters, NYT, 
2/9/69, 92) 

• faa had awarded United Aircraft Corp. Pratt & Whitney Div. $665,241 

contract for two-year study to develop design for quieter jet aircraft 
engines. {NYT, 2/9/69, 94) 

• Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and his first-grade school teacher, Mrs. 

Peggy Crowley, would receive 1969 Golden Key Awards from six 
national school organizations at annual convention of American Assn. 
of School Administrators, Atlantic City, N.J., Feb. 15, Parade re- 
ported. Awards had been founded to dramatize teacher's role in U.S. 
life. (Parade, 2/9/69, 4) 

• In Washington Post, Thomas O'Toole said nasa Administrator was "the 

last big Federal post President Nixon has left unfilled." He asked, "Is 
it because he can't find the man he wants? Is it because no man he wants 
wants the job? Or is Mr. Nixon playing with the possibility of appoint- 
ing [Acting Administrator Thomas O.] Paine to the post of Adminis- 
trator?" Washington "space watchers" felt job could not be kept 
vacant much longer, "if only because the program to land American 
astronauts on the moon is rapidly nearing its goal." (W Post, 2/9/69, 
All) 

• New York Times editorial: "The Congressional pressure that spurred the 

46 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 9 

Nixon Administration to halt deployment of the Sentinel antiballistic 
missile system signals a healthy new disposition on Capitol Hill to 
challenge the military-industrial complex, against which President 
Eisenhower warned eight years ago." {NYT, 2/9/69, 12) 
February 10: NAS published nrc Div. of Engineering's Useful Applications 
of Earth-Oriented Satellites, Report of the Central Review Committee 
of nrc Summer Study on Space Applications, prepared for NASA. Study 
concluded that space applications program was "too small by a factor 
of two or three." Benefits from program were expected to be large, 
"certainly larger than the costs of achieving them." However, "an ex- 
tensive, coherent, and selective program" would be required to achieve 
benefits. 

Committee recommended that nasa give greater emphasis to earth- 
satellite programs with promise of beneficial applications, commit ad- 
ditional funds to expanded R&D and prototype operations for certain 
applications, and commit $200 million to $300 million yearly to space 
applications program. Manned space programs should be justified in 
their own right, not in terms of space applications; near-term benefits 
for mankind would be achieved "more effectively and economically 
with automated devices and vehicles." 

Noting that in meteorology and communications "satellites have al- 
ready entered solidly into the area of economic usefulness," report 
recommended that NASA grant high priority to development of multi- 
channel distribution system for public and private network TV; multi- 
channel system for educational broadcasts in developing countries and 
for special interest groups such as physicians, lawyers, and educators; 
and North Atlantic satellite navigation system for traffic control of 
transoceanic aircraft and ships. Satellite earth-sensing was dependent 
on R&D in sensor signatures — form of information provided by instru- 
ments. Report recommended immediate pilot program for providing 
information in familiar and immediately usable form, exploration into 
use of side-looking radar, and start of 10- to 12-yr development plan 
for more sophisticated sensors. (Text; NRC Release) 

• Apollo 8 mission (Dec. 21—27, 1968) was adjudged successful by nasa. 

All objectives of manned circumlunar mission were attained, as well 
as four detailed test objectives not originally planned, (nasa Proj Off) 

• msfc announced it would manage two recently awarded $300,000 six- 

month contracts, one to Lockheed Missiles & Space Co. and one to 
General Dynamics Corp., for conceptual study of low-cost, manned 
logistics (space shuttle) system. Similar study contracts awarded to 
North American Rockwell Corp. and to McDonnell Douglas Astro- 
nautics Co. would be managed by MSC and LaRC Integral Launch and 
Reentry Vehicle ( ilrv ) studies would investigate aspects of reusable 
transportation system for post-1974 use in support of proposed space 
stations. 

msfc also announced $3,288,914 modification to contract with Boe- 
ing Co. for continued configuration management support on Saturn V 
launch vehicle program, including processing of vehicle and ground 
support equipment configuration changes, configuration accounting, 
and change integration and tracking, (msfc Releases 69-34, 69-35) 

• General Accounting Office released report to Congress, Need for Im- 

proved Guidelines in Contracting for Research with Government-Spon- 

47 



February 10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

sored Nonprofit Contractors. It called for Government-wide guidelines 
on amounts and use of fees or management allowances given by DOD, 
NASA, and AEC Federal contract research centers. GAO found allowances 
paid to nonprofit organizations varied significantly, were not much 
used for research, and had been spent by some centers to acquire ex- 
tensive capital facilities. (Text) 

• usaf contract awards: $4,305,295 fixed-price contract to Computer 

Sciences Corp. for services and supplies to develop, install, operate, 
test, and maintain hardware to improve capabilities of space tracking 
equipment; and $1,600,000 initial increment to $4,200,000 fixed-price 
contract to United Technology Center for KSC launch and support serv- 
ices, (dod Release 102-69; WSJ, 2/11/69, 17) 
February 11: Initial thermal and vacuum testing of flight model of SERT II 
(Space Electric Rocket Test) in preparation for fall 1969 launch had 
been completed, LeRC announced. SERT II, second flight test in develop- 
ment of ion propulsion for space use and first LeRC orbital spacecraft, 
would be launched from wtr by Thorad-Agena booster into 621-mi 
(999.4-km) circular orbit to evaluate inflight performance of electron- 
bombardment engines for six months or more. SERT I had carried first 
ion thruster to operate in space on suborbital mission July 20, 1964. 
(LeRC Release 69-2) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Research 

Range carried Southwest Center for Advanced Studies payload to 
85.1-mi (137-km) altitude for comprehensive investigation of auroral 
disturbances during active auroral event. Rocket and instruments func- 
tioned satisfactorily and payload was recovered as planned, (nasa Rpt 
srl) 

• In Bonn during European tour, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman ad- 

dressed enthusiastic crowd of 1,500 students and government officials 
after film showing on lunar mission in Beethoven Hall: "I believe this 
research will teach us that we are first and foremost not Germans or 
Russians or Americans but earthmen." Borman met West German 
Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger at lunch and later discussed space 
research with Scientific Affairs Minister Gerhard Stoltenberg. He at- 
tended evening reception given by West German Air and Space Re- 
search Institute. (Falbe, B Sun, 2/12/69) 

• U.S.S.R. had ordered 100 space pens developed for U.S. astronauts and 

1,000 special pressurized ink cartridges which enabled pen to write in 
weightlessness according to pen's inventor, Paul C. Fisher. When he 
presented models of pen to Soviet Cosmonaut Alexey Leonov at Ger- 
man trade fair in 1968, Leonov said Soviet cosmonauts were writing 
with grease pencils during space flights and incurring difficulty with 
their flaking, (upi, W Post, 2/13/69, D24) 
February 12: Pentagon sources estimated U.S.S.R. was spending equivalent 
of $60 billion in 1969 on national defense and space efforts, while U.S. 
was spending $85.2 billion, of which $29 billion was for Vietnam war. 
Figures left U.S.S.R. $4 billion ahead of U.S. in spending on weapon 
and space technology. Between 1965 and 1969, Soviet spending on 
offensive and defensive strategic forces increased by 40% but amount 
spent on intercontinental missiles and surface-to-air missile defense 
systems rose by 75%. (Kelly, W Star, 2/12/69, D4) 

• Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried Naval 

48 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 12 

Research Lab. payload to 116.8-mi (187.9-km) altitude to record 
photographically 18 euv spectra of solar photosphere, chromosphere, 
and corona, using sparcs and flight-design verification unit of high- 
resolution spectrograph planned for atm-a and atm-b. Rocket and 
instruments performed satisfactorily. (NASA Rpt SRLI 

• NASA launched Aerobee 150 sounding rocket from Churchill Research 

Range carrying Johns Hopkins Univ. payload to collect data on air- 
glow. Mission did not meet minimum scientific requirements. (NASA 
Proj Off) 

• During visit to West Berlin, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman drove 

past U.S.S.R.'s war memorial near Berlin wall and looked across wall 
into East Berlin. At Tempelhof airport Borman told press, "I was here 
before [during 1949 Berlin airlift] amid many bags of coal. There 
have been many space advances in the last two decades, yet we have 
so many troubles here on earth." {C Trib, 2/13/69) 

• MSFC announced it had issued $1,182,155 contract modification to Chrys- 

ler Corp. Space Div. for continued systems engineering and integration 
on Saturn IB launch vehicles. (MSFC Release 69-37) 

• USAF F-111A piloted by Capt. Robert Earl Jobe (usaf) and instructor 

pilot Capt. William D. Fuchlow (usaf) failed to return to Nellis afb, 
Nev., after 750-mi training mission. USAF and Civil Air Patrol were 
searching area between Las Vegas, Nev., and Great Salt Lake. I UPI, 
W Star, 2/13/69, 1; AP, W Post, 2/14/69, A4) 

February 13—14: NASA successfully launched one Nike-Tomahawk and six 
Nike-Apache sounding rockets carrying chemical cloud experiments 
from NASA Wallops Station between 6:11 pm and 6:13 am EST. Rockets 
ejected vapor trails between 50- and 186-mi (80.5- and 299.3-km) 
altitudes to measure wind velocities and directions. Nike-Tomahawk 
launched at dusk and Nike-Apache launched at dawn carried sodium 
experiments which created reddish-orange trails. Other five payloads 
consisted of trimethylaluminum (tma) experiments which formed pale 
white clouds. Data were obtained by photographing continuously mo- 
tions of trails from five ground-based camera sites. Launches were 
conducted for gca Corp. under gsfc contract. 

In conjunction with vapor series USA Ballistics Laboratory at Aber- 
deen, Md., fired six projectiles containing cesium experiments to 
330,000-ft altitude between 8:07 pm and 6:23 am EST for comparative 
study of winds. Three experiments failed to eject chemical; dispersion 
of cesium from remaining three projectiles was recorded by ground- 
based radar and ionospheric sounding stations. (WS Release 69—5; 
nasa Release 69-28; A' YT, 2/14/69, 41) 

February 13: President Nixon's Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, an- 
nounced at his first Washington press conference that overall plan for 
next decade of U.S. space program would be drafted at President's 
request by his office, nasa, nasc, and dod for submission to President 
about Sept. 1. Charting "new directions, new goals and new programs 
for the entire United States Space program" was necessary. "Bringing 
to the benefit of people the marvelous space technologies that have 
been developed in the last decade and certainly orbiting satellites for 
the purpose of learning more about the earth must be an important 
element in our future space program," Dr. DuBridge said. "Whole 
problem" was balance between that enterprise and planetary and lunar 

49 



February 13 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

exploration and "this is the problem which our group will seek ... to 
bring into perspective as we project ahead and consider the budget 
problems that also lie ahead." 

In answer to question on White House appointments, Dr. DuBridge 
said, "We have not yet located the right man" for either Administrator 
of NASA or Executive Secretary for Space Council. (Transcript; White 
House Memo) 

• Arthur S. Flemming Awards for 1969 were presented to 10 outstanding 

young men in Federal Government in Mayflower Hotel ceremony in 
Washington, D.C. Winners included James J. Kramer, Chief of LeRC 
Propulsions Systems Acoustics Branch, who kept solid rocket program 
"on schedule and within budgeted costs," and Dr. Norman F. Ness, 
head of Extraterrestrial Physics Branch, gsfc, who made "significant 
contributions" to understanding space through Explorer satellite pro- 
gram. Dr. Richard E. Hallgren, Director of Commerce Dept.'s world 
weather systems, was named for "imaginative leadership" in recogniz- 
ing and integrating requirements of oceanographers and meteorologists. 
(W Star, 2/13/69, B6; LeRC Release 69-3) 

• Washington Post reported Washington Airlines President Robert Rich- 

ardson had said first scheduled STOL air shuttle in U.S. had lost more 
than $100,000, cut back operations 44%, and operated at less than 
half break-even load factor during first four months of service. He 
attributed most difficulties to start-up problems, including minor equip- 
ment shortcomings which had been corrected. Airline was lowering 
fares and could, said Richardson, break even in 12—18 mos. ( Koprow- 
ski, W Post, 2/13/69, C9) 

• At gsfc, satellite mapping authority Dr. John A. O'Keefe was preparing 

first precise maps of Tibet using photographs taken from 100-mi alti- 
tude by U.S. astronauts and data obtained between 1890s and 1935 by 
Swedish explorer Sven Hedin during only extensive survey of area by 
outsider. Expedition's survey sightings on mountain peaks were being 
applied to numerous photographs from space. Revised maps would be 
published in Sweden. (Sullivan, NYT, 2/13/69, 14) 

• Intelligence briefings to high DOD officials had indicated U.S.S.R. missile 

defense was three-quarters complete and had been slowed in recent 
months to improve its radar system, said William Beecher in New York 
Times. Briefings also indicated that antimissile system around Moscow, 
even when finished, would not alter balance of power between U.S.S.R. 
and U.S. or undermine U.S. retaliatory power. (NYT, 2/13/69, 1) 
February 14: ComSatCorp announced broadcasters had booked 40 hrs of 
satellite time for TV coverage of President Nixon's European trip Feb. 
23-March 3. More than 17 hrs had been requested from abroad to 
date for coverage of Apollo 9 Feb. 28-March 3. (ComSatCorp Release 
69-8; W Star, 2/16/69, C6) 

• In Science Hudson Hoagland, President Emeritus of Worcester Founda- 

tion for Experimental Biology, commented on Condon Report on UFOs 
released Jan. 9, 1968: "The basic difficulty inherent in any investiga- 
tion of phenomena such as those of psychic research or of ufo's is that 
it is impossible for science ever to prove a universal negative. There 
will be cases which remain unexplained because of lack of data, lack 
of repeatability, false reporting, wishful thinking, deluded observers, 
rumors, lies, and fraud. A residue of unexplained cases is not a justifi- 

50 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 14 

cation for continuing an investigation after overwhelming evidence 
has disposed of hypotheses of supernormality, such as beings from 
outer space or communications from the dead. . . . Science deals with 
probabilities, and the Condon investigation adds massive additional 
weight to the already overwhelming improbability of visits by UFo's 
guided by intelligent beings." (Science, 2/14/69, 625) 

• Leonard Mandelbaum in Science briefly examined history of U.S. de- 

cision to adopt Apollo program. "Cautious approach" to manned space 
flight gave way after impact of April 12, 1961, "Russian spectacular" 
— flight of Cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin — and U.S. Cuban foreign 
policy fiasco, Bay of Pigs. "Congress acted without hearing testimony 
of compelling military need. The Apollo decision was made without 
reference to any comprehensive and integrated national policy designed 
to maximize the use of scientific and technological resources for social 
objectives. ... It was a typical Cold War reaction." (Science, 
2/14/69, 649) 
February 15: Project Tektite, multiagency-industry program to determine 
ability of men to perform scientific research mission while living iso- 
lated on ocean floor under saturated diving conditions for long period, 
began at St. John, Virgin Islands. Four U.S. aquanauts, Richard A. 
Waller, H. Edward Clifton, John G. Van Derwalker, and Conrad V. W. 
Mahnken jumped into sea at Beehive Cove and swam to "habitat," 
underwater capsule moored 42 ft below sea level for 60-day experi- 
ments. Tektite program was jointly sponsored by USN, NASA, and Dept. 
of the Interior, with participation by U.S. Coast Guard. Prime con- 
tractor, General Electric Co., furnished undersea habitat. NASA and 
USN behavioral and biomedical teams would observe aquanauts con- 
tinuously to identify psychological and physiological reactions to 
long-term mission performed in hostile and isolated environment 
common to undersea and space missions. (NASA OMSF pao; Lannan, 
W Star, 2/16/69, A3; 2/17/69, A6) 

• Pope Paul VI received Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and family for 

17-min audience in Papal library. Pope said in English, "Man's reach- 
ing out to unravel the mysteries of the universe reveals more and more 
the wonders of God's work and shows forth His glory." Pope Paul 
sent personal greetings to Astronaut James W. McDivitt who had audi- 
ence in 1967. (upi, W Star, 2/16/69, C5) 

February 16: usn's Sealab III project, in which five aquanaut teams were 
to spend 12 days each in 60-day test of man's ability to work under 
water for long periods, started early when four of first team of nine 
men were dispatched to repair helium leak in 57 X 12-ft habitat, 600 
ft beneath Pacific Ocean off San Clemente Island, Calif. Remaining 
five aquanauts were scheduled to descend in pressurized personnel- 
transfer capsules 12 hrs later to join colleagues in performing experi- 
ments in marine biology, geology, acoustics, and ecology. ( B Sun, 
2/17/69, A7) 

February 17: Tenth anniversary of Vanguard II, fifth U.S.— IGY satellite, 
launched by nasa to produce cloud-cover images using two photocells. 
Wobbling had prevented interpretation of data. Satellite was still in 
orbit. (A&A 1915-60; gsfc SSR, 2/28/69) 

• \ike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carrying Southwest Center for Advanced Studies payload 

51 



February 17 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

to investigate auroral disturbances. Rocket and instruments functioned 
satisfactorily. (NASA Proj Off) 

• USN suspended Sealab III project when veteran Aquanaut Berry L. Can- 

non was stricken while he and Aquanaut Robert A. Barth, Jr., were 
attempting to open habitat's hatch after Cannon's second dive to check 
gas leaks. He was pronounced dead of "cardiac arrest" in decompres- 
sion chamber of mother ship U.S.S. Elk River and body was flown to 
San Diego for autopsy. First finding of autopsy was that Cannon did 
not die of heart attack. USN on Feb. 18 canceled project. (Stevens, 
NYT, 2/18/69, 1; 2/20/69, 93; O'Toole, W Post, 2/18-20/69; AP, 
W Star, 2/18/69, Al) 

• President Nixon submitted to Senate nomination of former NASA Associ- 

ate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology James M. 
Beggs as Under Secretary of Transportation. (PD, 2/24/69, 293) 

• In Madrid during European goodwill tour, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank 

Borman placed wreath at statue of Columbus and met Cristobal Colon 
de Carvajal y Maroto, 17th duke of Veragua and hereditary "admiral 
of the ocean sea," title created in 1537 for explorer's son, Diego 
Columbus. (AP, C Trib, 2/18/69) 

• USAF said ground test of F— 111 A had revealed large crack in test version 

of aircraft belly section to which movable wings were attached. No 
F— 111 As would be grounded, as test did not indicate safety hazard to 
aircraft in service. Crack was not related to one detected Aug. 25, 1968. 
(upi, W Post, 2/18/69, A4; AP, W Star, 2/18/69, A6) 
February 18: Secretary of State William P. Rogers told Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee during hearings on nonproliferation treaty that 
he hoped U.S.— U.S.S. R. missile talks would be under way before it 
became necessary for U.S. to start deployment of proposed Sentinel 
ABM system. He said U.S. would have obligation under treaty to enter 
into strategic arms talks with U.S.S.R. and expressed hope such talks 
could begin within six months. (Transcript, 377—8) 

• Rep. Charles H. Wilson (D-Calif.) introduced H.R. 7030, bill to en- 

courage worldwide interest in U.S. developments and accomplishments 
in military and related aviation and equipment by authorizing Federal 
sponsorship of International Aeronautical Exposition in U.S., to be 
held not later than 1970. (Text) 

• In Washington Post review of Contact! The Story of the Early Birds by 

Henry Serrano Villard, John Osgood said: "Despite the technical com- 
plexities of the recent translunar injection, the mystique of flight re- 
mains undiminished 65 years after Orville Wright managed his mere 
120 feet of powered flight. Mystique or no, it is still difficult to com- 
prehend what drove the early aeronauts to attempt feats which most 
often won them the contempt and ridicule of their countrymen." 
{W Post, 2/18/69, B4) 
February 19: Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser, told Sub- 
committee on Science, Research, and Development of House Committee 
on Science and Astronautics, "Our intellectual resources— not our ma- 
terial resources — are the limits to what we can now achieve." During 
hearings on H.R. 35, bill to promote advancement of science and edu- 
cation of scientists through institutional grants to U.S. colleges and 
universities, he said: "We hear it said that if we only spent as much 

52 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 19 

money on urban programs as we did, say, on the atomic bomb project 
or on our space program, we could quickly solve the crisis in our 
cities. But let us not forget that we launched the Manhattan project and 
the space program only after, and not before . . . efforts in basic re- 
search over the previous 30 or 40 years had uncovered the knowledge 
which showed us how we could build atomic bombs or launch payloads 
into space. Neither the Manhattan project nor the space program could 
have been dreamed of 10 years before they started, because we did not 
even know enough to even formulate a development program. Now, in 
many ... of our present crises we are in the same position as far as 
technology is concerned. We do not know enough about certain tech- 
nologies and . . . many social phenomena to justify mounting a con- 
centrated, technically based attack on these problems now. We must 
. . . greatly enhance . . . measures to relieve immediate suffering and 
injustice. But at the same time we must encourage and support new 
efforts to learn more, to extend our base of fundamental knowledge in 
science, technology, social science, so that we can move sure footedly 
toward long-range solutions." (Transcript) 

• Rep. Louis Frey, Jr. (R-Fla.), introduced H.R. 465 "providing for the 

establishment of the Astronauts Memorial Commission to construct 
and erect with funds a memorial in the John F. Kennedy Space Center, 
Florida, or the immediate vicinity, to honor and commemorate the 
men who serve as astronauts in the U.S. space program." [CR, 
2/19/69, H1087) 

• House passed and returned to Senate S. 17, bill to amend Communica- 

tions Satellite Act of 1962 to provide for apportionment of ComSatCorp 
directors according to percentages of stock held by public and com- 
munications corporations. (CR, 2/19/69, H1037-40) 
February 20: NASA announced appointment of Dr. Hans M. Mark, Chairman 
of Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of California at Berkeley, as 
Director of Ames Research Center. He would succeed H. Julian Allen, 
who had announced retirement Oct. 25, 1968, but had remained as 
Acting Director. Dr. Mark, expert in nuclear and atomic physics, was 
also Reactor Administrator of Univ.'s Berkeley Research Reactor, re- 
search physicist at Univ.'s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, and con- 
sultant to USA and nsf. Clarence A. Syvertson, Director of Astronautics 
at ARC, was appointed to newly created position of arc Deputy Director. 
Both appointments were effective Feb. 28. Because of prior commit- 
ments, Dr. Mark would spend one-fifth of his time at arc until July 
1969. (NASA Release 69-32; arc Astrogram, 2/24/69, 1) 

• Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird told Senate Foreign Relations Com- 

mittee during hearings on nuclear nonproliferation treaty that U.S. 
should go forward with Sentinel system if DOD review found it "prac- 
tical" and "effective," since U.S.S.R. was working on "sophisticated 
new abm system." Curtailment in Soviet missile construction during 
past few months, Laird said, was due to R&D testing on more sophisti- 
cated system. U.S.S.R. had been outspending U.S. three to one in 
missile defense and "substantial" network around Moscow was halfway 
complete. (Transcript, 419—20) 

• Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and family ended official goodwill 

tour of Western Europe with lecture and luncheon in Lisbon. During 

53 



February 20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

final European news conference previous day, he had predicted U.S. 
would put man on moon in summer 1969 "if everything goes well." 
(upi, W Star, 2/20/69, A8) 

• nasa launched Nike-Apache sounding rocket from Churchill Research 

Range carrying Southwest Center for Advanced Studies payload to 
investigate auroral disturbances. Mission was unsuccessful. (NASA 
Proj Off) 

• At annual dinner of Washington Academy of Sciences, GSFC engineer 

Charles R. Gunn received Academy's award for "noteworthy discovery, 
accomplishment, or publication" in engineering field for his work as 
technical director of Thor-Delta launch vehicle, (gsfc Delta Proj Mgr; 
AP, W Star, 2/21/69, CIO) 

• First International Aviation Service Award, financed by contributions 

from faa employees and established in June 1968 by retiring faa exec- 
utive Alfred Hand, was presented in Washington to Theodore C. Uebel, 
International Liaison Officer for faa, for "outstanding accomplish- 
ments in furthering the interests of the United States in international 
aviation." (faa Release 69-17) 

• Eugene Luther Vidal, who as Director of Air Commerce of Dept. of Com- 

merce (1933—1937) promoted growth of U.S. civil aviation, died at 
age 73 in Palos Verdes, Calif. He had furthered construction of air- 
ports and beacons, encouraged private flying and manufacture of small 
aircraft, advanced commercial aviation, and reorganized Government 
control of commercial flights. After leaving Commerce Dept. he had 
established research laboratory near Camden, N.J., where he developed 
process for making airframe parts from molded plywood. (NYT, 
2/21/69, 43) 
February 21: Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and family returned from 
European goodwill tour made on behalf of President Nixon. At An- 
drews afb, Md., Borman told press on arrival that Europeans found 
it hard to believe U.S. "could spend all that money on its space pro- 
gram and still make public everything we learned." He said reception 
had been uniformly friendly, "but they would hesitate to ask us ques- 
tions, because they assumed . . . information about the Apollo 8 flight 
must be classified." Borman and family reported at Capitol to Vice 
President Spiro T. Agnew, Chairman of nasc. Borman told press con- 
ference he had found "extreme identification of people in all walks of 
life in Europe with our flight. They were very well informed about it 
and looked on us as representatives of Earth. I hope that feeling of 
comradeship can continue." (AP, W Post, 2/22/69, A2) 

• ComSatCorp reported $6,841 million 1968 net income (68 cents per 

share), up from 1967 net income of $4,638 million (46 cents per 
share). Improvement had resulted primarily from net operating in- 
come of $988,000, which contrasted with 1967 net operating loss of 
$642,000. (ComSatCorp Release 69-10) 

• President Nixon approved "Policy on Expanded Use of Federal Research 

Facilities by University Investigators" which directed Federal agencies 
to make equipment in Federal laboratories more readily available to 
qualified university scientists. He directed Dr. Lee A. DuBridge to 
monitor execution of policy with help of Federal Council for Science 
and Technology, which had recommended adoption. {PD, 3/3/69, 
304) 

54 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February21 

• faa announced award of $35,426,283 contract to univac Federal Systems 
Div. of Sperry Rand Corp. for automated radar tracking systems (arts 
III) to be installed at more than 60 major U.S. airports, (faa Release 
69-22) 

February 23: President Nixon arrived in Belgium at start of eight-day 
goodwill visit to heads of state in Brussels, London, Bonn, West Ber- 
lin, Rome, Paris, and the Vatican. In welcoming speech at Brussels 
National Airport, King Baudouin said: "During this year, which will 
perhaps be that of man's first landing on the moon, we are more than 
ever conscious of the gulf between the wonderful possibilities open to 
us and the obligations which burden the world because of war, want, 
injustice, and inequality. May your journey and your interviews pro- 
vide an opportunity for friendly nations better to combine their efforts 
to solve their problems on which the very future of mankind depends." 
( PD, 3/3/69, 310) 

February 24-28: NASA's Mariner VI (Mariner F) spacecraft was successfully 
launched from etr by Atlas-Centaur (SLV-3C) booster on five-month, 
226-million-mi, direct-ascent trajectory toward Mars — NASA's first of 
two attempts to conduct Mars flyby missions during 1969 launch win- 
dow. Launch vehicle performance and spacecraft injection were nom- 
inal. Spacecraft separated from Centaur, deployed its four solar panels, 
locked its sensors on sun and star Canopus, and entered cruise mode, 
where it remained with all subsystems performing satisfactorily while 
trajectorv was refined. Midcourse maneuver was successfully conducted 
Feb. 28 to ensure that spacecraft would fly within 2,200 mi (3,540.5 
km) of Mars July 31. 

Primary mission objective was equatorial flyby mission for explora- 
tory investigations of Mars to set basis for future experiments, particu- 
larly those relevant to search for extraterrestrial life. As secondary 
objective spacecraft would develop technology needed for succeeding 
Mars missions. The 840-lb spacecraft carried six complementary ex- 
periments to provide information about Martian surface and atmos- 
phere. Mission offered first opportunity to make scientific measurements 
on night side of Mars. Two onboard TV cameras would take pictures 
of Mars disc during approach with 15-mi optimum resolution and of 
surface during flyby with 900-ft optimum resolution. Infrared spec- 
trometer and uv spectrometer would probe Mars atmosphere, and oc- 
cupation experiment would obtain data on atmospheric pressures and 
densities. Infrared radiometer would measure surface temperatures on 
both light and dark sides of Mars; celestial mechanics experiment 
would use tracking information to refine astronomical data. Sharp 
increase in data returns would be achieved over 1964 Mariner missions. 
Mariner VI TV pictures would contain 3.9-million bits of information; 
Mariner IV contained 240,000 bits in 1965. Mariner VI would trans- 
mit science data at basic rate of 270 bps and high rate of 16,200 bps 
before flyby; Mariner IV transmitted at 8 ]/ 3 bps. 

Mariner VI was follow-on to 1964 Mariner/Mars missions and pre- 
cursor to 1971 orbital and 1973 landing missions. First Mars probe, 
Mariner III (launched Nov. 4, 1964), had failed to achieve desired 
orbit when shroud remained attached to spacecraft. Mariner IV 
(launched Nov. 28, 1964) had transmitted first close-up photos of 
Mars in July 1965. Mariner VII (Mariner G) would be launched 

55 



February 24-28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

March 24. Mariner program was directed by ossa Lunar and Planetary 
Programs Div. Project management and responsibility for spacecraft, 
mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition were assigned 
to jpl. Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle was managed by LeRC. (nasa 
Proj Off; nasa Release 69-26) 
February 24: At State Dept. meeting of more than 60 INTELSAT member 
nations, U.S. delegation chairman Leonard H. Marks said, "I can 
think of no more important step we can take towards reducing world 
tensions than that of broadening communications links between power 
nations representing different political systems" — as U.S.S.R. and 13 
other observer nations listened. In written memorandum, France had 
questioned whether strong centralized system desired by U.S. could or 
should be established and urged that any new agreement leave partici- 
pating countries free to join other satellite systems. (Samuelson, W 
Post, 2/5/69, D5) 

• Federal Council for Science and Technology transmitted to NASA "Policy 

on Expanded Use of Federal Research Facilities by University Investi- 
gators" approved by President Nixon Feb. 21. (nasa Off of Policy 
Memo, 3/14/69) 

Vice President Spiro T. Agnew told American Management Assn. 
briefing on oceanography in Washington, D.C., that Nixon Adminis- 
tration was not yet ready to endorse concept of "a wet nasa"- — marine- 
oriented Government agency. As Chairman of National Council on 
Marine Resources and Engineering Development he was studying 
opinions of advocates of such an agency, as well as [Jan. 11] report 
by Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources. 
(Smith, NYT, 2/25/69, 53) 

February 24— March 3: First documented pulsar acceleration was discovered 
in Pulsar PSR 0833-45 in Vela constellation in southern sky by JPL 
radio-astronomers Paul Reichley and Dr. George S. Downs, using 85- 
foot dish antenna at Goldstone, Calif. While pulsars normally showed 
moderate but steady slowing in pulse rate, Vela's rate accelerated, then 
slowed at slightly faster rate than before, during week's observation. 
Findings in NASA-sponsored research were confirmed by Parkes Ob- 
servatory astronomers in Australia, (jpl Release BB-513, 4/16/69) 

February 25: Cosmos CCLXVI was launched by U.S.S.R. into orbit with 
336-km (208.8-mi) apogee, 202-km (125.5-mi) perigee, 89.8-min 
period, and 72° inclination. Satellite reentered March 5. (gsfc SSR, 
2/28/69; 3/15/69; AP, W Post, 2/26/69) 

• NASA's Oso V (launched Jan. 22) had successfully completed more than 

496 earth orbits and had satisfactorily operated all spacecraft systems, 
including raster scan and both tape records. Torque coil had been 
turned on Jan. 25 to help minimize spacecraft pitch motions and re- 
duce gas consumption. Primary objectives had been achieved and 
Oso V had acquired scientific data from eight onboard experiments. 
(nasa Proj Off) 

• President Nixon addressed U.S. Embassy staff in London during eight- 

day goodwill visit to European heads of state: "You have had a very 
distinguished visitor to this country, Frank Borman, a few days ago. . . . 
I recall when I was at the White House I was congratulating him in a 
toast for what he and his fellow astronauts had done. ... He said, 'We 
appreciate the remarks you have made about us.' But, he said, 'I 

56 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 25 

want to point out that there are 400,000 Americans who, in one way 
or another, contributed to the building of the Apollo spacecraft and 
to this program.' He said, 'I want to point out that there are 2 million 
parts in an Apollo spacecraft. So, if something went wrong with 
one of those parts, which had been created by these 400,000 Ameri- 
cans, that tremendous, exciting journey around the moon could not 
have been possible.' That, of course, is what government is about." 
(PD, 3/10/69, 341-2) 

• NASA announced selection of 38 scientists organized into eight teams 

to assist in design and development of Martian softlander for 1973 
Viking missions. Teams would participate in early instrument de- 
velopment, designing softlander, and planning missions. Final selec- 
tion of investigations and participating scientists for both landers and 
orbiters making up 1973 Viking missions would be made December 
1969, when initial results of Mariner flybys of Mars in summer 1969 
would be available. Planetary Programs Directorate would have man- 
agement responsibility for Viking Mars 1973 mission; LaRC had been 
assigned overall project management and direct responsibility for 
managing planetary lander portion; JPL had management responsi- 
bility for orbiter spacecraft, (nasa Release 69-31) 

• County Coroner Robert L. Creason in San Diego, Calif., gave official 

cause of Feb. 17 death of Aquanaut Berry L. Cannon in Sealab III 
as "acute hemorrhagic pulmonary edema and congestion due to acute 
cardiorespiratory failure due to carbon dioxide poisoning." Earlier 
USN spokesman had acknowledged that one of rigs used by Cannon 
and colleagues on fatal dive contained canister empty of chemical 
used to absorb carbon dioxide from aquanauts' air supply. USN opened 
formal inquiry Feb. 26. (upi, NYT, 2/25/69, 28; AP, W Star, 
2/25/69, A7) 

• USAF and Lockheed Georgia Co. jointly announced six-month delay in 

C-5A production schedule attributed to labor strikes and material 
shortages caused by Vietnam war. First aircraft would be delivered 
to usaf in December rather than June. Announcement followed suc- 
cessful test flight during which 250-ton aircraft reached complete 
stop on 1,500 ft of runway — ^4 distance required by conventional 
85-ton airliners. (Lindsay, NYT, 2/26/69; AP, W Post, 2/27/69, 
A18) 

• faa announced it had amended its Dec. 3 rule intended to ease conges- 

tion at five of Nation's busiest airports. Amendments provided for 
extra sections of scheduled air carrier flights without regard to estab- 
lished quotas at all airports except John F. Kennedy, increase in 
flight quotas at Kennedy between 5:00 pm and 8:00 pm, effective 
date June 1 instead of April 27, and termination date of Dec. 31. 
(faa Release 69-23) 

• Senate Foreign Relations Committee recommended U.S. ratification of 

nuclear nonproliferation treaty and said it would send treatv to Senate 
floor for action by March 6. (W Post, 2/26/69, A5) 
February 26: NASA successfully launched Essa IX (tos-G) ninth meteoro- 
logical satellite in ESSa's Tiros Operational Satellite (tos) system from 
etr by three-stage Thrust- Augmented Thor-Delta (DSV-3E) booster. 
Primary nasa mission objective was to place and operate spacecraft in 
sun-synchronous orbit with local equator crossing time between 2:15 

57 



February 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

pm and 2:35 pm so that daily advanced-vidicon-camera-system (avcs) 
pictures of entire globe could be obtained regularly and dependably. 
Satellite achieved nearly polar, sun-synchronous, circular orbit with 
934.6-mi (1,503.8-km) apogee, 884.4-mi (1,423.9-km) perigee, 115.2- 
min period, and 101.8° inclination. 

An advanced version of cartwheel configuration, 320-lb cylindrical 
Essa IX carried flat plate radiometer to measure atmosphere's heat 
balance and two avcs cameras for daily global weather coverage. 
Photos would be stored on board satellite on magnetic tape until 
readout by essa's Command and Data Acquisition (cda) stations at 
Fairbanks, Alaska, and Wallops Island, Va. Satellite was backup to 
ensure full coverage after failure of one avcs camera on Essa VII 
(launched Aug. 16, 1968) and would be primary stored-data satellite 
in tos system. 

Spacecraft was placed in wheel mode and spin rate was adjusted. 
Only anomaly was 20 rpm spin rate (rather than expected 10 rpm) 
after spacecraft spin-down. 

ESSA financed and managed tos system and would operate spacecraft 
after NASA completed checkout in month. GSFC was responsible for 
procurement, launch, and initial checkout of spacecraft in orbit. 
(nasa Proj Off; essa Release ES-69-9) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXVII from Baikonur Cosmodrome. Or- 

bital parameters: apogee, 331 km (205.7 mi) ; perigee, 202 km (125.5 
mi) ; period, 89.8 min; and inclination, 65°. Satellite reentered March 
6. (gsfc 557?, 2/28/69; 3/15/69; SBD, 2/27/69, 212; C Trib, 
2/27/69) 

• LeRC announced it had completed assembly of Brayton Cycle space power 

generating system, which appeared promising as source of electrical 
power for space flights up to five years long. Self-supporting, closed- 
loop system operated when mixture of helium and xenon was heated 
to 1,600°F and circulated to drive turbine. Turbine operated alternator 
providing electric power and also compressor that helped circulate 
gas through system. Cycle would undergo tests in simulated space en- 
vironment in summer. (LeRC Release 68—9) 

• Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe announced President Nixon 

had nominated John H. Shaffer, Vice President of trw Inc., as Federal 
Aviation Administrator. Shaffer would replace Acting faa Administra- 
tor, David D. Thomas, who would remain as Deputy Administrator. 
(dot Release 2469) 

• MSFC announced it had extended contract with Mason-Rust for continued 

support services at Michoud Assembly Facility for six months. Con- 
tract modification amounted to $3,786,203. (msfc Release 69-46) 
February 27: NASA postponed Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission, scheduled for 
launch Feb. 28, after intensive medical examinations of prime crew 
revealed viral infections. (W Star, 2/27/69, Al) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Churchill 

Research Range carrying Rice Univ. payload to conduct auroral 
studies. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj 
Off) 

• White House announced President Nixon had established interdepart- 

mental ad hoc committee to review SST program's technology, commer- 
cial potential, schedule and costs, and environmental side-effects, par- 

58 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 February 27 

ticularly sonic boom phenomenon. Under Secretary of Transportation 
James M. Beggs was designated chairman of 11-member committee, 
which also included Presidential Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. Du- 
Bridge; Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr.; and 
NASA Deputy Associate Administrator Charles W. Harper. (PD, 
3/3/69, 329-30) 

• Commemorative stamp to be issued May 5 in honor of Dec. 21—27, 1968, 

Apollo 8 mission would include phrase "In the beginning God . . ." 
on photo of earth as seen from moon, taken by Apollo 8 crew. Post- 
master General Winton M. Blount said phrase, read from Genesis by 
Astronaut William A. Anders during lunar orbit Christmas Eve 1968, 
would be included in response to many requests. Stamp would be first 
U.S. stamp with religious wording since 1961. (upi, W Post, 2/28/69) 

• fkc announced award to Serv-Air Inc. of one-year, cost-plus-award-fee 

contract for administrative technical support services. Contract, esti- 
mated at $750,000 per year, included provision for two one-year ex- 
tensions, (frc Release 7-69) 
February 28: NASA and British Science Research Council (src) had agreed 
to conduct cooperative project to launch fourth Ariel satellite, NASA 
announced. Ariel IV would be launched by Scout booster from WTR 
in late 1971 or early 1972 carrying one U.S. and four U.K. experiments 
to explore interactions among plasma-charged particle streams and 
electromagnetic waves in upper atmosphere. SRC would be responsible 
for spacecraft design, fabrication, and testing; NASA would provide 
Scout launch vehicle. Both agencies would participate in tracking, data 
acquisition, and data reduction. (NASA Release 69—35) 

• Tenth anniversary of dod's 1,450-lb Discoverer I satellite successfully 

launched into polar orbit by Thor-Agena booster. Tracking acquisition 
was hampered by stabilization difficulties and satellite reentered in early 
March 1959. 

Agena launch vehicle — most widely used booster in U.S. — had com- 
pleted more than 250 successful flights in DOD and NASA operations since 
its first mission Feb. 28, 1958, and had carried first spacecraft to achieve 
circular orbit, first to be controlled in orbit by ground command, and 
first propelled from one orbit to another. It had been continually up- 
dated and used as versatile, multipurpose vehicle. (A&A 1915—60; 
Space Propulsion, 2/28/69, 199) 

• Canadian Black Brant IIIB sounding rocket launched by NASA from 

Wallops Station reached 134-mi (215.6-km) altitude on first of two 
flights to evaluate improved Black Brant IIIB single-stage rocket and 
to provide data for payload environmental test specification [see 
May 1]. (nasa Rpt srl) 

• LaRC issued RFPs for design and financial proposals for planetary lander 

and project integration portions of NASA's Viking project. Viking space- 
craft — consisting of lander and orbiter — were to be procured for two 
planned flights to Mars to search for scientific data in 1973. (nasa 
Release 69-36) 

• nasa announced it would negotiate with North American Rockwell Corp. 

for modifications to four Apollo spacecraft for Apollo Applications 
program. Combined value of spacecraft and modifications was esti- 
mated at $340 million, (nasa Release 69-34) 

• In Science, Bryce Nelson reviewed Science Policy in the USSR, study 

59 



February 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

sponsored by Directorate for Scientific Affairs of Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development (oecd). It indicated, he 
said, that Soviet scientists and political leaders "need to spend con- 
siderable time thinking about how to correct imbalances in their R&D 
system." U.S.S.R. had succeeded outstandingly in aviation rocketry, 
space exploration, atomic energy, machine tools, and iron and steel 
technology but its R&D system seemed sluggish. Main bottleneck was 
relative unavailability of testing facilities. Central planning system in 
U.S.S.R. reinforced separation between R&D establishments and in- 
dustry and contributed to reluctance of factories to innovate. Increas- 
ing use of contract system, with industries placing growing number 
of R&D contracts with institutions of higher learning, was helping bridge 
gap between research centers and industry. (Science, 2/28/69, 917—8) 
During February: In Astronautics & Aeronautics editorial written just 
before his appointment as Secretary of Air Force, incoming aiaa Presi- 
dent, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., said: "I believe that to understand 
adequately the challenges that confront those of us in aeronautical and 
aerospace activities, we must take as our perspective the commitments 
that challenge the nation as a whole. President Eisenhower, President 
Kennedy, and President Johnson, each in his own way, had a major 
impact on aeronautics and astronautics. And for each, his support of 
aerospace was a function of his belief that such efforts were instru- 
mental in the accomplishment of national goals. In the future, as in 
the past, governmental support of aerospace will be based largely on 
its demonstrated relevance to the needs of the nation." (A&A, 2/69, 
26-7) 



60 



March 1969 



March 1: Terminal countdown for Apollo 9 mission, scheduled for launch 
March 3, began at 10:00 pm est. (nasa Proj Off) 

• ComSatCorp submitted Report to the President and the Congress for the 

Calendar Year 1968. Highlights included completion of three new- 
ground stations in U.S. and seven in foreign countries, successful 
launch and operation of lntelsat-lll F-2 (Dec. 18, 1968), increase 
in INTELSAT membership to 63 nations, award of $72-million contract 
to Hughes Aircraft Co. for four Intelsat IV satellites, and phasing out 
of regular service of Intelsat I (Early Bird) after 42 mos of com- 
mercial service with 100% reliability. 

In 1968 ComSatCorp realized net income of $6,841,000 (68 cents 
per share), 47% increase over $4,638,000 (46 cents per share) earned 
in 1967. Revenues for 1968 totaled $30,495,000; they were $18,464,000 
in 1967. Utilization of comsat system continued to increase, with 
ComSatCorp leasing 941 full-time circuits at end of 1968, up from 
717 at end of 1967 and 73 at end of 1966. Demand for TV coverage 
of world news events increased, with 666 hrs of TV transmitted via 
satellite during 1968 — nearly three times as many hours as in 1967. 
(Text; Annual Rpt to Shareholders) 
March 2: Sud- Aviation chief test pilot Andre Turcat flew Anglo-French 
supersonic Concorde 001 prototype airliner in successful 27-min 
maiden flight from Toulouse-Blagnac Airport, France. Inclement 
weather, which had delayed event originally scheduled for Feb. 28, 
forced holding 193-ft-long, 200,000-lb aircraft to altitudes below 3,000 
ft and maximum speed of 350 mph. Concorde was designed to fly at 
1,400 mph at 12,000-ft altitude. Turcat pronounced flight "very satis- 
factory" and said aircraft "behaved perfectly" in 90° sweep around 
area. U.K. prototype would fly in six weeks and air worthiness cer- 
tificates were hoped for by manufacturers Sud-Aviation and British 
Aircraft Corp. by end of 1972, so aircraft could enter service in 1973. 
(bac pio; AP, W Star, 3/3/69, A7; Wentworth, W Post, 3/3/69, A3) 

• Dr. Charles A. Berry, Director of Medical Research and Operations at 

MSC, told preflight press conference Apollo 9 astronauts were "in a 
real fine state of health" for March 3 launch. Although two astronauts 
still had some minor throat infection, it would not interfere with 
planned launch time. Three-day postponement of launch from original 
Feb. 28 date had made possibility of inflight illness "exceedingly 
slim." Only addition to spacecraft's standard medical kit — which al- 
ready included nasal emolient — might be throat lozenges. (Transcript) 

• President Nixon addressed U.S. Embassy staff in Paris before departure 

for visit with Pope Paul VI at Vatican and return to U.S. after good- 
will tour: ". . . the success of a policy depends upon thousands of 
people around, in an embassy like this and an establishment like this, 
and millions around this world," in same way that success of Apollo 8 

61 



March 2 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




March 2: Concorde 001, Anglo-French supersonic prototype airliner, lifted off on its 
maiden flight, from Toulouse-Blagnac Airport, France. (British Aircraft Corp. photo) 



had depended on 400,000 Americans working on project. (PD, 
3/10/69, 355) 

• U.S. authorities reported U.S.S.R. had conducted mid-February test- 

firing of defense rocket that could intercept attacking missiles at 100 
to 450 mi from its launch site. Rocket appeared comparable to U.S. 
Spartan interceptor planned for U.S. ABM system. U.S.S.R. also was 
reported making progress on phased-array radar judged essential for 
swift detection and handling of several attacking missiles at once. 
(Corddry, B Sun, 3/3/69, Al) 

• Thomas O'Toole in Washington Post observed similarities among astro- 

nauts. Of 23 who already had flown in space, 21 were either only sons 
or eldest sons. Pattern tied in, he said, with psychologists' beliefs that 
only and eldest children tended to achieve more in life because they 
were disciplined more and trained and treated better by parents. Astro- 
nauts also were athletic, showed academic excellence, and had intense 
love of flying, O'Toole said. (W Post, 3/2/69) 
March 3-13: NASA's Apollo 9 (AS-504), first manned flight of Apollo lunar 
module, was successfully launched from ksc Launch Complex 39, 
Pad A, at 11:00 am EST by Saturn V booster — for extensive LM tests, 
extravehicular activity, and csm— LM separation, rendezvous, and dock- 
ing to simulate activities after lunar landing. Flight carried LM— 3 
and CSM— 104. Launch had been postponed three days because crew 
had virus respiratory infections. 

Primary objectives were to demonstrate crew, space vehicle, and 
mission support facilities performance during manned Saturn V mis- 
sion with CSM and LM; demonstrate LM and crew performance, dem- 
onstrate performance of nominal and selected backup lunar orbit 
rendezvous (LOR) mission activities; and assess CSm/lm consum- 
ables. Multispectral photography experiment was carried for first time 



62 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



March 3-13 




March 3—13: Apollo 9, first manned flight of the Apollo lunar module, successfully 
tested in space csm-lm separation, rendezvous and docking, and extravehicular ac- 
tivities to simulate actions after a manned lunar landing. David R. Scott, pilot of 
the CM, stood in the open hatch of the docked CM with the earth as a backdrop, 
photographed by lm pilot Russell L. Schweickart from the porch of the lm. 



to provide photos of earth resources using several different film-filter 
combinations. 

Launch events occurred as planned and spacecraft, carrying Astro- 
nauts James A. McDivitt (commander), David R. Scott (CM pilot), 
and Russell L. Schweickart (lm pilot), entered initial orbit with 
119.5-mi (192.3-km) apogee and 117.6-mi (189.3-km) perigee. After 



63 



March 3-13 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

post-insertion checkout csm, code-named "Gumdrop," separated from 
Saturn V 3rd stage (S-IVB) and lm, code-named "Spider." Crew 
successfully transposed CSM and docked with LM, and docked space- 
craft was separated from 3rd stage with RCS burn. Two S— IVB burns 
placed stage on earth-escape trajectory. Crew conducted first docked 
sps burn. 

On second day crew tracked landmarks, conducted pitch and yaw 
roll maneuvers, and increased apogee by firing sps engine three times. 
On third day, McDivitt and Schweickart entered lm through docking 
tunnel, evaluated lm systems, transmitted first telecast, and conducted 
first manned firing of LM descent propulsion system (dps). They then 
returned to csm and conducted fifth sps burn to circularize orbit. 
McDivitt and Schweickart reentered LM on fourth day and trans- 
mitted second telecast. Schweickart, recovered from earlier nausea, 
spent 37 min outside spacecraft, walking between lm and csm hatches, 
maneuvering on handrails, and standing in "golden slipper" foot 
restraints. He commented on sun's brightness, photographed spacecraft 
and earth, and described rain squalls over ksc before he and McDivitt 
returned to CSM. Scott opened CM hatch and retrieved thermal samples 
from CSM exterior. 

McDivitt and Schweickart reentered LM on fifth day to perform 
CSM— LM rendezvous. Scott separated CSM from lm and fired CSM 
reaction control system thrusters to place spacecraft about 3.4 mi 
(5.5 km) apart. LM dps was ignited twice to set up rendezvous. LM 
descent stage was jettisoned and lm ascent propulsion system (aps) 
was fired to set up conditions for circularization. Although problems 
were encountered with crewman optical alignment sight (coas) be- 
cause of extremely bright reflections, radar and optical sightings 
backed up by earth tracking enabled spacecraft to dock successfully 
after being up to 114 mi (183.5 km) apart during 6V2"hr separation. 
After McDivitt and Schweickart returned to CSM, crew jettisoned LM 
ascent stage and maneuvered to safe distance while stage burned to 
propellant depletion and entered orbit with 4,309-mi (6,934.5-km) 
apogee and 142.2-mi (228.8-km) perigee. By end of fifth day 97% 
of Apollo 9 objectives had been successfully accomplished. 

On sixth through ninth days crew conducted sixth and seventh SPS 
burns to alter apogee, tracked NASA's Pegasus III meteoroid detection 
satellite (launched July 30, 1965), took multispectral photos of earth, 
tracked landmarks, exercised spacecraft systems, and prepared for 
reentry. 

Final SPS burn for deorbit on 10th day was delayed one revolution 
because of unfavorable weather in planned landing area. CM— SM sepa- 
ration, parachute deployment, and other reentry events were nominal; 
spacecraft reentered during 152nd revolution and splashed down in 
Atlantic 180 mi east of Bahamas at 12:53 pm EST March 13, 241 hrs 
53 sees after launch, within sight of recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal. 
Crew was picked up by helicopter and flown to recovery ship within 
one hour after splashdown. 

Astronauts were welcomed by Guadalcanal crew and received con- 
gratulatory telegram message from President Nixon which said: "The 
epic flight of Apollo Nine will be recorded in history as ten days that 
thrilled the world. You have by your courage and your skill helped to 

64 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 3-13 

shape the future of man in space. The three of you and the great team 
which enabled you to complete your successful mission have shown the 
world that the spirit of man and his technological genius are eager to 
begin an age of adventure, an age which will benefit all the people on 
this good earth." 

All primary Apollo 9 objectives were achieved and anomalies were 
not serious enough to alter mission operations or flight plan signifi- 
cantly. First manned flight of LM qualified last major component for 
lunar landing mission. 

Apollo 9 was sixth Apollo mission to date and third manned Apollo 
mission. Earlier unmanned Apollo flights had yielded all spacecraft 
information possible without crew on board. Apollo 4 (launched Nov. 
9, 1967) and Apollo 5 (launched Jan. 22, 1968) had both been highly 
successful, completing inflight tests of all major pieces of Apollo hard- 
ware. Apollo 6 (launched April 4, 1968), despite launch vehicle prob- 
lems, had attained four of five primary objectives with spacecraft 
recovered in excellent condition. First manned Apollo mission, Apollo 7 
(Oct. 11-22, 1968), had achieved all primary objectives and verified 
operation of spacecraft for lunar-mission duration. Second manned 
mission, Apollo 8 (Dec. 21-27, 1968), proved capability of Apollo 
hardware and systems to operate out to lunar distances and return 
through earth's atmosphere. 

Apollo program was directed by NASA Office of Manned Space 
Flight; msc was responsible for Apollo spacecraft development, MSFC 
for Saturn V launch vehicle, and KSC for launch operations. Tracking 
and data acquisition was managed by GSFC under overall direction of 
NASA Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. (NASA Proj Off; NASA 
Releases 69-29, 69-33; PD, 3/17/69, 400) 
March 3: Following successful Apollo 9 launching, President Nixon issued 
statement: "The successful launching of the Apollo 9 spacecraft marks 
another milestone in the journey of man into space. The hopes and 
prayers of mankind go with Col. James A. McDivitt, Col. David R. 
Scott, and Mr. Russell Schweickart on their courageous mission. The 
genius of the American scientist and technological community, which 
created and designed the Saturn V, the command ship, and the lunar 
module, once again stirs the imagination and gratitude of the world. 
We are proud of this American adventure; but this is more than an 
American adventure. It is an adventure of man, bringing the accumu- 
lated wisdom of his past to the task of shaping his future. The 10-day 
flight of Apollo 9 will, we hope, do something more than bring 
America close to the moon; it can serve to bring humanity closer by 
dramatically showing what men can do when they bring to any task 
the best of man's mind and heart." (PD, 3/10/69, 356) 

• After watching Apollo 9 launch at KSC, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew 

■ — NASC Chairman — told press he would be special advocate for space 
program. "I will lend whatever thrust I can to nudge the President 
into an awareness of what I consider of overriding importance." His 
interest in space was heightened by "the wonderful experience of 
visiting with astronauts, preparing for future missions," and seeing 
dedication of workers in all jobs connected with program. (B Sun, 
3/4/69, A6) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from wsmr with 

65 



March 3 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

VAM-20 booster carried gsfc experiment to 101.5-mi (163-km) alti- 
tude to search for cosmic x-ray radiation near Scorpius and north pole 
of galaxy. Rocket and experiments performed satisfactorily. (NASA Rpt 
srl) 

• usaf announced it had selected TRW Inc. for initial increment of $14 

million to estimated $37,653,090 contract to design new, synchronous 
comsats for Phase II of Defense Satellite Communications System 
(dscs). New satellites would be used with small surface terminals. 
Steerable, narrow-beam antennas would focus portion of satellite 
energy to areas of 1,000- or 2,000-mi dia and could be steered to 
different locations on earth's surface in minutes. Satellites could be 
moved to new position in days as needed, (dod Release 148—69) 
March 4: usaf launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb by 
Titan IIIB-Agena booster into orbit with 279.6-mi (449.9-km) apogee, 
96.3-mi (155.0-km) perigee, 90.2-min period, and 92.0° inclination. 
Satellite reentered March 18. (gsfc SSR, 3/15/69; 3/31/69; SBD, 
3/7/69, 30; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• NASA Acting Administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine, testifying before House 

Committee on Science and Astronautics on NASA FY 1970 authoriza- 
tion request, outlined goals in space and aeronautics toward which 
U.S. should move in next decade: 

"First — We should do all we can to understand and put into early 
use the promise of space for people here on earth. We should increase 
our scientific knowledge of the vital earth-sun relationship and study 
the earth itself from space. We should develop and experiment with 
new and improved practical applications of satellites, particularly in 
earth resources. We should continue to foster prompt introduction into 
the economy of space applications and technology. 

"Second — We should follow up the first Apollo landing with a sound 
program of manned lunar exploration. 

"Third — We should proceed with the development and experimental 
operation of a permanent U.S. space station in earth orbit. 

"Fourth — We should move out steadily in the exploration of deeper 
space, exploring the planets with unmanned probes and the sun, stars, 
and galaxies from orbital observatories outside the atmosphere. 

"Fifth — We should provide the technology for developing the full 
potential of U.S. civil and military aeronautics. 

"Sixth — We should maintain a strong momentum of broad techno- 
logical advance in all aerospace disciplines." 

Although NASA's 1970 budget was " 'holding' budget," Dr. Paine 
said request did include funds for starting three principal new pro- 
grams: Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program, with start of 
erts A and B development; nerva flight-weight engine development, 
postponed from 1969; and series of planetary explorers for future 
flights to Venus and Mars. 

In period of "retrenchment and declining resources," FY 1969 
operating budget was $762 million below FY 1968 budget and over 
$1 billion below FY 1967. Nationwide employment on nasa work had 
decreased from earlier peak of 420,000 to 270,000 at end of FY 1968, 
to about 215,000 at end of FY 1969, and under FY 1970 budget to 
about 190,000. (Testimony) 
• Apollo program after lunar landing was discussed by NASA Associate 

66 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 4 

Administrator for Manned Space Fight, Dr. George E. Mueller, before 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics hearing on NASA FY 
1970 appropriations: "A thorough exploration plan has been evolved 
by the scientific community which will be initiated with the remainder 
of the fifteen Saturn V launch vehicles and Apollo spacecraft available 
under the Apollo program. Three initial phases of lunar exploration 
have been defined. The first phase will consist of landings that sample 
and observe the major classes of regions on the moon. To establish 
these norms, it will be necessary to land, carry out geological pros- 
pecting, and obtain rock and soil samples for return to earth from 
four separate sites. . . . 

"The second phase would include the investigation of the major 
classes of lunar anomalies . . . volcanic types, sinuous riverlike channel- 
ways, fracture zones and impact craters. Six additional sites have been 
identified as the minimum ... to provide answers to basic questions 
about the moon and to evaluate locations of potential resources, build- 
ing materials or underground shelter openings. The third phase would 
be to tie together this information from 10 or more sites by making a 
remote sensing survey of the moon from lunar orbit." 

Apollo Applications FY 1970 budget provided for "continuation of 
flight hardware development and for integration of modified subsys- 
tems into hardware for a set of five earth-orbital flights." Their com- 
pletion in 1972 "terminates the manned flight activity until other 
manned flight programs are established." (Testimony) 

• Philadelphia Evening Bulletin editorial on Apollo 9 mission: "In the 

first Apollo launchings, it was the taming of sheer, brute power that 
awed the on-looker. 

"At the moment of ignition, it was not what lay beyond the astro- 
nauts that gripped the millions watching TV. It was the question 
whether the huge Saturn V booster would respond to command, 
whether it would hurl the astronauts into orbit or collapse, toppling 
slowly into a furnace of its own making. 

"But with yesterday's flawless Apollo 9 launch, the Saturn V booster 
seemed to emerge as a proven piece of space hardware. The preoccu- 
pation now is with the complexity, sophistication, the intricate work- 
ings of the most complicated of the several machines the United States 
has put together for the conquest of the moon. ... In its sophistication 
and vulnerability, [the lm] is ... an extension of man himself." (P 
Bull, 3/4/69) 

• A number of MIT scientists, in day-long work stoppage, gathered to 

discuss uses and misuses of scientific knowledge, including military 
research, university-Government relations, disarmament, and responsi- 
bilities of intellectuals. Similar programs were held on 30 campuses 
across country, and Univ. of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia canceled all 
undergraduate classes for day. ( Reinhold, NYT, 3/5/69, 1) 
March 5: U.S.S.R. successfully launched two Cosmos satellites. Cosmos 
CCLXV1U, launched from Kapustin Yar, entered orbit with 2,161-km 
(1,342.8-mi) apogee, 211-km (131.1-mi) perigee, 109.1-min period, and 
48.4° inclination and reentered May 9, 1970. Cosmos CCLXIX, 
launched from Plesetsk, entered orbit with 542-km (336.8-mi) apogee, 
525-km (326.2-mi) perigee, 95.2-min period, and 74° inclination. 
(gsfc SSR, 3/15/69; 5/31/70; SBD, 3/7/69, 30) 

67 



March 5 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• President Nixon, at White House ceremony, presented National Space 

Club's Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy to Apollo 8 astronauts 
and announced nomination of Acting Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. 
Paine, to be NASA Administrator. 

Astronaut James A. Lovell, Jr., accepted award for himself and 
Astronauts Frank Borman and William A. Anders. Citation: "In an 
epic journey man for the first time in December 1968 soared out of 
the earth gravitational field, flew unerringly into a close orbit of the 
moon, then back to a precise and safe landing. This historic voyage 
performed at times before the largest television audience in history, 
and open for coverage by the world's press, reflects the utmost credit 
on the United States Space Program, Congress, nasa, and thousands 
of companies and employees in industry representing all these, the 
courageous, competent crew of Apollo 8." 

Following award presentation, President announced Dr. Paine's 
appointment: "There has been a great deal of interest as to who would 
be the new head of NASA. ... we have searched the country to find a 
man who could take this program and give it the leadership that it 
needs, as we move from one phase to another. This is an exciting 
period, and it requires the new leadership that a new man can pro- 
vide. But after searching the whole country for somebody, perhaps 
outside of the program, we found . . . that the best man in the 
country was in the program." Dr. Paine in his response said: "I 
believe in the space program. I believe in this country, and I think 
that this country should indeed be the preeminent nation in space- 
faring, and ... I am sure that we can go ahead to . . . see that the 
NASA program in the second decade of space will even out-perform 
the accomplishments in the first." (PD, 3/10/69, 369-71) 

• At 12th annual Goddard Memorial Dinner in Washington, D.C., spon- 

sored by National Space Club, Presidential Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. 
DuBridge, said: ". . . we are witnessing another spectacular example 
of the utilization of scientific knowledge, accumulated by many genera- 
tions of scientists, some famous and some obscure, who worked away 
in their laboratories trying to probe the secrets of nature. We have 
seen how once these secrets . . . have been revealed, engineering skills 
could be put to work. We see in our space program also an example 
of the reverse process. . . . New technological developments lead to 
new techniques and new instruments which . . . speed up our basic 
work in science and lead to new ways of uncovering new secrets of 
nature. Thus, during these past ten years the advance of science has 
been enormously aided by the advance of space technology." {CR, 
3/12/69, S2755) 

Astronautics Engineer Award was presented to nasa's l/g Samuel 
C. Phillips (usaf) in absentia since Apollo 9 mission was still under 
way. Citation read: "For his personal direction of the Apollo program 
throughout development and into the final phases of flight to the Moon 
dramatically illustrated by the two successful all-up flights of the 
Saturn V and the error-free flights of Apollo 7 and the extraordinary 
flight of Apollo 8 to the Moon and back. His engineering skill and 
leadership throughout the development and execution of this complex 
program have made possible an outstanding American success." 

Richard J. Allen of nasa Apollo Program Office Test Div. was 

68 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 5 

awarded Hugh L. Dryden Memorial Fellowship presented to NASA em- 
ployee adjudged "a deserving individual in disciplines applicable to 
science, astronautics and space administration." 

Mitchell R. Sharpe of Systems Safety and Manned Flight Awareness 
Office, msfc, received certificate, trophy, and $500 award for winning 
entry in 1969 Robert H. Goddard Historical Essay competition. (His 
Development of the Lifesaving Rocket: A Study in 19th Century Tech- 
nological Fallout was released by NASA June 10 as msfc Historical 
Note 4.) 

National Space Club Press Award "for penetrating, consistently in- 
formed and lucid writing on all phases of the national space program" 
was awarded Evert Clark, Washington science correspondent, News- 
week. North American Rockwell Corp. received Nelson P. Jackson 
Award "for its major contribution to the success of Apollo during 
1968." (Program; msfc Historical Note 4) 

• Dr. John E. Naugle, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 

Applications, told House Committee on Science and Astronautics in 
testimony on NASA FY 1970 budget request: "We are moving toward 
a number of important milestones in the Space Applications Program, 
the most important of which is the Earth resources survey area, where 
we are requesting funds for the design and construction of a research 
satellite, Earth Resources Technology Satellite (erts). We think the 
erts Program will be a very valuable addition to mankind's tools 
for handling the natural and cultural resources of the world." 

FY 1970 ossa program required $559 million in new obligational 
authority. Although increased over FY 1969, program was well below 
FY 1963 through 1967. Increases were in planetary and space appli- 
cations program, with planetary increases primarily due to costs in 
FY 1970 of program authorized in FY 1969. In addition, NASA was 
proposing Planetary Explorer program and dual planet mission to 
Venus and Mercury for 1973. Space applications increase was for ex- 
perimental ERTS satellite and prototype of operational Synchronous 
Meteorological Satellite (sms). (Testimony) 

• Harold B. Finger, NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and 

Management, testifying on budget request before House Committee 
on Science and Astronautics, described employment restrictions under 
FY 1970 operating plan: In May 1968, NASA had restricted employ- 
ment to avoid "large and disruptive" personnel reduction in FY 1969. 
"As a result . . . the on-board manpower complement is being reduced 
by 1,285 in Fiscal Year 1969 and 559 new positions are being estab- 
lished ... [at GSFC] for support service operations. From our highest 
civil service employment level of 34,126 in July 1967, the number of 
nasa's permanent employees will have decreased by 2,526 to 31,600 
at the end of Fiscal Year 1970. During this same period, 965 positions 
will have been established specifically to convert certain support serv- 
ice functions carried out under contract with industry to civil service 
operations. This results in an effective decrease in manpower of 3,491, 
with a reduction from our planned manpower of 4,374. We are plan- 
ning all of these reductions in personnel by attrition. . . . This is 
becoming increasingly difficult since the rate of separation has slowed 
appreciably. . . . The overall separation rate during the current year 
is only about two-thirds of the rate for Fiscal Year 1968." (Testimony) 

69 



March 5 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Tech- 

nology Bruce T. Lundin, testifying on FY 1970 budget request, told 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics there was "a large op- 
portunity to transfer the electronics technology developed for the space 
program to the problems of aeronautics, such as for collision avoidance 
and the development of all-weather capabilities." erc was studying 
use of proximity-warning devices to avoid midair collisions and "pos- 
sibilities of an aircraft-satellite link as a means of communication and 
precise navigation over water areas where present capabilities are 
limited. In the future, this method of navigation could provide precise 
position fixing in crowded domestic operations." 

Increased FY 1970 request for aeronautics research, $187 million, 
would fund program strengthening base of aeronautical advanced re- 
search, increasing technology base of short-haul transports, and in- 
creasing research and technology for aircraft noise abatement and 
safety. I Testimony ) 

• faa released forecast of aviation growth through 1980. Airline passenger 

traffic would more than triple by 1980, with 470 million passengers 
compared with 152.6 million in 1968. Average annual growth would be 
10%, less than in recent years. Revenue passenger-miles flown would 
reach 379 billion, from 106.5 billion in 1968. More than 90% of 
3,600 airline aircraft in use would be jets; in 1968, 50% of 2,452 
airline aircraft were jets. 

General-aviation fleet would total 214,000 by 1980, up from 114,186 
in FY 1968. Civil aircraft production would more than double FY 
1968 total of 15,044, reaching 33,950. Air carrier transport aircraft 
production would decrease gradually from FY 1968 record of 625 
to 250. (faa Release 69-29) 

• Dr. James G. Harlow, President of West Virginia Univ., was sworn in 

as consultant to NASA Administrator-designate, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine. 
He would serve on Management Advisory Council and had held simi- 
lar position in 1961 and 1962. (nasa Release 69-39) 

• msfc announced it had signed agreement with North American Rockwell 

Corp.'s Rocketdyne Div. for extension of J— 2 engine production 
through April 30, 1970, at reduced rate of one engine per month 
instead of three. Engines would not be used as rapidly as originally 
planned because of overall extension of launch vehicle production 
schedule. Modifications amounted to $8,423,454. (msfc Release 
69-70) 

• North American Rockwell Corp.'s Space Div. had earned incentive 

award fees of $1,100,000 and $270,000 under nasa contracts for 
Apollo command and service modules and 2nd stage ( S— II ) for Saturn 
V launch vehicle, NASA announced. Awards were determined by Per- 
formance Evaluation Board on basis of nar's achievement of manage- 
ment objectives specified in contracts from Sept. 1, 1967, through Dec. 
31, 1968, which encompassed S— II contract activities from Aug. 4, 
1968, through Dec. 28, 1968 — first of three time increments extending 
through completion of Apollo program, (nasa Release 69-38) 
March 6: Cosmos CCLXX was launched from Plesetsk by U.S.S.R. into 
orbit with 330-km (205.01-mi) apogee, 200-km (124.3-mi) perigee, 
89.8-min period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered March 14. 
(gsfc SSR, 3/15/69; SBD, 3/7/69, 30; upi, W Star, 3/6/69) 

70 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 6 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried 

Columbia Univ. payload to 99.6-mi (160-km) altitude to study polari- 
zation of x-rays from Crab Nebula in 10- to 25-kev energy region, 
using x-ray polarimeter with lithium scattering blocks and gas pro- 
portional counters. All systems were perfect; good data were obtained. 
(NASA Rpt srl) 

• Members of Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight of House Committee 

on Science and Astronautics visited msfc for inspection tour and 
hearings. Chairman Olin E. Teague (D-Tex.) was ranking Representa- 
tive, (msfc Release 69-72) 

• msfc announced it had awarded $1,954,999 cost-plus-incentive-fee con- 

tract to IBM Federal Systems Div. for designing, developing, and 
building five general-purpose digital computers for Apollo Telescope 
Mount project, (msfc Release 69-71) 
March 7: Aerobee 150 sounding rocket was launched by nasa from wsmr 
carrying Columbia Radiation Laboratories payload to conduct stellar 
spectra studies. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. 
(NASA Proj Off) 

• Time magazine said Astronaut Frank Borman had amused audiences 

during February 1969 European tour by claiming Apollo 8 astronauts 
deserved overtime pay because they had aged about 300 microseconds 
more than people on earth during moon mission. At NASA's request, 
Univ. of Maryland physicist Carroll Alley had calculated effects on 
astronauts of phenomena described in Einstein's relativity equations — 
time ran slower for object as its speed increased, and time accelerated 
for object as it moved away from body exerting gravitational force. 
Alley found Apollo 8 spacecraft speed was predominant factor when 
it was within 4,000 mi of earth; time slowed and astronauts actually 
aged more slowly. Beyond 4,000 mi, effects of earth's gravity lessened 
as Apollo's time passed 300 microseconds faster than earth's. 

Despite Alley's calculations, said Time, Borman's claim was valid 
only for Astronaut William A. Anders, who made his first space flight 
on Apollo 8. Astronauts Borman and James A. Lovell had been crew- 
mates on Dec. 4—18, 1965, Gemini VII, when time dilation effect was 
dominant for entire two weeks. They had aged less than those on 
earth by 400 microseconds. Lovell's time also had been slowed during 
four-day Gemini XII mission Nov. 11—15, 1966, by about 100 micro- 
seconds. "Thus," said Time, "during all their missions in space, Lovell 
and Borman respectively spent 200 and 100 microseconds less time 
than was recorded on earth — which means they were paid for more 
time than they actually worked." {Time, 3/7/69, 42) 

March 7—8: nasa launched series of three Nike-Tomahawk sounding rockets 
from Dew Line station Pin Main, Cape Parry, Canada, carrying gsfc 
payloads to analyze electric fields from observed motions of neutral 
and ionized barium clouds during disturbed magnetic conditions. Four 
barium clouds on each rocket were released during disturbed magnetic 
conditions as planned. Good photographic coverage was obtained from 
all sites. ( nasa Rpts srl) 

March 8: Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner made successful sec- 
ond flight at altitudes to 15,840 ft and speeds to 345 mph with droop 
nose lifted in flight. Sud-Aviation test pilot Andre Turcat termed flight 
"very satisfactory." (upi, NYT, 3/10/69, 91) 

71 



March 8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Christian Science Monitor congratulated "Gumdrop, Spider, and their 

gallant crew" for successful Apollo 9 mission to date: "In a series 
of smoothly executed maneuvers, they have opened the way for land- 
ing on the moon. They have removed any doubt that the machinery 
and tactics designed to set men down and recover them safely can 
indeed do the job." Spectacular view from space symbolized "men's 
ability to surmount human and natural obstacles to reach the most 
difficult goals when they want to. It bespeaks a spirit running counter 
to the rivalries, hatreds, and selfishness that often seem to prevent a 
similar attack on tough human problems on earth. The spirit now 
has brought the moon within mankind's grasp. It could bring a better 
life on earth within their grasp, too." (csm, 3/8-10/69) 

March 9: While spaceborne, Apollo 9 Astronaut James A. McDivitt was 
selected to receive Ancient Order of Hibernians' John F. Kennedy 
Medal for National Civic Service. Award would be presented by Irish- 
descent society in Newark, N.J., May 10. (Sehlstedt, B Sun, 3/10/69, 
Al; W Post, 3/10/69, A5) 

March 10: Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from 
Churchill Research Range carried Univ. of Colorado payload to 
measure Vegard-Kaplan (1,500-1,700 A and 2,300-3,000 A) and 
Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (1,300—1,500 A) bands of nitrogen in uv 
auroral emissions. Rocket and instruments performed satisfactorily. 
Payload penetrated aurora, and data were excellent, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• "Man has three sets of capabilities that make him extremely hard to 

replace by any machine," NASA Associate Administrator for Manned 
Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, said in address before NRC En- 
gineering Div.'s annual meeting in Washington, D.C.: "1) he has a 
very wide-band set of sensors for acquiring information; 2) he has 
in his head a built-in memory and computer that cannot yet be matched 
by our largest and fastest machines; and finally he has a remarkably 
versatile capability for action, and physical operations with his body, 
hands, and tools. These three capabilities make man such a valuable 
element in space science and applications that we need to take ad- 
vantage of him at the site of operations whenever this is feasible. . . . 
With the prominence that manned flight has gained, it is surprising to 
realize that while 589 unmanned satellites have been launched, there 
have been only 29 manned flights, eleven by the USSR and eighteen 
by the USA. These few experiments have shown that we have the 
capability to extend man's genius into the new dimension of space, 
as far out as the moon. In the years ahead I expect that man will 
exploit his bridgehead into space and use this new territory for his 
own good on earth." (Text) 

• NASA released Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Sugges- 

tions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments. Curriculum 
project was prepared by Univ. of California at Berkeley to introduce 
high school teachers and students to scientific advances in space bi- 
ology. (Text) 
March 10-12: During aiaa 3rd Flight Test, Simulation and Support Con- 
ference in Houston, Tex., Apollo 7 Astronauts Walter M. Schirra, Jr., 
Donn F. Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham received Haley Astro- 
nautics Award for "exceptionally meritorious service and outstanding 
contributions to the advancement of manned space flight during the 

72 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 10-12 

11-day flight of Apollo 7." Award — $500 honorarium, medal, and cer- 
tificate — was presented annually for "an outstanding contribution by 
test personnel who undergo personal risk in the advancement of space 
flight." 

Lockheed Aircraft Corp. test pilot William C. Park received Octave 
Chanute Award for "flight test development of Mach 3+ aircraft." 
He was first test pilot to fly SR-71 and YF-12A at design speed, (aiaa 
Release 3/5/69) 

March 11: Apollo 10 spacecraft, atop Saturn V launch vehicle, rolled out 
of Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC to Launch Complex 39, Pad B, 
for May liftoff to lunar orbit. (AP, NYT, 3/12/69, 14; upi, Huntsville 
News, 3/12/69) 

• Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space 
Flight, testified on Apollo program, space flight operations, and ad- 
vanced manned missions before House Committee on Science and 
Astronautics' Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight. He explained 
importance of lunar exploration and outlined plans for new space 
station. 

President's Science Advisory Committee had said answers to ques- 
tions about moon "may profoundly affect our views of the evolution 
of the solar system and its place, as well as man's in the larger scheme 
of things." Fact that earth's moon was largest in relation to its planet, 
Dr. Mueller said, "implies that the two bodies may have been formed in 
the same manner at the same time. If true, the moon may be a book 
containing the secret of the earth's first billion years of life. This record 
is lost on the earth which is subjected to . . . erosion by atmosphere 
and water. ... By comparing similarities and contrasting differences, 
man may be able to arrive at a greater understanding of the funda- 
mental processes that affect the earth; for example, the mechanisms 
that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and the processes re- 
sponsible for concentrating ore deposits. The orbits of Apollo 8 and 
the Lunar Orbiters were disturbed by mass concentrations beneath the 
circular lunar seas. These may be huge meteors that struck the moon 
with such force that they melted and sank into the interior, or they 
may be iron deposits. 

"Another objective of lunar exploration is to learn about man as a 
space explorer — his capabilities and limitations. Some day man will 
move on to other planets; the moon is a training ground. . . . We don't 
have the basic information which early lunar landings will furnish 
and we can only speculate today about the feasibility of the moon as a 
base for an observatory or a permanent science station — about exploit- 
ing its environment of low gravity and high vacuum — about its poten- 
tial for natural resources. ... A long-range goal like the lunar base 
would direct technological advances, stimulate public interest, and 
attain subsidiary objectives with earth application such as food syn- 
thesis, environmental control, and recovery of useful elements from 
rock." 

Within new program category, Space Flight Operations, NASA was 
bypassing intermediate space station, launch vehicles, and logistic craft 
and proposing to move directly to new, semipennanent space station 
and low-cost earth-to-orbit transportation system. Space station "should 
be in being by the mid-1970s." With FY 1969 funds, contractor defi- 

73 



March 11 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

nition efforts were being initiated. FY 1970 funds would continue 
definition, preliminary design, and supporting work. 

Dr. Mueller described space complex 200 to 300 mi above earth 
planned for 10 yrs' continuous operation and adaptable for crew size, 
additional laboratory facilities, or other special-purpose equipment 
through selection, design, and arrangement of component modules. 
Crew would rotate at three- to six-month intervals, ferried between sta- 
tion and earth by reusable shuttles. Station's electric power would come 
from solar panels or small nuclear generator. (Testimony; nasa Re- 
lease 69-49) 

• Lee R. Scherer, Director of nasa's Apollo Lunar Exploration Office, testi- 

fying on FY 1970 budget request before Subcommittee on Space 
Science and Applications of House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautics, described extravehicular activity (eva) planned for first lunar 
landing. 

Emerging on lunar surface, astronaut would acquire and seal bag- 
ful of surface material and place it in spacesuit pocket, inspect LM, 
and with geological tools, fill large sample container. Location would 
be photographed before and after sampling. Passive seismometer would 
be emplaced to measure "moonquakes" and permit estimates of moon's 
internal structure for comparison with that of earth. Instrument, 
operated on solar power, would record and transmit lunar data to 
earth for about one year. Laser retroreflector would be emplaced to 
permit measurement of earth-to-moon distance and monitoring of 
distance variation. Measurements would be repeated several times daily 
for year or more and precise times determined by atomic clock. From 
data on relative motion of moon and earth and of each about own 
center of gravity, scientists could refine "knowledge of size and shape 
of the Moon, detect small movements that may occur between the 
Earth's continents, and perhaps even test gravitational theories." If 
time permitted, second sample return container would be filled more 
selectively, with greater effort to document and to pack samples indi- 
vidually. (Testimony) 

• Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator-designate, discussed possibility 

of integrated European space program alongside that of U.S. and 
U.S.S.R. in Thomas A. Edison Memorial Lecture at Naval Research 
Laboratory, Washington, D.C. "The space-age challenge to Europe in 
my view is to find new ways of organizing and managing the great 
wealth of that continent lo overtake, if you like, major American and 
Soviet space and other programs. This is the space-age challenge to 
Europe: not the 'technology gap' but the 'management gap.'" 

Dr. Paine also said, if 1969, 1971, and 1973 space probes should find 
"very exciting things about Mars, it is possible that we or the Russians 
might want to move a manned interplanetary expedition to a higher 
order of national priority. At the present time, the best guess is that 
this would not take place until the mid 1980's but new priorities might 
lengthen or shorten this period." 

In reply to question on man-in-space justification, he said: "For 
almost any simple specific experiment ... an automated probe can 
be developed to do it at lower cost. The basic question here is the 
difference between short-range research projects to achieve simple 
specific objectives, and complex research aimed at developing general 

74 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March II 

exploratory capability and broad technological positions which will let 
you do things in the future which you can't yet fully foresee. For the 
latter you will need men." 

Dr. Paine expected U.S.S.R. "very likely" would put space station 
into orbit before U.S. In lunar exploration, he expected U.S. to stay 
ahead a while. In planetary probes, he expected U.S.S.R. to stay ahead. 
In earth applications, he expected U.S. to stay ahead. (Text) 

• Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force and former NASA 

Associate and Deputy Administrator, delivered 1969 Minta Martin 
Lecture at mit as 1968—69 Jerome Hunsaker Professor of Aeronau- 
tical Engineering. Describing origins and development of U.S. space 
program as well as decision-making and implementation in commit- 
ment to manned lunar landing, paper would be presented also at Univ. 
of Maryland March 20 and at LeRC April 24. 

Citing need for set of national goals, Dr. Seamans defined national 
agenda for allocation of R&D that might be acceptable to man in street: 
understanding, forecasting, and controlling environment; supplying 
basic resources of food, fuel, minerals, and water; improving quality 
of life; improving transportation; improving communications; encour- 
aging economic growth; and assisting international development and 
providing national security. 

Space program contributed to all categories. Studies of sun's trans- 
missions, of Mars and Venus atmospheres, of moon's origin, and of 
earth itself contributed to understanding of environment for practical 
use of man. Space R&D might aid search for alternative basic resources; 
it could establish facilities for detecting available resources and speed 
communications to meet problems. Biological and medical investiga- 
tions in space program held greatest promise in study of reactions of 
biological specimens, animals, and man. Impact on education had been 
cited by some as greatest value of space exploration. Program had re- 
quired in-depth investigation of waste management, fire prevention, 
materials development, and microminiaturization. Space technology 
influenced new vehicles being tested for transportation — hydrofoil 
ships, surface-effect and air-cushion vehicles, high-speed trains, electric 
cars, vtol and v/sTOL aircraft, jumbo subsonic aircraft, and super- 
sonic aircraft. 

Communications satellites, already in commercial use, ultimately 
could broadcast directly to home receivers. In international coopera- 
tion, NASA was working with 64 nations in space activity. Returns from 
nasa's scientific satellites and communications satellites, development 
of manned space flight capability, and tracking facilities contributed 
to national defense. (Text) 

• In Houston, Tex., press interview Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr. (Capt., 

usn), said he had turned down offers for Naval promotion to admiral 
and nasa Hq. executive position, to become president of Regency Corp. 
in Denver, Colo., financial complex leasing industrial equipment world- 
wide. One of original astronauts and only veteran of Mercury, Gemini, 
and Apollo missions, Schirra said he did not want to "stick around as 
a half astronaut." He had rejected aerospace offers because "I might 
be limiting the contribution of which I feel I'm capable." (AP, W Post, 
3/12/69, A8) 
March 12: Lunar Science Institute and msc's Lunar Receiving Laboratory 

75 



March 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

were preparing for "lunar knowledge explosion" expected to follow 
first manned lunar landing, Washington Evening Star reported. Lab- 
oratory would quarantine astronauts and lunar samples brought back 
from landing, storing samples for study and distribution to scientists. 
Institute, funded by NASA and administered through nas by Rice Univ., 
would facilitate lunar research by nonspace scientific community, 
Administrator Robert C. Wimberley said in interview. Directed by 
William C. Rubey, Institute was soon to be turned over to consortium 
of universities. 

U.S. Public Health Service, NAS, Dept. of Interior, Dept. of Agri- 
culture, and NASA had planned 30-day quarantine and study of moon 
material and 21-day quarantine of astronauts. Samples would be sealed 
on lunar surface and would be flown from recovery carrier to Labora- 
tory after spacecraft return. Astronauts were to be transferred from 
spacecraft into sealed van through plastic tunnel aboard carrier [see 
May 16]. Van would be delivered to nearest port and then flown to 
Houston to sealed-off laboratory. Objective was to prevent importing 
viruses, some of which had been known to survive thousands of years 
under unlikely conditions. 

During three-week debriefing, crew would live in glassed-in quarters 
including medical area. Samples would be maintained under vacuum 
seals until opened in high-vacuum chambers containing remotely con- 
trolled equipment. Once photographed, catalogued, and processed, 
content and structure would be studied to determine composition and 
origins. (W Star, 3/12/69, A13) 

• NASA advocated "balanced, broad-based Planetary Exploration Program" 

as "feasible and practical" part of U.S. space program, Donald P. 
Hearth, Director of Planetary Programs, ossa, testified before House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Space 
Science and Applications. Basic goals were to increase understanding 
of origin and evolution of solar system and life in solar system and 
understanding of dynamic processes shaping man's terrestrial environ- 
ment — "increasing our understanding of the planet Earth, how it has 
evolved, and how it may evolve in the future through a comparative 
study of the other planets in the solar system." 

Approach would be broad-based exploration of several planets — 
Jupiter, Mercury, Venus — over period of time, combined with direct 
measurements of Mars surface in orbital and lander missions. Pioneer 
F and G spacecraft (planned for launch in 1972 and 1973) and new 
cooperative project with West Germany, Helios, would open "new era" 
in solar system exploration, studying effects of radial distance on inter- 
planetary medium close to sun. (Testimony) 

• Milton Klein, Manager, NASA Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, testified 

on nuclear rocket capabilities before Subcommittee on Advanced 
Research and Technology of House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautics: Benefits to be realized included "significantly extended per- 
formance of launch vehicles which now exist or may be operational 
by the late 1970's, feasibility of certain near-Earth missions otherwise 
impractical," and "increased potential for mission success." One basic 
propulsion system could be developed to yield all these benefits. 
(Testimony) 

• NASA announced appointment of Gerhard B. Heller as Director of msfc 

76 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 12 

Space Sciences Laboratory, replacing Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger, who had 
been promoted to new position of MSFC Associate Director for Science. 
Heller had worked in rocket R&D since 1940, when he joined Wernher 
von Braun group in Germany. For more than 10 yrs he had directed 
fluid and thermodynamics research at Laboratory and its predecessors. 
He was responsible for thermal design aspects of several satellites, 
including Explorer I, first U.S. satellite, (msfc Release 69-75) 

• msfc announced $48,142,823 modification to contract with North Ameri- 

can Rockwell Corp. Space Div. to provide for 14-mo extension of 
S-II program as part of overall Apollo program stretchout. S-II was 
2nd stage for three-stage Saturn V launch vehicle. 

MSFC also announced $1,896,916 modification to Apollo Applications 
program contract for further Harvard College R&D of modified uv 
scanning spectrometer to fly in space on Apollo Telescope Mount 
(atm). (msfc Releases 69-76, 69-77) 

• U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission opened three-day hear- 

ings in Los Angeles on extent of racial discrimination in aerospace 
industry. Commission's figures showed only 177, or 0.9%, of 20,000 
officials and managers in Los Angeles aerospace industry in 1968 were 
black. (Pasadena Star-News, 3/13/69) 

• usn ended 17-day investigation into Feb. 17 death of Sealab III aqua- 

naut Berry L. Cannon. USN had disclosed that one of rigs worn by 
four divers did not contain chemical to filter carbon dioxide from 
recycled helium-oxygen breathing mixture, but photographic experts 
had been unable to determine which rig was worn by Cannon. Findings 
were not expected to be released for some time, (upi, W Star, 
3/13/69, A3) 
March 13: Shortly after Apollo 9 splashdown [see March 3-13] Dr. 
George E. Mueller, nasa Associate Administrator for Manned Space 
Flight, told press at MSC, mission was "as successful a flight as . . . 
any of us have ever seen." It had "fully achieved all of its primary 
objectives and in numerical count, we accomplished more than the 
planned number of detailed test objectives." Apollo program would 
move toward greater scientific content each mission as NASA developed 
its capabilities. ". . . we have been remarkably successful thus far in 
the Apollo program. The hardware has worked better than anyone 
should have expected, and better than any of us did expect." Mission 
profile for Apollo 10, scheduled for launch May 17, would be released 
March 24 after careful evaluation of Apollo 9 results. 

"We are doing the planning for ... 10 vehicles beyond Apollo 11." 
After first landing NASA would stretch out flight schedule to allow 
time to make modifications and to understand results, with about two 
or three landings per year. NASA had equipment for scientific payloads 
for first four Apollo vehicles — of which two would land in lunar maria 
and two in highland areas — which would provide capability for later 
pinpoint landings at points of unique scientific interest outside Apollo 
landing zone. NASA would emplace on lunar surface network of 10 
seismographs, series of heat-measuring probes, cameras, and other 
geophysical instruments to determine environment of lunar surface. 
Astronauts would wear new, "constant volume" spacesuits which 
would enable them to move around lunar surface very freely to con- 
duct experiments. (Transcript) 

77 



March 13 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, President's Science Adviser, told AIAA board 

luncheon in Washington, D.C., that President's Space Task Group had 
forged ahead with plans for new space program by Apollo program's 
end but he did not see specific mechanism in Nixon Administration for 
handling "tremendous" aviation problems. He had raised question at 
first Task Group meeting, but budget squeeze had cut DOT request for 
civil aviation research by two-thirds. Noise would be dealt with by 
Cabinet-level committee on environmental quality. President Nixon 
was "anxious to extend our technical and scientific collaboration with 
other nations." Recent visit to U.S.S.R. by U.S. scientists had led to 
plans for more extensive collaboration in high-energy physics. (A&A, 
4/69, 5; aiaa pio) 

• NASA Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched from WSMR with Naval 

Research Laboratory experiment collected data that led to discovery 
of x-ray pulsar in Crab Nebula. Sounding rocket carried several uv 
detectors and gas proportional counters to 103-mi (153.5-km) alti- 
tude to obtain x-ray spectra in Crab Nebula, region in galactic plane, 
region near cluster of galaxies, and region toward earth. All detectors 
gave good data and nrl scientists later reported pulsations were 
observed at frequency closely matching radio and optical pulsations 
with 5% of total x-ray power of nebula appearing in pulsed com- 
ponent. Pulsations included main pulse and interpulse separated by 
about 12 milliseconds, (nasa Rpt SRL; Fritz, Henry, Meekins, Chubb, 
Friedman, Science, 5/9/69, 709-12) 

• Orr E. Reynolds, NASA Director of Bioscience Programs, ossa, testified 

before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics that species used in NASA 
Biosatellite II radiation experiments — drosophila, lysogenic bacteria, 
flour beetles, neurospora, and spiderwort — had been used as biological 
experiments on Zond V. "The fact that both nations are using many 
of the same species of organisms for space radiation studies," he said, 
"offers a considerable advantage to both for comparison and con- 
firmation of experimental results." 

Reynolds also said that space flight offered bioscientists only known 
keys to number of life phenomena, "some fundamentals of life that 
must be sought here in . . . the space program, because scientists 
know of no other experimental environment that will serve." Role of 
gravity in life processes, cyclical behavior of living organisms, and 
origin and character of life in universe were areas for which nasa 
had unique research capabilities. (Testimony) 

• Senate approved nuclear nonproliferation treaty without change by vote 

of 83 to 15, in what Joseph Sterne in Baltimore Sun called most 
"lopsided" margin accorded to major pact involving U.S.S.R. "since 
the cold war began." It gave President Nixon "clear signal to pursue 
his policy of 'negotiation rather than confrontation' with the Kremlin." 
Pact had been signed by 87 nations and ratified by 9. It would go 
into effect when ratified by U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K., and 40 other nations. 
(CR, 3/13/69, D180; B Sun, 3/14/69, Al) 

• President Nixon transmitted to Congress first annual plan for U.S. 

participation in World Weather Program: "This project, and our 
role in it . . . have great political significance." Program had "devel- 
oped into a most impressive example of international cooperation. On 

78 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 13 

a scale never attempted until this decade, scientists and governments 
in many countries are joining hands across national boundaries to 
serve the entire human community. Their example should be instruc- 
tive for all of us as we pursue lasting peace and order for our world." 
(PD, 3/17/69, 399-400) 

• msfc announced it had completed negotiations with North American 

Rockwell Corp. Rocketdyne Div. on $4,075,490 contract modification 
extending F— 1 engine deliveries through June 1970 to align engine 
effort to stretchout in production rate of Saturn V boosters. F-l engines 
for initial order of 15 Saturn V boosters had been slated for April 1969 
delivery. 

MSFC also announced award of $1,239,045 contract modification to 
IBM for work in connection with 31 launch-vehicle data adapters and 
31 launch-vehicle digital computers. Adjustments, necessitated by 
changes in Apollo launch schedule, provided for streamlining con- 
tractor's plan for product identification control and accounting system. 
(msfc Releases 69-78, 69-81) 

• Senate confirmed nomination of former NASA Associate Administrator 

for Advanced Research and Technology James M. Beggs as Under 
Secretary of Transportation. (CR, 3/13/69, S2833) 

• Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, resigned as 

president of aiaa. Letter of resignation said, "It is not in the best 
interest of either the Air Force or the aiaa for me to continue with 
aiaa responsibility." aiaa board of directors elected Dr. Ronald Smelt, 
Vice President and Chief Scientist, Lockheed Aircraft Corp., to replace 
Dr. Seamans. (aiaa Release) 

• Krasnaya Zvezda I Red Star) claimed world heavy-lift helicopter record 

for U.S.S.R., citing 68,266-lb payload carried to 9,675-ft altitude by 
V— 12 helicopter at 595-ft-per-min rate of climb. Four world records 
in 15-, 20-, 25-, and 30-ton-weight categories at 2,950-m altitude 
also were claimed. (AFJ, 3/22/69, 6) 
March 14: NASA Wallops Station recovered parachute and payload launched 
on two-stage Sidewinder-Areas meteorological sounding rocket. Recov- 
ery — by fixed-wing Cessna 206 aircraft — was third success to date. 
Flight investigated performance of Sidewinder-Areas rocket system and 
demonstrated deployment of 16-ft-dia, disc-gap-band parachute at high 
altitude. Wallops scored first aerial recovery Nov. 9, 1966, when pay- 
load launched on Argentina Orion II sounding rocket was snatched 
by helicopter. (WS Release 69—7) 

• Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried 

CSFC-Univ. of Wisconsin-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory pay- 
load to 109.8-mi (176.7-km) altitude. Objective was to provide pre- 
cisely calibrated stellar observations of stars Regulus, Spica, Denebola, 
and Benetnasch, which had been viewed by nasa's Oao II — using 
12.9-in-dia Dall-Kirham telescope, plane-grating spectrograph, and 
strap in stellar pointing attitude control system. Rocket and instru- 
ments performed satisfactorily, but attitude control system malfunc- 
tioned. First target was acquired and data were obtained; second and 
third targets were not acquired; and fourth target was acquired but 
not identified, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences ordered favorably 

reported the nomination of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as NASA Admin- 

79 



March 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

istrator. Nomination awaited approval by Senate. (NASA LAR, 
VIII/42) 

• President Nixon proposed deployment of $6- to $7-billion modified, 

"Safeguard" abm system using components developed for Sentinel, 
but altering deployment to provide local defense of selected Minuteman 
sites, area defense to protect bomber bases and command and control 
authorities, defense of continental U.S. against accidental attack, and 
"substantial protection against the kind of attack which the Chinese 
Communists may be capable of launching throughout the 1970's." 
Deployment would not place missile and radar sites near major cities 
(except Washington, D.C.). President said safety of country "requires 
that we should proceed now with the development and construction 
of the new system in a carefully phased program. . . . The program is 
not provocative. The Soviet retaliatory capability is not affected by our 
decision." {PD, 3/17/69, 400-9) 

• FAA announced signing of two-year agreement with Air Transport Assn. 

of America to participate in ata's airborne collision avoidance pro- 
gram, faa would take part in testing and evaluation of airborne CAS 
systems supplied by industry in ATA-funded program, (faa Release 
69-34; ata Release 22) 

• Soviet youth newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda praised NASA's Apollo 9 

mission: "A thorough check of the entire equipment necessary for a 
lunar landing has been attained, thanks to the courage and gallantry 
of the three American astronauts. At the same time the Apollo 9 flight 
showed that it is impossible in terrestrial conditions to envisage all 
difficulties astronauts are encountering in real flight." 

Soviet Academician Prof. Anatoly Blagonravov complimented nasa's 
planning for lunar landing: "The fact that the Americans earlier made 
a flight around the moon and now conducted the Apollo 9 experiment, 
in my opinion, is evidence of a rather complete solution of the prob- 
lem of dependability," though some risk always remained, (upi, 
W Star, 3/14/69, A6) 

• Lockheed Aircraft Corp.'s Hummingbird experimental vtol aircraft, 

officially designated XV-4B, crashed 22 mi from Dobbins afb, Ga., 
during research flight. Civilian test pilot Hal J. Quamme parachuted 
to safety. Aircraft was being tested and developed for USAF. (upi, 
P Inq, 3/15/69, 1; AP, W Star, 3/16/69, A8) 

• Los Angeles Times editorial observed space industry employment drop 

from 400,000 in mid-1960s to current 200,000— at which rate it 
would sink to 50,000 by 1972. ". . . the pool of scientific and techni- 
cal expertise which has been brought together in the manned space 
program is disintegrating. If the President wants to save what is really 
an invaluable national resource, he and Congress cannot wait much 
longer to assign new projects to the space agency. . . . 

"A sound space program deserves a high place on the scale of 
priorities. And, both economic and military considerations dictate 
that the emphasis should be heavily on activities in the space near 
earth rather than on esoteric exploration of such deep planets as Mars 
and Venus. The proposal for construction in earth orbit of a large, 
permanent scientific laboratory . . . seems to deserve serious consid- 
eration as the major space project of the 1970s." (LA Times, 3/14/69) 
March 15: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXI from Plesetsk. Orbital 

80 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 15 

parameters: apogee, 310 km (192.6 mil ; perigee, 187 km (116.2 mi) ; 
period, 89.7 min; and inclination, 65.4°. Satellite reentered March 23. 
(gsfc SSR, 3/15/69; 3/31/69; SBD, 3/18/69, 78) 

• In press interview Transportation Secretary John A. Volpe said he 

favored building SST. "I certainly don't want to sec our country play 
second fiddle . . . and if this is feasible and economical to build and 
operate and the economy of the nation budget-wise will permit it, I 
probably would like to see it go ahead." I upi, W Star, 3/16/69, All » 

• In letter to Ambassador Gerard C. Smith, Head of U.S. Delegation to 

Geneva Disarmament Committee Meeting and Director of Arms Con- 
trol and Disarmament Agency, President Nixon issued instructions: 
Delegation was to seek discussion of international agreement pro- 
hibiting placement of weapons of mass destruction on seabed, support 
conclusion of comprehensive test ban adequately verified, press for 
agreement to end production of fissionable materials for weapons and 
transfer materials to peaceful uses, explore proposals for control of 
chemical and biological weapons, understand that actual reduction of 
armaments remained U.S. goal, and remember U.S. hoped international 
situation would permit U.S.— U.S.S.R. talks on strategic arms limitation 
soon. (PD, 3/24/69, 434-5) 

• First Soviet press and radio reports of President's ABM announcement 

spotlighted — without comment — statement that proposed program 
should not complicate U.S.-U.S.S.R. nuclear arms control talks. 
Moscow Radio described decision as "compromise" after "exceptionally 
fierce" congressional struggle over any "antimissile defense system" 
with "monopolistic corporations and Congressmen faithful to them" 
favoring powerful system. (Marder, W Post, 3/16/69, Al) 

March 15-17: nasa released Apollo 9 pictures — including detailed shots 
of CM, lm, S-IVB, and Astronaut Schweikart during EVA; 70-mm 
color still pictures; and 16-mm color movies. Pictures of earth showed 
clear views of major cities across southern U.S. and U.S. East Coast 
from North Carolina to Long Island, (upi, C Trib, 3/18/69; W Star, 
3/16/69, Al; W Post, 3/18/69, Al) 

March 16: Apollo 9 mission had gathered new evidence of clearer visibility 
in space and "marvelous" acuity of human eye, Associated Press 
reported. Astronauts had told officials onboard recovery ship after 
splashdown they could see much farther in space than in earth's 
atmosphere — both with telescopes and with naked eye. They had 
tracked several orbiting space objects up to 1,600 mi away with tele- 
scope and had tracked jettisoned 2 1 /2-it-long, 14-ft-dia LM ascent 
stage to 1,000 mi. (W Star, 3/17/69, A4; W Post, 3/17/69, A4) 

• More than 2,000 Americans had made reservations with Pan American 

World Airways and Trans World Airlines on first commercial trips to 
moon, said Joe McCarthy in This Week. Downpayments were not 
being accepted, but lunar reservations were being confirmed, acknowl- 
edged by letter, and placed in order on waiting list. PAA spokesman 
had said, "It will undoubtedly be an expensive trip. When we finally 
start asking the passengers for money, a lot of them will probably 
drop off the list." (This Week, 3/16/69, 9-10) 

• In Washington Post, Victor Cohn said fight for ideas "which once would 

have been labeled 'wild' " had begun when nasa began congressional 
committee hearings on its $3.7-billion FY 1970 budget [see March 

81 



March 16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

4]. It had continued with announcement of "dramatic plan for ten 
more manned expeditions to the moon after the first men land there 
in July." Americans had responded to "exciting" Apollo program 
"with heightened fervor for a man in space." But new fight for 
funding would probably be "nasa's toughest." Americans were asking, 
"How about our needs here on earth?" Many scientists felt unmanned 
instruments could do cheaper and nearly as effective job of space 
exploration. Congress had been calling nasa's present spending level 
"enough." Still, NASA had succeeded in marshaling "powerful scientific 
support." 

As yet unreleased report of Dr. Charles H. Townes' space task force 
appointed by President Nixon urged both vigorous manned space 
program and development of reusable space shuttle. Presidential 
Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, had declared himself for "a 
really solid, many-faceted program." nasa officials were optimistic 
but funds actually appropriated for FY 1970 budget would finance 
only five more Apollo flights plus first hardware for Apollo Applica- 
tions program. Public thinking was "just about 50—50 today, and 
new U.S. consensus has not yet crystallized." (W Post, 3/16/69, Al) 

• First royalty-bearing license under nasa's foreign patent program had 

been granted to Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. in Tokyo, NASA announced. 
Invention bearing NASA-owned patent No. 484,436 and made by 
gsfc's Joseph G. Haynos, was concerned with connections between 
solar cells that permitted flexibility and low weight. Company had 
made initial payment to nasa for exclusive manufacturing rights in 
Japan and agreed to continue royalty payments for duration of license. 
(nasa Release 69-40) 

• Bitter battle was raging in Nixon Administration over construction of 

sst, said Robert H. Phelps in New York Times. Opposition to 1,800- 
mph aircraft had been rising since Feb. 7 appointment by President 
Nixon of 11 -member interdepartmental study committee. Indications 
were that majority would recommend shelving project until technical, 
economical, and environmental problems, particularly aircraft noise, 
were closer to solution. President Nixon had inherited controversy 
from Johnson Administration, which had not earmarked funds for 
sst. He would have to decide whether to ask Congress to appropriate 
$212 million to $247 million to keep project on schedule. {NYT, 
3/16/69, 1) 
March 17: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXII from Plesetsk into orbit 
with 1,210-km (751.8-mi) apogee, 1,180-km (733.1-mi) perigee, 
109.3-min period, and 73.9° inclination, (gsfc SSR, 3/31/69; SBD, 
3/19/69, 86; AP, W Star, 3/18/69) 

• Canister containing S-16 barium cloud experiment was successfully 

ejected from esro's Heos I satellite (launched by NASA Dec. 5, 1968) 
at 43,495.9-mi (70,000-km) altitude. Cloud, 1,864.1 mi (3,000 km) 
long and visible to the naked eye, had lasted 20 min and yielded 
information on magnetic fields in space. (NASA Proj Off) 

• Apollo 10 mission would be launched May 18, one day later than 

originally planned, NASA announced. Change from first to second day 
of launch window would permit observation and collection of data 
on Apollo landing site 2, as area of primary interest, and observation 
of site 3 after sunrise on moon. Final decision on specific nature of 

82 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1%9 March 17 

mission would be made after review of Apollo 9 mission, (nasa 
Release 69-41) 

• Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from Fairbanks, 

Alaska, carried Univ. of Alaska payload to 134.2-mi (216-km) alti- 
tude. Objectives were to examine spatial distribution of atmospheric 
currents near visual, stable, homogeneous and pulsating auroral forms 
and to examine relationship between electron and proton precipitation 
and visual auroral distribution produced. Forward experiment portion 
of payload functioned satisfactorily, but data reduction was difficult. 
Some data loss occurred on rear portion of payload and additional 
data reduction was required. One flashing light failed at apogee, (nasa 
Rpt srl) 

• Eleventh anniversary of launch of Vanguard I, 3 1 /4-lb, 6V2-in-dia U.S. 

IGV satellite which proved earth was slightly pear-shaped and examined 
composition of upper atmosphere. Satellite had stopped transmitting 
in May 1964, but was expected to remain in orbit at least 200 yrs 
longer. (EH; ksc Release 63-68) 

• Vice President Spiro T. Agnew announced Astronaut James A. Lovell, 

Jr., would head $4.5-million summer day camp program for youth 
to be administered by National Collegiate Athletic Assn. under HEW 
contract. (Text) 

• Dr. Leo S. Packer, former Assistant Postmaster for Bureau of Research 

and Engineering, became Special Assistant to nasa Associate Admin- 
istrator for Advanced Research and Technology. (NASA Ann, 3/21/69) 

• White House released letter to President Nixon from Dr. Lee A. 

DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser, on proposed Safeguard ABM 
system: It "eliminates the serious defects of the old Sentinel plan, 
focuses on the reasonable, feasible and necessary defense of our deter- 
rent force, provides time for more thorough testing of an operating 
system and phases future deployment to progress of arms control 
negotiations and the changing information on the nature and immi- 
nence of potential threats to our security. I shall endeavor to make 
clear to my scientific colleagues that the Safeguard plan represents 
a sound and a reasonable approach to our strategic defense problem." 
(PD, 3/24/69, 430) 

March 17—19: At Sixth Space Congress sponsored by Canaveral Council of 
Technical Societies, James R. Williams of MSFC Engineering Labora- 
tory presented "Space Manufacturing Modules," paper describing 
NASA's work on manufacturing-in-space experiments. Paper outlined 
future possibilities, including development of manufacturing module 
to be attached to future space station. Phase 3 module would contain 
work space for at least two astronauts, equipment, raw materials, and 
manufacturing process chambers. It would be designed to dock with 
earth-orbiting space station proposed for mid-1970s launch, weigh 
about 23,000 lbs, and provide for continuous investigation of manu- 
facturing processes and for production of small quantities of special 
items best produced in zero-gravity environment. ( MSFC Release 69—80) 

March 18: OV 1-17, OV 1-17 A, OV 1-18, and OV 1-19 research satellites, 
carrying 41 experiments, were successfully launched by USAF picka- 
back on Atlas-F booster from Vandenberg afb. OV 1—17 weighed 312 
lbs and carried experiments to measure incoming solar electromagnetic 
radiation and its reaction with earth's upper atmosphere, make electric- 

83 



March 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

field and vlf energy propagation studies, evaluate ionized meteor 
trails in calibration of ground-based radars, and make engineering 
tests on spacecraft materials and solar-cell power system. Orbital 
parameters: apogee, 287.7 mi (462.9 km); perigee, 246.7 mi (396.9 
km); period, 93.1 min; and inclination, 99.1°. OV—17 reentered 
March 5, 1970. 

OV 1-17 A, 487-lb payload consisting of OV—17 propulsion module 
and Naval Research Laboratory two-beacon orbis-cal II experiment 
to study unusual transmission of radio waves through ionosphere, 
entered orbit with 233.0-mi (347.9-km) apogee, 106.9-mi (172.0- 
km) perigee, 89.8-min period, and 99.0° inclination and reentered 
March 24. 

OV 1—18 weighed 275 lbs and carried experiments to study iono- 
sphere and measure radio-wave interference, electric-field intensity, 
and hazardous radiation. Orbital parameters: apogee, 362.3 mi (582.9 
km); perigee, 288.3 mi (463.9 km); period, 95.0 min; and inclina- 
tion, 98.8°. 

OV 1-19 weighed 273 lbs and entered orbit with 3,592.9-mi 
(5,780.9-km) apogee, 288.0-mi (463.4-km) perigee, 153.5-min period, 
and 104.7° inclination, where it would study events resulting in 
and sustaining trapped radiation in Van Allen belts and hazards to 
man. (GSFC SSR, 3/31/69; 3/31/70; OAR Research Review, 6-7/69, 
23-4; Pres Rpt 70 [69] ; W Post, 3/19/69) 

• Though "highly successful subsonic jet transports designed and manu- 

factured in the United States are symbols of United States leadership 
on the airlines around the world," Albert J. Evans, Director of 
Aeronautical Vehicles, NASA oart, told House Committee on Science 
and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Advanced Research and Technol- 
ogy, "both the British/French SST and the Russian sst are in flight 
test. Many short-haul aircraft used by United States commuter and 
feeder airlines are foreign aircraft and in the vtol and stol area the 
United States severely lags its foreign competition." STOL aircraft were 
"within our grasp." Two concepts showed promise, one for propeller- 
driven aircraft and one for jet-powered. Move to flight test in FY 
1970 was planned. First was rotating-cylinder-flap stol research air- 
craft. Second, jet-augmented wing, would be applicable to jet-powered 
stol aircraft. (Testimony) 

• Dr. John E. Naugle, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 

Applications, testified before House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautics' Subcommittee on "Space Science and Applications: "We have 
been able to maintain this country in the forefront of planetary 
exploration by the quality of both our engineering talent and our 
Nation's scientists, and by the way in which they are involved in 
planning and executing our program. By making the most effective 
use of our best people we have been able to make better use of the 
limited resources we have had available for planetary exploration 
than the Russians. If the Russians continue to commit a major share 
of their space effort to planetary exploration — and the two recent 
launches to Venus indicate they are — and if they begin to involve 
their very best scientists in the planning and execution of their mission 
so that they fly first rate reliable experiments — and there is evidence 

84 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 18 

from our scientific colleagues that they are — then it is clear that this 
Nation cannot continue in the forefront of space exploration in the 
next decade." (Text) 

• NASA announced MSFC award of $98,200,000 definitive contract for pay- 

load integration in support of Apollo Applications program to Martin 
Marietta Corp. Work — which started under Jan. 16, 1968, letter con- 
tract — would extend through Nov. 30, 1972, and cover flights 1, 2, 3, 
3A, and 4. 

MSFC also awarded North American Rockwell Corp.'s Rocketdyne 
Div. SI, 142,294, 26-mo contract for additional work on aerospike 
(plug-nozzle) engine evaluated by Rocketdyne under previous msfc 
contract. Ring-like engine had tiny throats along circumference that 
discharged engine exhaust down sides of plug, making aerodynamic 
extension for plug, providing nozzle during launch ascent, and simu- 
lating performance characteristics of full-length nozzle without in- 
creased weight and length, (msfc Releases 69-43, 69—87) 

• If jpl were taxed as business it would bring in estimated $840,000 and 

reduce property tax rate in La Canada-Flintridge, Calif., district from 
$4.20 to $2.56, according to La Canada School Superintendent, Dr. 
Donald Ziehl. Instead, he told School Board, district would receive 
$85,000 from Government under fixed-amount system used in lieu of 
property tax on Federal facilities. (Michals, Glendale News-Press, 
3/19/69) 

• usaf announced award to North American Rockwell Corp. of $700,000 

initial increment to $2,473,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for research 
on feasibility of using advanced composite materials for production 
of aircraft wings, (dod Release 200—69) 
March 18—19: In testimony before House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautics' Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Leonard 
Jaffe, NASA Director of Space Applications Programs, urged commence- 
ment of Earth Resources Technology Satellite program: "We have 
reached a stage in our supporting investigations ol Earth resources 
phenomenology that can be measured from space, where we have con- 
fidence that an experimental Earth Resources Technology Satellite 
can show us the way to the future operational satellite system that 
will make major contributions to the management of our resources. 
The state of technology in sensors and spacecraft systems has also 
reached a sufficiently advanced stage, so that we can with confidence 
embark this year on the development of our first experimental Earth 
resources satellite system." 

Proposed design and selection of candidate sensors for erts had 
been closely coordinated with other Government agencies. . . . NASA 
was requesting FY 1970 funds to initiate development of flight hard- 
ware for two experimental satellites, ERTS— A and B, with ERTS— A 
scheduled for launch in late 1971 or early 1972. 

NASA also would proceed with techniques for infrared sounding of 
atmosphere with Nimbus B-2 and D launches in 1969 and 1970 and 
had begun construction of Nimbus E and F for development of micro- 
wave sounding techniques. Prototype second-generation operational 
meteorological satellite Tiros-M was being prepared for launch in 
few months. Study to define third-generation Tiros-N would start in 

85 



March 18-19 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

FY 1970. NASA planned to accelerate basic studies of remote sensor 
signature relationships, instrument development, data processing, user 
decision models, and aircraft use. 

Synchronous satellite ats-e would be launched in 1969 with gravity 
gradient experiment, ats-f and G would not be ready for first launch 
before late 1971 or early 1972. Synchronous Meteorological Satellite 
(sms), new FY 1970 effort for 1971 and 1972 launches, would use 
existing technology and be prototypes for National Operational Meteor- 
ological Satellite System (nomss). 

National Geodetic Satellite program would complete objectives with 
GEOS— c launch in 1970. Cooperative Applications Satellite (CAS), 
French satellite, would be launched on NASA Scout booster in 1970 
to track some 500 meteorological balloons to determine wind direction 
and speed. (Testimony) 
March 19: usaf launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg afb 
by Thor-Agena booster. One entered orbit with 156.6-mi (252.0-km) 
apogee, 102.5-mi (164.9-km) perigee, 86.6-min period, and 82.9° 
inclination and reentered March 24. Second entered orbit with 318.8- 
mi (513.0-km) apogee, 312.8-mi (503.3-km) perigee, 94.7-min 
period, and 83.0° inclination, (gsfc SSR, 3/31/69; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird presented to Senate Armed Services 

Committee FY 1970 defense budget reduced from Johnson Administra- 
tion proposal of $80.6 billion to $78.5 billion. He said FB— 111 bomber 
program would be cut off with aircraft already on order and work 
would be speeded up on advanced manned strategic aircraft expected 
to replace B— 52s. (Testimony) 

• Project Tektite civilian aquanauts Richard A. Waller, Conrad V. M. 

Mahnken, John G. Van Derwalker, and Dr. H. Edward Clifton set 
32-day record for remaining under water in "habitat" off St. John 
Island in Caribbean. Previous record was held by former Astronaut 
M. Scott Carpenter, who had remained submerged 30 days in 1965. 
In Project Tektite, aquanauts were trying for 60-day submersion. 
(dod Release 204-69; upi, W Post, 3/20/69, A2) 

• At Geneva luncheon during meetings of Disarmament Conference, U.S. 

and U.S.S.R. opened exploratory talks on proposed treaty banning use 
of seabed for stationing nuclear weapons, (upi, W News, 3/20/69, 2) 
March 19—21: Air Force Assn. held 23rd Annual Convention in Houston, 
Tex. Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator-designate, said national 
defense aspects of permanent space station in earth orbit was "a 
question which should not be considered only from the narrow stand- 
point of special operational systems requirements that can be clearly 
established as necessary today. The lead times are too great. 
The uncertainties as to the future world situation and the precise 
nature of future defense needs are also too great. I believe that the 
approach should be to consider carefully what our long-term national 
security posture would be ten to fifteen years from now if by then 
the United States has developed a space station capability and the 
logistics or 'space shuttle' system necessary to utilize it, and compare 
this posture to what it might be if we do not then have the capability, 
and the Soviet Union has developed and are fully utilizing such 
capability." NASA planned to work closely with Defense establishment 

86 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 19-21 

for "national program for the development of a permanent space 
station and a logistic support system in a way that will not only 
serve the needs and goals of the civilian space program, but will also 
be capable of supporting future defense research and developments 
as needs become clearly defined." (Text) 

Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force and former 
NASA Deputy Administrator, said: "Although similar space technology 
is used in Apollo Applications and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, 
there is no unnecessary duplication in the experiments planned. These 
activities require different equipment, different orbits and different 
timing. I believe that any attempt to combine the two programs would 
jeopardize the returns to each agency and would ultimately increase 
the cost. There is a distinct need to continue with manned space 
operations under both military and nonmilitary auspices. Cooperation 
between NASA and DOD has been close, and will continue." (Text) 

afa's highest award, Henry H. Arnold Trophy, was presented to 
Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William 
A. Anders, nasc Executive Secretary, Dr. Edward C. Welsh, received 
Gill Robb Wilson Trophy for Arts and Letters for his part in inter- 
preting aerospace role in modern society, afa's Citation of Honor 
went to l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf) for his management of NASA 
Apollo program, and to Maj. William J. Knight (usaf) for "out- 
standing contributions to the Air Force and the nation for being the 
first to achieve hypersonic winged flight while piloting the X— 15 air- 
craft to a speed of 4,534 miles per hour." (afsc Neivsreview, 3/69, 1; 
AFJ, 3/8/69, 30) 
March 20: Senate confirmed nomination of Dr. Thomas 0. Paine as NASA 
Administrator. (CR, 3/20/69, S2949) 

• In first test of nerva inflight configuration at Jackass Flats, Nev., engine 

was held to 1/10 maximum power development of 1,100 mw or 55,000 
lbs thrust, during three 25-sec warmups. Full power tests would be held 
in April by Aerojet-General Corp. and Westinghouse Astronuclear Lab- 
oratory, when nerva was expected to produce electrical energy equal to 
one fourth that developed by Hoover Dam. Test — to 110 mw and 5,500 
lbs thrust to duplicate engine startup procedures in space and verify 
system performance with liquid hydrogen fuel — marked first test of 
rocket with nozzle down and thrust blasting into water-cooled firing pit. 
Engine had produced sufficient energy to boil ton of water every two 
seconds, (aec/nasa Release M-54; LA Times, 3/23/69) 

• Appointment of NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and Man- 

agement Harold B. Finger as first Assistant Secretary for Urban 
Research and Technology was announced by Housing and Urban 
Development Secretary George W. Romney. From 1960 until 1967, 
Finger had been manager for aec— NASA Space Nuclear Propulsion 
Office and, since 1961, director of nuclear system for OART. (upi, NYT, 
3/16/68, 39; AP, W Post, 3/21/69, A17) 

• msfc announced it had signed $4,095,000 contract with Radio Corp. of 

America for engineering and logistics support for ground computer 
systems and other equipment in Saturn V program, (msfc Release 
69-84) 

• NASA announced completion of negotiations for one-year $513,293,000 ex- 

87 



March 20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tension, through 1969, of cost-plus-fixed-fee contract with Philco-Ford 
Corp. Education and Technical Services Div. for engineering support 
and related services at Wallops Station. (NASA Release 69—8) 
March 21: Dept. of Commerce, dod, Dept. of Interior, DOT, aec, NASA, and 
NSF released News from BOMEX, report of Barbados Oceanographic 
and Meteorological Experiment to be conducted in May, June, and 
July in cooperation with government of Barbados. Scientific study of 
joint behavior and interactions of atmosphere-ocean system in sub- 
tropical and tropical waters was part of Federal Air-Sea Interaction 
Research Program and major U.S. contribution to Global Atmospheric 
Research Program (garp). bomex would study continuous exchange 
of energy, momentum, gases, particulates, and electrical charges at air- 
sea interface and study ways in which energy and other properties were 
transported from area by atmosphere and ocean. 

NASA would test concepts of satellite sensors for weather and oceano- 
graphic observations. Its experimental weather and communications 
satellites {Ats III, Nimbus III, and ESSA satellites) and devices being 
developed under Earth Resources Survey Satellite program would be 
directly engaged in bomex. Photos taken by Apollo 9 astronauts with 
hand-held Hasselblad camera of 900 sq mi of equatorial Atlantic Ocean 
off Barbados would be used in project. (Text; NASA News; Science, 
3/28/69, 1435-6) 

• First decade in space corresponded with early years of aviation following 

Wright brothers flight at Kitty Hawk, nasa Associate Administrator for 
Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, told Annual Kiwanis 
Dinner in Milledgeville, Ga. "I recently calculated the costs per seat 
mile of their first flight for comparison with our Apollo flight to the 
moon. They probably had ten thousand dollars invested in first Kitty 
Hawk flight that went one fifth of a mile, giving a cost per seat mile 
for Orville of fifty thousand dollars. We will have about twenty-four 
billion dollars invested in our first five-hundred-thousand-mile trip for 
three astronauts to the moon, giving a cost of only about sixteen 
thousand dollars per seat mile. We are ahead of the Wright Brothers — 
but we have a long way to go to catch up with the DC— 8 or 707. If 
subsequent flights to the moon cost two hundred million dollars each, 
that's less than one hundred and fifty dollars a seat mile, so we are 
going in the right direction." (Text) 

• Intelsat conference of 67 countries and observers from Communist bloc 

and underdeveloped nations ended at State Dept. without agreement on 
method of sharing control over international satellite communications. 
Committee of INTELSAT members was appointed to work through sum- 
mer on alternate drafts of final agreement to be presented to conference 
in November. Leonard H. Marks, American chairman of conference, 
had announced his resignation and would return to private law prac- 
tice in Washington, D.C. (Lydon, NYT, 3/23/69, 31; Rpt of US Del) 

• Aviation Progress Committee announced appointment of former Sen. 

A. S. Mike Monroney as consultant and adviser to committee and 
stated its purpose was "to work with interested individuals and organi- 
zations to . . . seek and support ways to improve and expand the 
National Aviation System of airports and airways." As Chairman of 
Aviation Subcommittee of Senate Commerce Committee, Monroney had 

88 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 21 

been largely responsible for legislation which created faa in 1958. 
(Committee Release; W Star, 3/23/69, C5) 

• Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe announced award of $544,302 

faa contract to Laboratory for Electronics, Inc., to develop two low- 
cost, solid-state, microwave-instrument landing systems (ils) for stol 
aircraft operations at faa's National Aviation Facilities Experimental 
Center in Atlantic City, N.J., and at suitable operational STOLport such 
as Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C. (faa Release 
69-38) 

• Harvard Univ. biologist Dr. George Wald and MIT physicist Dr. Bruno 

Rossi disclosed that some 251 nas members out of 806 had signed 
letter to President Nixon expressing continued opposition to deploy- 
ment by U.S. of ABM system. Letter said, "Russia is as well prepared 
to build such devices as we are. This can only introduce a new and 
perhaps disastrous spiral in the arms race. Our science and technology, 
rather than being used to add further to the present 'balance of terror,' 
needs to be redirected to solving pressing problems of poverty, mal- 
nutrition, control of population, and improvement of the human en- 
vironment for our own people and people everywhere." ( AP, W Post, 
3/22/69, A5) 
March 22: Cosmos CCLXXIII was launched by U.S.S.R. into orbit with 
335-km (208.2-mi) apogee, 199-km (123.6-mi) perigee, 89.8-min 
period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered March 30. (GSFC SSR, 
3/31/69) 

• Five segments of Apollo 9's 6,500,000-lb "stack" remained in space, 

making total 1,613 objects floating in earth orbit after Apollo 9, said 
James J. Haggerty, Jr., in Armed Forces Journal. Descent stage of LM, 
in eccentric low orbit, would soon be captured by earth gravity and 
burn on reentry; ascent stage might remain in high orbit 20 yrs, along 
with LM adapter [GSFC reported later that LM descent stage had re- 
entered March 22; ascent stage was still in orbit]. S-IVB 3rd stage 
mated to instrument unit was directed into solar orbit. Of 1,613 orbit- 
ing objects listed by norad, 356 were payloads, both active and 
expired. Remaining 1,257 pieces were debris. 

Items in solar orbit included 3rd-stage and instrument-unit combina- 
tions from Apollo 8 and 9, four U.S. Pioneers and Mariner VI still 
sending useful data, and U.S. and U.S.S.R. planetary explorers 
launched before 1969. About 20 solar orbiting objects would remain in 
space a long time, along with 28 spacecraft which had crashed on other 
celestial bodies, including* U.S. S.R.'s Venus III and IV on Venus, 9 
Soviet Lunas, 5 U.S. Rangers, 7 Surveyors, and 5 Lunar Orbiters. 
(AFJ, 3/22/69, 15; gsfc SSR, 3/31/69) 

• dod announced name of planned U.S. antiballistic missile defense had 

officially been changed from Sentinel to Safeguard. (AP, W Star, 
3/23/69, A4) 
March 23: NASA announced release of The Book of Mars, one-volume digest 
of facts and theories about Mars by Dr. Samuel Glasstone, illustrated 
with photos taken during Mariner IV mission 1964-65, when space- 
craft flew within 6,000 mi of Mars surface. Book traced history of 
man's acquisition of Mars data and compared Mars with other planets. 
(nasa Special Release) 

89 



March 23 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• William Hines in Washington Sunday Star commented on "deadly dull- 

ness" of last five days of Apollo 9 mission: "The flight plan of Apollo 
9 — which most people do not see and therefore do not understand — 
was carefully divided into six 'activity periods,' of which five were 
each about 24 hours long and the sixth five days in duration. 

"It is no criticism of the . . . crew that after five days of brilliant 
spacemanship they took it easy for the rest of the flight. Nor is it 
criticism of the space program to say that the last half of Apollo 9 
was dull. It was planned that way, and if it had turned out otherwise 
the United States very likely would not be attempting a moon landing 
in July." (W Star, 3/23/69, C4) 
March 24: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXX1V into orbit with 300-km 
(186.4-mi) apogee, 208-km (129.3-mi) perigee, 89.5-min period, and 
64.9° inclination. Satellite reentered April 1. (gsfc SSR, 3/31/69; 
4/15/69) 

• JPL astronomer Dr. Ronald Schorn announced "definite and conclusive" 

evidence of water on Mars had been found in five-year study with 
Stephen Little of Univ. of Texas and JPL scientist Dr. C. B. Farmer at 
McDonald Observatory in Ft. Davis, Tex. Noting Mars generally should 
be compared with driest deserts of earth, he said: "If you took all the 
water we found and laid it out over the whole planet, it would be only 
1,000th of an inch thick. Mars may still not be a great place to live, 
but there's a chance of life there." Photos to be taken by Mariner VI 
and Mariner VII spacecraft, Dr. Schorn said, would help solve question 
of whether enough water existed to sustain life on Mars. 

New spectra, superior to any previously available, were made pos- 
sible by NASA-supported improvements in McDonald 82-in Struve re- 
flecting telescope and its large spectrograph. Observations of Mars were 
beginning with more powerful, 107-in reflecting telescope at McDonald, 
constructed with funds from NASA, nsf, and Univ. of Texas, (nasa 
Release 69-48; AP, W Post, 3/25/69, A5) 

• Apollo 10 mission would be launched from ETR May 18 carrying Astro- 

nauts Thomas P. Stafford (commander), John W. Young (cm pilot), 
and Eugene A. Cernan (lm pilot) on eight-day lunar orbital mission. 
Final decision to fly mission as previously planned followed review of 
technical and operational data from Apollo 9 (March 3—13). Mission 
would provide additional experience in combined system operation and, 
with exception of actual landing on lunar surface, was same as for 
lunar landing mission. While spacecraft circled moon at 69-mi (111.0- 
km) altitude, Stafford and Cernan would separate LM from CSM, pilot 
lm twice to within 10 mi (16.1 km) of preselected landing site, and 
return to CSM. Crew would then make landmark sightings, take photos, 
and transmit live TV views of moon, earth, and spacecraft interior 
before returning to earth, (nasa Release 69-46) 

• Gas from solar flare wiped out much of earth's outer radiation belt and 

caused auroral displays — normally seen only over subpolar regions — 
to move to lower latitudes. Residents of metropolitan New York area 
flooded weather bureau and newspapers with inquiries. Radiation belts' 
discoverer, Dr. James A. Van Allen, said display might have been 
caused by class 2— B flare on sun. essa's space disturbance warning 
center, Boulder, Colo., said several smaller flares had occurred March 
21 and 22. Auroras were to be expected, Walter Sullivan said in New 

90 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 24 

York Times, because sun was near maximum of its 11-yr cycle of sun- 
spot and eruptive activity. {NYT, 3/25/69, 30) 

• MSFC contract awards: $1,521,500 supplemental agreement with IBM for 

design improvement of control signal processors for Apollo/Saturn V 
guidance instrument units; and $1,334,931 contract modification to 
McDonnell Douglas Corp. to develop, design, manufacture, and test 
restarting oxygen/hydrogen burner, (msfc Releases 69—88, 69—89) 

• USN announced award of $28,161,681 modification to contract with LTV 

Aerospace Corp. for improvement changes on F— 8B and F— 8C aircraft. 
(DOD Release 212-69) 
March 25: Apollo 9 commander James A. McDivitt told press at Washing- 
ton, D.C., news conference that Apollo 9 spacecraft performance had 
been outstanding and procedures had been "as near perfect as anything 
I could possibly imagine," without deviating "from a single step in 
rendezvous . . . and I don't recall a single procedure that we recom- 
mended be changed." 

Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart said new spacesuit had increased 
mobility significantly. Activities like manipulating camera were "prob- 
ably the most challenging . . . and I found that after taking a whole 
series of pictures and all the various motions you go through . . . my 
hands were far less tired than I would have anticipated." (Transcript) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Manned 

Space Flight voted to add $230.5 million to $2.212-billion authorization 
requested by NASA for manned space flight in FY 1970. Of raise, $168 
million was earmarked for development of scientific payloads for six 
manned lunar landings between 1970 and 1973 and $66 million for 
space flight operations to cover flying men in earth orbit for month at 
a time, in 1970 onward. Flights were to be forerunners of orbiting 
space stations. {CR, 3/26/69, D233; Committee member) 

• White House submitted to Senate nomination of former NASA Associate 

Administrator for Organization and Management Harold B. Finger to 
be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. (PD, 
3/31/69, 489) 

• MSFC announced award of $3,657,000 contract to Sanders Associates, 

Inc., for continuation of engineering and logistics support for opera- 
tional display systems for Saturn V program. Contract covered Oct. 1, 
1968, through June 1970. (msfc Release 69-91) 
March 26: U.S.S.R. launched Meteor I satellite from Plesetsk into orbit with 
686-km (426.3-mi) apogee, 632-km (392.7-mi) perigee, 97.9-min 
period, and 81.1° inclination. Tass said satellite carried solar batteries 
and would obtain information about weather prospects. (GSFC SSR, 
3/31/69; AP, NYT, 3/28/69, 5; lnteravia, 11/69, 1751) 

• In NASA Hq. Apollo 9 awards ceremony Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, 

as nasc Chairman, presented NASA Distinguished Service Medals to 
Astronauts James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. 
Schweickart for individual contributions to "the Nation's manned space 
flight program and the advancement of space technology" as partici- 
pants in "this historic mission, the first manned flight involving the 
Command Module, Lunar Module, and extravehicular mobility unit." 
NASA Exceptional Service Medal went to Carroll H. Bolender, Manager 
for Lunar Module, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, msc, and 
Eugene F. Kranz, Apollo 9 Flight Director, Flight Control Div., msc. 

91 



March 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

NASA Public Service Award was presented to Llewellyn J. Evans, Presi- 
dent of Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., LM manufacturer. (NASA 
Awards summary) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics' Subcommittee on Ad- 

vanced Research and Technology voted increase of $11.8 million over 
$818.8-million nasa request for research. \CR, 3/26/69, D233) 

• NASA reported experiments with yaw-damper system developed at FRC, 

consisting of small gyroscope, magnetic-clutch actuator, and electronics 
control assembly in package occupying 1/10 cu ft and weighing less 
than two pounds. It could cost as little as $200 and be installed on 
light general-aviation aircraft to control "dutch roll" or yawing. Com- 
mercial jet aircraft were equipped with advanced systems to eliminate 
yawing, (nasa Release 69-44) 

• Boeing Co.'s Vertol Div. was conducting wind-tunnel tests of $250,000 

model of v/stol aircraft with tilting wing and large cyclic-pitch 
propellers, New York Times said. Tests would provide data for ad- 
vanced aircraft, including Light Intratheater Transport (lit) for which 
USAF was funding studies. Tilt wing rotated from horizontal to vertical 
flight in takeoff or descent. Cyclic pitch would control pitch (nose-up- 
or-down movement) by acting on all four of aircraft's propellers simul- 
taneously. According to Boeing engineers, cyclic pitch would eliminate 
need for horizontal tail rotor for pitch control in hovering and slow 
flight. Large propellers — 26 ft in dia on full-sized aircraft — would 
reduce engine horsepower requirements. (NYT, 3/2/69, 93) 

• In Washington Post Thomas O'Toole said: ". . . man's flight to the moon 

and beyond could be the only means he has left of renewing his 
dwindling spirits. . . . The voyage of Apollo 8 around the moon last 
Christmas did more than any other single event last year to restore 
man's faith in himself- — and that flight will pale beside an actual moon 
landing when it comes. ... It could just be that when man walks the 
moon for the first time it will be felt round the world as such a triumph 
of the human heart that its beat shall go on for a million years." (W 
Post, 3/26/69, A27) 
March 27— April 8: NASA's Mariner VII (Mariner G) spacecraft was success- 
fully launched from ETR by Atlas-Centaur (AC-19) booster on four- 
month, 193-million-mi, direct-ascent trajectory toward Mars — NASA's 
second mission to fly past Mars during 1969 launch window. Launch 
vehicle performance was nominal. Spacecraft separated from Centaur, 
deployed its four solar panels, and locked its sensors on sun and star 
Vega. Because of several minor spacecraft anomalies during launch, 
spacecraft was kept in sun-Vega cruise while performance was eval- 
uated. Star-lock override command was transmitted to spacecraft April 
1 ; Canopus was acquired as planned initially and Mariner VII entered 
stable cruise mode. Midcourse maneuver was conducted April 8 to 
ensure that spacecraft would fly within 1,900 mi (3,057.7 km) of Mars 
Aug. 5. 

Primary mission objective was to fly by southern hemisphere and 
polar regions of Mars to set basis for future experiments, particularly 
those relevant to search for extraterrestrial life. As secondary mission 
spacecraft would develop technology needed for succeeding Mars mis- 
sions. The 900-lb spacecraft carried six complementary experiments to 
provide information about Martian surface and atmosphere. Mariner 

92 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1%9 



March 27- April 8 




March 27 April 8: nasa launched Mariner VII on an Atlas-Centaur booster as the 
set ond of two spacecraft in the Mariner Mars 19W mission to take photographs and 
colled data about the surface and atmosphere of Mars. Mariner IV was launched 
Feb. 24. An April 8 maneuver ensured that Mariner VII would pass Mars Aug. 5. 



VII mission, except for flyby area, was almost identical to mission of 
Mariner VI launched Feb. 24 for investigation of equatorial region and 
scheduled to arrive at Mars July 31. (nasa Proj Off; nasa Releases 
69-26, 69-42 ) 



93 



March 27-29 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

March 27-29: NASA launched four Nike-Cajun sounding rockets carrying 
csfc payloads to obtain data on atmospheric parameters. Two rockets 
launched from Arenosillo, Spain, March 27—28 reached 75.2- and 
75.8-mi (121- and 122-km) altitudes, each exploding 19 grenades with 
sound arrivals recorded on ground. Rockets launched from Wallops 
Station March 28-29 reached 75.4- and 69.1-mi (121.3- and 111.2-km) 
altitudes and exploded 19 grenades each, with sound arrivals recorded 
on ground. Data would be analyzed and compared, (nasa Rpts srl) 

March 27: LaRC had awarded 10-mo, $155,000 feasibility study contract to 
North American Rockwell Corp. to design two-man, lunar emergency, 
escape-to-orbit vehicle which could be carried aboard LM on Apollo 
missions. (SBD, 3/27/69, 125; nar Skywriter, 4/4/69, 1) 

• aec-nasa Space Nuclear Propulsion Office awarded Aerojet-General Corp. 

$47,447,601 contract extension for completion of preliminary engine 
and component design for nerva i and initiation of procurement or fabri- 
cation of component development hardware. Extension, from Oct. 1, 
1968, through Sept. 30, 1969, brought total value of cost-plus-fixed-fee 
contract to $500,015,527. (nasa Release 69-47) 

• MSFC announced $7,384,543 modification to contract with Chrysler Corp. 

Space Div. for assembly of two boosters for Saturn IB rockets 213 and 
214 for use in Apollo Applications program, (msfc Release 69—93) 
March 28: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXV into orbit with 761-km 
(472.9-mi) apogee, 275-km (170.9-mi) perigee, 95.1-min period, and 
70.9° inclination. Satellite reentered Feb. 7, 1970. (gsfc SSR, 
3/31/69; 2/7/70) 

• NASA Science and Technology Advisory Committee for Manned Space 

Flight, chaired by Dr. Charles H. Townes, published Proceedings of the 
Winter Study on Uses of Manned Space Flight, 1975—1985, Vol. I — 
Proceedings: NASA program for next two decades must project state of 
technology for that period. Program must be balanced in use of 
manned and automated operations. "The benefits to the nation, both 
internal and international, dictate that the United States remain in the 
forefront of all major categories of space activities," space sciences, 
exploration of solar system, manned space flight capability, and eco- 
nomic applications of space flight. 

Study said it was reasonable to use M>% to 1% of gnp to support 
civilian space flight program of which major elements were: (1) ag- 
gressive automated planetary exploration program as recommended by 
NAS— nrc Space Science Board, with options for manned phase to follow 
early automated phase; (2) economic applications program as recom- 
mended by 1968 Summer Study on Space Applications by NAS; (3) 
continuation of lunar exploration after Apollo landing as recommended 
by Lunar and Planetary Missions Board of nasa; (4) vigorous pro- 
gram of astronomical observations in earth orbit as recommended by 
nasa Astronomy Missions Board; and (5) extension of manned space 
flight capability in earth orbit to longer duration for scientific and 
technological purposes. Achievement of manned low-cost transporta- 
tion system deserved high priority. Study recommended use of long- 
duration manned space station designed to support men in weightless 
condition "unless unexpected biomedical problems are encountered or 
overwhelming engineering advantages for artificial gravity are dis- 
covered." It agreed on advisability of placing observatories and labora- 

94 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 March 28 

tories in earth orbit but noted, "Relative emphasis among these activi- 
ties and the extent of manned attendance desirable in each, must be 
decided by appropriate studies and experiments." 

"To provide a focal point for structuring a manned planetary pro- 
gram a target date of 1982 and the Mars landing mode ... are assumed 
here for discussion. Achievement of the operational capability in that 
year would require initiation of system design in about 1975." (Text) 

• President Nixon received report of 10-member ad hoc committee ap- 
pointed Feb. 7 to review all aspects of SST program. Under Secretary of 
Transportation James M. Beggs, chairman, said no votes were taken 
by committee on recommendations to President; each member had sub- 
mitted his suggestions to Transportation Secretary John A. Volpe and 
they were included in report. ( upi, W Post, 3/29/69, A2) 

March 29: While Nixon Administration warned of $2- to $3-billion cut in 
FY 1970 budget, nasa was asking SlOO-million increase with good 
chance of approval, James J. Haggerty, Jr., said in Armed Forces 
Journal, "nasa officials report a generally warmer reception on Capitol 
Hill as a result of near-flawless performance on all of the manned 
Apollo missions." Apollo 1970 funding represented penultimate install- 
ment on basic program and "Congress can at last see light at the end 
of the tunnel." Most important, "extra SlOO-million is a real bargain 
price for the potential benefit . . . one of those deals that the buyer can't 
afford to turn down. If you invest a hundred thousand in a magnificent 
home and the contractor demands another thousand to put a roof on it, 
you have little option." Since U.S. had committed $25 billion to pro- 
gram, "it would be questionable economy to settle for less than maxi- 
mum benefit by withholding what amounts to two-fifths of one percent 
of the total." ( AFJ, 3/29/69, 21 ) 

March 30: Thomas O'Toole in Washington Post said plans for handling 
lunar samples [see March 12] had stirred bitter scientific controversy. 
Tests scheduled at nasa's Lunar Receiving Laboratory would last at 
least two months while scientists waited for "the chance to study what 
amounts to a Rosetta stone that could hold the clue to the origin of life 
itself." At close of examination period, NASA would parcel out moon 
rocks to 110 scientists from group of 600 and even "chosen few" had 
no guarantee of receiving piece of moon. LRL official had explained 
that if NASA found, for example, that there was absolutely no evidence 
of radioactive argon, "It would be quite foolish to waste a sample on 
a man . . . whose primary goal was to look for radioactive argon." 
Scientists also were disturbed over involvement of other Federal 
agencies in lunar sample handling. (W Post, 3/30/69, Al) 

March 31: Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service published 
United States and Soviet Rivalry in Space: Who Is Ahead, and Hoiv 
Do the Contenders Compare? by Dr. Charles S. Sheldon II, Senior 
Specialist in Space Transportation and Technology, Science Policy 
Research Div. By June 30, 1969, U.S. expected to have spent $50.6 
billion on space. Because of greater w r eight of Soviet hardware, "one 
could assume that their program is at least of the same magnitude . . . 
and may be larger." While "there is no reason to believe their total 
aerospace industry is as fully equipped as our own," missiles in Mos- 
cow parades indicated existence of multiple design and development 
team for space work. Each country seemed adequately equipped with 

95 



March 31 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

launch pads and ground support. While U.S. had worldwide tracking 
system supplemented by ships and electronics-carrying aircraft, 
U.S.S.R. accepted "certain constraints," relying on ships to fill gaps in 
tracking system. U.S. launch vehicles ranged from those lifting 20 lbs 
to Saturn V capable of 285,000-lb lift to low earth orbit. U.S.S.R. still 
used basic icbm vehicle introduced in 1957, with upper stages added 
to improve performance. 

While NASA program was run on open basis, there was less "open- 
ness" in dod. U.S.S.R. "holds to a minimum advance notice of flights, 
limits information . . . but at least makes a prompt announcement, as- 
signs a name, and gives orbital parameters" of successful launches. 
There seemed little difference between space programs "as to general 
purpose and direction." Both placed emphasis on military, though 
little was known of Soviet organization pattern. All "reasonable analy- 
ses are fairly convincing that up to this time the Soviet Union has not 
placed nuclear bombs in orbit." 

In space applications U.S. "has held a clear lead from the earlier 
days." U.S.S.R. "has made a greater relative effort in . . . flights com- 
mitted to lunar and planetary work than the United States" but "has 
not gained as good results." 

In future programs, both nations "undoubtedly have to face hard 
budget choices before actual hardware can begin." Soviet goal was 
"comprehensive exploitation of space technology including the explo- 
ration and settlement (where practical) of the planets, along the way 
exploring the Moon in great detail, and using Earth orbital stations for 
a host of practical purposes." While large orbital station would be 
within NASA's technical capabilities in late 1970s, beginning of such 
capability probably already existed in U.S.S.R., but "it would be risky 
to predict whether such a station will appear soon or only after some 
years." 

Cooperation of U.S. and U.S.S.R. in space already existed in ex- 
change of information, treaties, plans for trading space-collected 
weather pictures, plans for joint textbook on space biology, and joint 
efforts in geomagnetism, but no assessment could be made of future 
prospects. (Text) 
• At American Cancer Society Seminar in New Orleans, La., Clarence D. 
Cone, Jr., head of LaRc's Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, discussed 
his discovery of intercellular linkages and its application to under- 
standing behavior of certain cancer types. His basic research into 
effects of space radiation on body cells had enabled him to observe 
phenomenon in which dividing cancer cell appeared able to induce 
connected cells to divide by transmitting chain-reaction stimulation 
through thin linkage of cytoplasm. Networks of these stimulus-trans- 
mission bridges permitted continued division of cells and, in human 
body, might constitute basic mechanism for cancer spread. ( NASA 
Release 69-45) 
During March: nsf published Scientific Activities of Nonprofit Institutions, 

1966 (nsf 69—16). Full-time equivalent number of R&D scientists and 
engineers employed by independent nonprofit institutions in January 

1967 totaled 24,300, annual increase of 12.4% from 1954 to 1967. In 
1966 expenditure for R&D in independent nonprofit institutions was 

million — about seven times the $100 million in 1953. Federal 

96 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During March 

R&D expenditures contracted to nonprofit institutions reached $540 
million in 1906, nine times 1953's $60 million. (Text) 

• nsf published R&D Activities of Local Governments, Fiscal Years 1966 

and 1967 (NSF 69-14). Local governments spent $20.3 million in 1966 
and $28.8 million in 1967 for R&D and $1 million in 1966 and nearly 
$3 million in 1967 on R&D plant. Federal Government provided 56% 
of funds in 1967 and local governments, 35 % . Health and hospitals 
accounted for approximately 50% of total local R&D expenditures in 
both years, with education second at 10%. (Text) 

• Engineer, journal of Engineers Joint Council, published "The Engineer- 

ing Profession: A New Profile." Management, not design or develop- 
ment, was most common job function of engineers. Only about 10% 
of engineers worked directly for Federal Government and 12 c /< in total 
aircraft, missile, and rocket area. Median age of engineers was 43 and 
profession was more than 99% male. (Text) 



97 



April 1969 

April 1: Reporting findings from four months of Oao II data to 129th 
meeting of American Astronomical Society in Honolulu, Univ. of Wis- 
consin astronomer Dr. Arthur D. Code said: "It puzzles me to see so 
much ultraviolet light from the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and so little 
from M81 because they are rather old 'garden variety' galaxies. . . . 
There is a possibility that we might have discovered an old quasar a 
few million light years away." 

Full impact of Oao II data would not be felt for couple of years. 
"Some theories on cosmology will have to be modified and others dis- 
carded. Practically all phases of optical astronomy will be affected." 
Temperature figures assigned to young, hot stars with masses more 
than 15 times sun's would require alteration. "These stars are con- 
siderably hotter than 20,000 degrees absolute. They are aging about 
twice as fast as we thought and are burning hydrogen at a very rapid 
rate." oao data thus far provided argument against steady-state theory 
of universe which maintained universe always looked same, from any 
point at any time, Dr. Code said. 

At same meeting, Joseph Purcell, oao Project Manager at GSFC, said 
Oao II's observatory control system had exceeded its pointing accuracy 
requirement of one minute of arc by factor of two. "A subsequent OAO 
will be 100 times more stable." (nasa Release 69-51; Lannan, W Star, 
4/4/69, A5) 

• NASA's Mariner VII Mars probe (launched March 27) obeyed radio com- 

mand to lock its sensors on star Canopus. Spacecraft would fly past 
Mars night of Aug. 4. Command was radioed from NASA tracking sta- 
tion in Woomera, Australia. (AP, W Post, 4/2/69; upi, C Trib, 
4/3/69) 

• Pakistan had successfully launched her first rocket, a two-stage vehicle 

to investigate upper atmosphere, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere 
Research Committee announced. (AP, W Post, 4/2/69, A7) 

• Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird told House Armed Services Com- 

mittee he planned to cut FY 1970 defense budget by at least $1.1 
billion because of Nation's "extremely difficult and dangerous economic 
and fiscal situation." At press interview following testimony, he said 
dod budget submitted to Congress included cutback in B— 52 raids over 
South Vietnam from 1,800 to 1,600. (Transcript of Press Conference; 
Corddry, B San, 4/2/69, Al) 
April 2: National Academy of Engineering announced election of 44 U.S. 
engineers to membership. Included were Dr. John S. Foster, Jr., Di- 
rector of Defense Research and Engineering, honored for "techno- 
logical leadership in defense research and engineering," and Edward 
Wenk, Jr., Executive Secretary of National Council on Marine Re- 
sources and Engineering Development, for "major contributions to the 

99 



April 2 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



design of military submarines and other underwater equipment." 
(nae Release) 
April 3: Dr. Thomas 0. Paine was sworn in by Vice President Spiro T. 
Agnew as NASA Administrator in ceremony in Vice President's office. 
Dr. Paine said: "I am particularly anxious to see that in the second 




April 3: Dr. Thomas 0. Paine (right) was sworn in as Administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew. 



decade of space we bring down to the people on earth more of the 
benefits that can be obtained from this wonderful new technology. . . . 
Such areas as navigation, communications and particularly earth re- 
sources are things that are very much on our minds as we look out to 
the moon and beyond." ( NASA Hq WB; Sehlstedt, B Sun, 4/4/69; AP, 
W Post, 4/4/69) 
National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal for research, exploration, 
and discovery was presented by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew to 
Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William 
A. Anders in Constitution Hall, Washington, D.C. Vice President 
Agnew said: "The possibilities of space exploration are so infinite they 
overwhelm the mind. The speed with which we have reached this new 
threshold of hope itself is awesome. Less than half a century has 
passed since the Hubbard Award was presented to Colonel Charles A. 
Lindbergh for his solo flight from New York to Paris. Less than a 
decade has passed since Colonel John Glenn was awarded the first 
Hubbard Medal for exploration in space." 



100 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 3 

Award, one of Nation's highest honors, had been given only 24 
times in 63 years, for outstanding achievement in geography and ex- 
ploration. First medal had gone to Robert E. Peary in 1906 for Arctic 
explorations. 

Earlier in day at National Geographic headquarters, Apollo 8 astro- 
nauts had received General Thomas D. White Space Trophy for L968, 
awarded to military or civilian USAF member making most outstanding 
contribution to U.S. progress in aerospace. ( ngs Release I 

• MSFC announced two contract awards. Definitive $38,340,000 contract to 

North American Rockwell Corp. Rocketdyne Div. for J-2 engine oper- 
ational and flight support Jan. 1, 1969, to June 30, 1970, replaced 
letter contract which earlier authorized S9 million. Contract modifica- 
tion of $15,253,945 was given to Chrysler Corp. Space Div. for ex- 
tending delivery schedule of Saturn IB boosters and stage storage. 
I msfc Releases 69-97, 69-96) 
April 4: U.S.S.R. launched two Cosmos satellites from Plesetsk. Cosmos 
CCLXXV1 entered orbit with 371-km (230.5-mi) apogee, 200-km 
(124.3-mi) perigee, 90.1-min period, and 81.3° inclination and re- 
entered April 11. Cosmos CCLXXVll entered orbit with 466-km 
(289.6-mi) apogee, 267-km (165.9-mi) perigee, 91.8-min period, 
and 70.9° inclination and reentered July 6. ( GSFC SSR, 4/15/69; 
7/15/69; AP, C Trib, 4/5/69; sbd Space Log Supplement, 4/15/69) 

• usaf X-24A lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld R. Gentry 

I. USAF), was carried to 45,000-ft altitude by B-52 aircraft during first 
captive flight. All systems functioned satisfactorily and vehicle was 
deemed flight worthy in nasa-usaf program. I NASA Proj Off) 

• NAA announced Apollo 8 Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., 

and William A. Anders would receive 1968 Robert J. Collier Trophy 
for significant achievement in aeronautics and astronautics, as repre- 
sentatives of "entire United States space flight team for the successful 
and flawless execution of the first manned lunar orbit mission in his- 
tory." Trophy would be presented by President Nixon at Washington, 
D.C., luncheon May 7. I NAA Release) 

• Astronaut James A. Lovell, Jr., received Distinguished Service Medal at 

dod ceremony for service as Apollo 8 command module pilot. I W Post, 
4/5/69, A7) 

• Apollo 8 Astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders, both 

U.S. Naval Academy graduates, presented Academy flag carried aboard 
Apollo 8 spacecraft to brigade representing 4,000 midshipmen at 
Annapolis. I AP, B Sun, 4/3/69, All) 

• INTELSAT conference ended March 21 had made it clear "that Intelsat, in 

its brief 5-year history, has been an extraordinary success," wrote 
Robert J. Samuelson in Science. Its transoceanic satellites, transmitting 
telephone signals primarily, had tended to depress cost of communica- 
tions by multiplying available channels and pressuring carriers to 
lower rates. Satellites had given "third world" nations in Asia, Africa, 
and Latin America, previously dependent upon "confused mixture of 
radio and cable channels," chance to join advanced worlds communi- 
cations system. Attendance of U.S.S.R. as conference observer was 
"sure sign" of Intelsat success. 

Soviet decision to join INTELSAT might hinge on organization's de- 
cision about its future. Issue was Intelsat's formal structure and 

101 



April 4 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

problem was "determining how large a role the United States should 
play." U.S. domination stemmed from its economic and technological 
power. U.S. firm, ComSatCorp, was made manager of INTELSAT under 
1964 agreement, to oversee satellite design, contract with nasa for 
launchings, and supervise operation in space. 

Month-long meeting had not resulted in accord on even draft agree- 
ment. Europeans wanted to replace ComSatCorp management with 
international secretariat to subcontract technical tasks to ComSatCorp 
and other organizations as they demonstrated genuine competence. 
U.S. approach was, Why "tamper with a successful formula?" Funda- 
mental issue lay deeper. "Technological superiority . . . creates its own 
foreign policy problems. America's Intelsat partners are pushing for a 
Space Age which — if not truly international — is at least more multi- 
national." (Science, 4/4/69, 56-7) 

• faa released Air Traffic Activity Report for 1968: Los Angeles Inter- 

national Airport had climbed to position of second busiest U.S. airport, 
from sixth place in 1967. Los Angeles had logged 594,486 takeoffs and 
landings. O'Hare International in Chicago, which had ranked first 
every year since 1962, still led with 690,810. Van Nuys, Calif., re- 
tained third position with 567,973 total and led in general aviation 
with 317,816 operations. Instrument-flight-rule aircraft handled by faa 
air route traffic control centers had more than doubled in decade, to 
19.4 million in 1968. (faa Release 69-43) 

April 5: nasa adoption of field sequential color TV system to relay pictures 
from moon on future Apollo flights was "solace" to inventor Dr. Peter 
C. Goldmark, president of CBS Laboratories, New York Times said. 
System, employing small revolving filter disc to inject primary colors 
in front of camera, had been rejected by industry and FCC some 15 yrs 
earlier in favor of all-electronic compatible system now in worldwide 
use. Advantage of Goldmark system on moon flights was ability to 
pick up usable color images under exceptionally low levels of light 
intensity — important where stars might be major illumination source. 
Images received from space would then be converted through com- 
patible system for home reception. Dr. Goldmark said system might 
be "first technological breakthrough that is 28 years old." (NYT, 
4/5/69, 30) 

April 6: In interview published by This Week, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank 
Borman said many things could be learned from moon: "One ... I 
hope will be international cooperation, such as now exists in Antarctica. 
Even though the moon struck me as a very desolate, forbidding ex- 
panse, it will be very beneficial for men to work together to unlock its 
many mysteries and secrets. I hope that both the moon and the large 
permanent space stations from earth will be citadels for international 
cooperation and that the people who visit them will really be inter- 
nationalists in the truest sense." (This Week, 4/6/69) 

• Baltimore Sun said Indiana Univ. had announced plans for experiments 

with NASA to determine problems in making future lunar colonies self- 
supporting. Studies to start in August would probe feasibility of grow- 
ing earth plants in lunar soil to provide food for manned space stations 
and possibly fodder for animals transported to moon colonies in 20 to 
30 yrs. "Moon grow" experiment would use lunar soil retrieved by 
lunar missions and would expand as more material became available. 

102 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 6 

Experiments would be conducted by astrobotanist Dr. Paul Mahlberg 
and team at MSC laboratory and later at university. (Perkinson, B Sun, 
4/6/69) 
April 7: nasa's Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV), piloted by NASA 
test pilot Harold E. Ream, successfully completed six-minute flight at 
Ellington afb. LLTV flights had been suspended since Dec. 8, 1968, 
crash. ( AP, B Sun, 4/8/69, A3; 4/7/69, A9) 

• msfc announced engineer Chester B. May would be member of oceanolo- 

gist Dr. Jacques Piccard's six-man crew on Gulf Stream Drift Mission, 
scientific undersea journey aboard submersible vessel Ben Franklin 
(PX-15). Vessel would drift with Gulf Stream current from Miami, 
Fla., to Halifax, Nova Scotia, from four to six weeks beginning in 
June. May would study vessel's operation and evaluate analogies be- 
tween it and future NASA space station. Mission, covering 1,450 nm, 
would be conducted at 1,000-ft average depth, with periodic excur- 
sions to 300 ft and 2,000 ft. PX-15, designed by Dr. Piccard, would 
remain submerged throughout journey. Crew would experience space 
station characteristics: isolation, confinement, and stressful environ- 
ment. (MSFC Release 69-100; Marshall Star, 4/9/69, 1) 

• "World's only jet-powered personal jet propulsion system" — jet belt 

developed by Bell Aerosystems Co. under DOD sponsorship — made its 
first free flight near Niagara Falls International Airport. Device would 
provide quick-response, individual aerial mobility. (DOD Newsfilm Re- 
lease 185-69; AFJ, 6/14/69, 20) 

• In U.S.'s Annual Review of National and Co-Operative International 

Space Activities, Soviet Government report said Soviet scientists had 
paid "great attention" to developing methods of detecting signs of life 
on other planets. "With the development of space research, the prob- 
lem of detecting life on the celestial bodies closest to the earth by 
means of space craft is becoming a priority matter. The considerable 
difference between conditions on the surface of the moon, Venus and 
Mars and those in which terrestrial life exists makes it necessary for 
us to extend our knowledge of the limits within which terrestrial life 
and life in general can exist. In this connexion Soviet scientists are 
investigating the possible limits of the existence of life. The absence of 
systematic processes for the movement of matter on the moon obviously 
makes active life on its surface impossible. On Mars, where free liquid 
water is probably absent, life is possible using matter transfer by frost, 
ice in the soil, water vapour and the wind. Examination of the temper- 
ature limits for the existence of life gives rise to a number of consider- 
ations which allow us not to exclude the possibility of the existence of 
life, in for example, the polar regions of Venus." (Text) 

• Space Publications, Inc., reported its poll of Senate showed 48 Senators 

opposed to or "leaning against" deployment of proposed Safeguard 
abm system; 46 for or leaning toward deployment; and 6 uncom- 
mitted, of which 4 had record of voting for former Sentinel system and 
2 against. {SBD, 4/7/69, 167) 
April 8: NASA's Mariner VII, launched from etr March 27, successfully exe- 
cuted midcourse maneuver in response to radio commands from Woo- 
mera, Australia, tracking station. Spacecraft, more than 2.5-million mi 
from earth, would fly within 2,000 mi of Mars Aug. 5. ( Sehlstedt, 
B Sun, 4/9/69, A5; Reuters, W Post, 4/9/69, A7) 

103 



April 8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Saturn V 2nd stage (S-II-8) was successfully captive-fired at Mississippi 

Test Facility for 385 sees, with only four outboard engines functioning 
for final 86 sees. Center engine was intentionally cut off early to evalu- 
ate early cutoff as suppressor of longitudinal oscillations (pogo effect) 
which had occurred on Apollo 8 and 9 flights. If test data were satis- 
factory, center engine might be cut off early during Apollo 10 mission 
in May. (msfc Release 69-107) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from wsmr carried 

American Science & Engineering, Inc., payload to 109.4-mi (176-km) 
altitude. Objective was to obtain high-resolution pictures of general 
x-ray emission from solar corona in quiescent state, using 9-in-dia 
x-ray mirror and 12-frame rotating camera with variety of filters. 
Rocket and instruments performed satisfactorily; x-ray exposures of 
considerable scientific value were anticipated, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• President Nixon announced nomination of NASA Assistant Administrator 

for Industry Affairs Philip N. Whittaker to be Assistant Secretary of 
the Air Force for Installations and Logistics. He also announced ap- 
pointment of former Gov. William W. Scranton of Pennsylvania as 
U.S. Representative to Intelsat Conference with rank of Ambassador, 
replacing Ambassador Leonard H. Marks, who resigned March 21. 
(PD, 4/14/69, 533-4; W Star, 4/9/69, A8) 

• MSFC announced $8,391,052 modification to contract with North Ameri- 

can Rockwell Corp. Rocketdyne Div. for support services to J— 2 rocket- 
engine program from June 1, 1969, through April 30, 1970. (msfc 
Release 69-104) 

• Merger of military and civilian man-in-space programs was major de- 

cision facing Nixon Administration, said Howard Benedict of Associ- 
ated Press. Many observers felt it necessary because, under separate 
courses being taken by NASA and dod, costs of competing hardware 
systems "might explode out of proportion." Congressmen had charged 
there was costly duplication in NASA's orbiting workshop and DOd's 
MOL, both planned for 1971 launch, but with work on both so far 
advanced there was no turning back. Air Force Secretary, Dr. Robert 
Seamans, Jr., former NASA Deputy Administrator, had said any attempt 
to combine two programs "would jeopardize the returns to each agency 
and would ultimately increase the cost. . . . These activities require 
different equipment, different orbits and different timing." NASA As- 
sociate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller, 
had said classified study to determine mol's capabilities to accomplish 
nasa's long-duration earth orbit objectives had shown extended mol 
"too limited to provide a significant, cost-effective step toward achiev- 
ing NASA's long duration objective." 

Many observers believed technology and information for building 
national space station housing military and civilian personnel might 
emerge from the two programs. Another possibility was use by both 
agencies of similar rocket and spacecraft on separate scientific and 
military missions with equipment standardization providing "consider- 
able saving." (Huntsville Times, 4/8/69) 

• "Where the Legend Starts," film depicting life of late Cosmonaut Yuri 

Gagarin, was being prepared in U.S.S.R., Tass announced. Gagarin, 
first man in space on Vostok I April 12, 1961, died in aircraft crash 
March 27, 1968. (AP, C Trib, 4/9/69) 

104 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 8 

• Federally sponsored TurboTrain passenger demonstration began with one 

return trip daily from Boston to New York on Penn Central's New 
Haven Region. Within year service would permit elimination of 45 to 
50 min from schedules. Developed by United Aircraft Corp., Turbo- 
Trains were leased by dot for two-year Government experiment, (dot 
Release 4769) 
April 9: Cosmos CCLXXVIII was launched from Baikonur by U.S.S.R. into 
orbit with 318-km (197.6-mi) apogee, 203-km (126.1-mi) perigee, 
89.6-min period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered April 17. 
(csfc SSR, 4/15/69; 4/30/69; SBD, 4/10/69, 190) 

• British Aircraft Corp. chief test pilot Brian Trubshaw flew Anglo-French 

Concorde 002 supersonic airliner on successful 24-min maiden flight 
from Filton Airfield, near Bristol. Aircraft, built to reach 1,400-mph 
speed, flew at 300 mph during flight, which copilot John Cochran 
termed "marvelous." French version Concorde 001 made maiden flight 
March 2. (W Star, 4/10/69, A13; AP, W Post, 4/10/69, A12) 
msfc announced issuance of RFp's for 10-mo study to establish design 
concepts and development requirements for nuclear rocket stage to 
replace Saturn V 3rd stage for advanced missions in late 1970s and 
1980s and payload design concepts and development requirements for 
flight test and early operational applications of stage using NASA— aec 
nerva. Study, for which proposals were due April 17, also would in- 
vestigate payloads for nuclear-stage test flights including interplanetary 
meteoroid experiment (ime) and barium cloud experiment (bce). ime 
would gather information on meteoroid environment in interplanetary 
space, particularly in asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, bce 
would create artificial plasma cloud in space to simulate comet's tail 
and to study motions of ionized particles in earth's magnetosphere. 
Work would be done at msfc. (msfc Release 69-105) 

• Astronaut R. Walter Cunningham was named a director of American 

Systems Inc., Los Angeles electronics firm. Cunningham, LM pilot on 
Oct. 11—22 Apollo 7 mission, would continue duties as astronaut. 
(Reuters, W Post, 4/10/69) 

• msfc shipped 20,000-lb, 20-ft-tall F-l and 225,000-lb-thrust J-2 

Saturn V rocket engines from New Orleans to France as part of NASA 
exhibit at Paris Air Show, May 29-June 8. Other items in display 
would include Apollo 8 spacecraft and an Apollo lunar module, (msfc 
Release 69-106; msfc pio) 

April 9—11: NASA and National Science Teachers Assn. sponsored Youth 
Science Congress at LaRC to encourage original scientific research by 
outstanding high school students. {Langley Researcher, 4/18/69, 1) 

April 10: Prime crew for Apollo 12 mission was announced by NASA: Astro- 
nauts Charles Conrad, Jr. (commander), Richard F. Gordon, Jr. (cm 
pilot), and Alan L. Bean (lm pilot). Backup crew would be Astronauts 
David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin. Apollo 12 
would land on moon four to six months after July 1969 Apollo 11 
mission, (nasa Release 69—53) 

• NASA reported research project to develop TV tube with completely black 

face to give pilots sharp-contrast picture of aircraft instrument read- 
ings, providing accurate information on rapid scanning of instrument 
panel. Filters would absorb prevailing cockpit light and prevent back 
reflection. NASA believed high-contrast cathode-ray tube could be used 

105 



April 10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

in commercial TV receivers as well if production cost could be re- 
duced, (nasa Release 69-52) 

• NSF released Federal Support to Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 

1967, prepared for Office of Science and Technology. Federal support 
to universities and colleges totaled $3.3 billion in 1967, up 9% over 
1966 but below increases of 32% and 42% in previous two years. 
Federal support of academic science activities reached $2.3 billion, up 
6%, with two-thirds for science education and institutional development 
and one-third for operating and plant costs for R&D projects. Nonsci- 
ence activities reached $987 million, or 30% of total. While hew, 
Dept. of Agriculture, aec, and nsf increased aid to higher education, 
nasa decreased spending by $11 million (8%) and dod by $37 million 
(12%). (Text) 

• USA issued "cure notice" giving Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 15 days to 

prove it could solve technical problems of new high-speed AH56 Chey- 
enne helicopter production or face cancellation of 375 on order. Cost 
estimate had soared from $1.5 million each to $2.25 million with final 
contract terms not yet negotiated. {WSJ, 4/14/69, 15) 
April 11: U.S.S.R. launched Molniya 1-11 comsat to relay telephone and 
telegraph communications and TV broadcasts to "the far north," 
Siberia, Central Asia, and Far East. Orbital parameters: apogee, 
39,595 km (24,603.2 mi) ; perigee, 483 km (300.1 mi) ; period, 712.1 
min; and inclination, 64.9°. Equipment was functioning normally. 
(gsfc SSR, 4/15/69; SBD, 1/14/69, 204; AP, W Star, 4/11/69, Al) 

• Terms of Reference for joint nasa/dod study of space transportation 

systems were approved by nasa Administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine, 
and Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr. Two-part 
study to assess practicality of common system would correlate needs of 
both agencies, assess technical feasibility of various systems, compare 
costs, assess economic sensibility of systems, and recommend concepts 
of space transportation system with rationale for each concept. Group 
would report to President's Space Task Committee June 15. (Terms of 
Reference) 

• U.K.'s Institute for Strategic Studies predicted U.S.S.R. would overtake 

U.S. in icbm production by mid-1969 but U.S. would retain overall 
lead in nuclear weapons because of greater submarine and air forces. 
U.S. international role in 1970s could become smallest since pre-World 
War II. (upi, W Star, 4/11/69, A12) 
April 12: NASA's Oao II orbiting astronomical observatory (launched Dec. 
7, 1968) refused to accept commands from NASA's Santiago, Chile, 
tracking station. Satellite began tumbling out of control and its solar 
cells were unable to receive energy from sun to charge its batteries. 
While project officials tried to determine exact nature of anomaly, satel- 
lite recovered, accepting command from Australian station within few 
hours of battery depletion. Oao II was placed in sunbathing mode 
while batteries recharged. (Memo, NASA Asst Director for Projects; 
nasa Release 69-55) 

• USAF launched unidentified satellite from etr by Atlas-Agena booster 

into near polar orbit with 24,391-mi (39,245. 1-km) apogee, 
20,302-mi (32,665.9-km) perigee, 1,436.0-min period, and 10.2° in- 
clination, (gsfc, SSR, 4/15/69; Pres Rpt 70 [69]; W Post, 1/13/69, 
A14) 

106 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 12 

• President Nixon announced he would submit to Congress April 15 pro- 

posed anti-inflation revisions in FY 1970 budget including $4-billion 
reduction in Federal spending, to $192.9 billion; $5.5-billion reduction 
in appropriations requests and other budget authority; and $5.8- 
billion budget surplus— largest since 1951. (PD, 4/21/69, 553-4) 

• Unpublished DOD estimate put Federal funding for C— 5A transport at 

$5,202,400,000, Bernard D. Nossiter wrote in Washington Post. Figure 
was $77.2-million increase over quotation by ijsaf in January and 
total $2.1 billion (66%) increase since original 1964 estimate. 
(W Post, 4/12/69, A2) 

• April 12—14: NASA successfully launched series of three Nike-Apache 

sounding rockets from Churchill Research Range carrying GSFC pay- 
loads to study energy spectra and relative abundances of various 
charge species of solar cosmic radiation during period of solar maxi- 
mum. Each rocket carried three nuclear emulsion stocks and solid-state 
detector sensitive to protons above 30 mev. Rockets reached 98.4-mi 
(158.4-km), 96.4-mi (155.2-km), and 100.0-mi (161.0-km) alti- 
tudes and instruments performed satisfactorily. Payloads were re- 
covered in good condition, (nasa Rpts srl) 
April 14: nasa's Nimbus III (Nimbus-B2) meteorological satellite was suc- 
cessfully launched from wtr by Long-Tank, Thrust-Augmented Thor 
(Thorad) -Agena D booster after three-day postponement because of 
fuel leak. Satellite entered orbit with 703-mi (1,131.1-km) apogee, 
662.2-mi ( 1,065. 5-km) perigee, 107.3-min period, and 80.1° in- 
clination. 

Nimbus III carried usa's Egrs XIII (also called Secor XIII) Se- 
quential Collation of Range satellite as secondary payload on Agena 
2nd stage and injected it into orbit with 704-mi (1,132.7-km) apogee, 
667-mi (1,073.2-km) perigee, 107.3-min period, and 99.9° inclination. 

Primary objectives were to inject Nimbus III into orbit and demon- 
strate satisfactory operation of active, three-axis, earth-oriented space- 
craft for at least three months and to acquire representative global 
samples of infrared spectra for vertical temperature profiles of atmos- 
phere. As secondary objectives spacecraft would make global maps of 
radiative energy balance of earth atmosphere and cloud cover over at 
least one seasonal cycle; demonstrate feasibility of surface pressure 
and tropospheric wind measurements by infrared interferometer spec- 
trometer system and temperature profile determination by infrared 
spectrometry; make global maps of earth and day-and-night cloud 
cover for three months from image-dissector camera system and high- 
resolution infrared radiometer; and demonstrate SNAP-19 system as 
auxiliary power system for three months. Spacecraft carried seven 
meteorological experiments — most ever carried on U.S. meteorological 
satellite — and was first capable of measuring emitted infrared energy 
that would permit inference of atmospheric profile on global basis. 
Interrogation, recording, and location system (irls) would pinpoint 
position of special electronic platforms on fixed land sites and moving 
objects such as buoys, balloons, aircraft, and elk in Yellowstone 
National Park. 

Butterfly-shaped 1,269-lb Nimbus III was fourth in series of seven 
spacecraft designed to develop significantly improved meteorological 
satellite, prove applicability of instrumentation, and fulfill special data 

107 



April 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

requirements of atmospheric sciences research community. It was re- 
placement for Nimbus B, which failed to enter orbit May 18, 1968, 
when launch vehicle malfunctioned. Nimbus I (launched Aug. 28, 
1964) had operated for one month before solar-array drive system 
malfunctioned. Nimbus II (launched May 15, 1966) had exceeded six- 
month lifetime, operating successfully until Jan. 18, 1969. Nimbus 
program was managed by gsfc under OSSA direction, (nasa Proj Off; 
nasa Release 69-50) 

• nasa's Apollo 10 lunar orbital mission was proceeding well toward launch 

readiness for 11:49 am EST May 18, Deputy Apollo Program Director 
George H. Hage told nasa Hq. briefing. Flight readiness test had been 
successfully completed April 9. Countdown demonstration test (cddt) 
would begin April 27, completing cryogenic propellant flow May 2; 
crew participation in cddt would begin May 3. Astronauts Thomas P. 
Stafford (commander), John W. Young (cm pilot), and Eugene A. 
Cernan (lm pilot) would be launched from ksc Launch Complex 39, 
Pad B — being used for first time — on eight-day mission in which crew 
would enter lunar orbit, separate lm from csm, and pilot lm to within 
50,000 ft of lunar surface. 

Mission would include 11 different crew operations on TV and 
Westinghouse Electric Corp.-developed "experiment involving color TV 
if we can develop it and get it prepared to fly in time to support this 
mission. If we are able to ... we would do most of the pictures with 
color TV rather than black and white. . . ." (Transcript) 

• Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong would be first man to step on moon, ac- 

cording to NASA plans for July 16 Apollo 11 mission, Apollo Program 
Manager George M. Low told msc press conference. Armstrong, mis- 
sion commander, followed by Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., LM pilot, would 
leave LM and spend 2 hrs 40 min walking on lunar surface, gathering 
rock samples, setting up experiments, and taking pictures within 100 
ft of lm. Astronauts would not go farther, Low said, because "all that 
we need to carry out in deploying the experiment in doing all of the 
activities that we have to do on the surface the first time . . . can be 
done within the first 50 or 100 ft from the LM and we see no reason to 
go any further and use up a lot of energy walking as opposed to doing 
those things that we would like to do. . . ." (Transcript) 

• Apollo 11 CSM and LM were mated with Saturn V (SA— 506) launch 

vehicle at ksc in preparation for July 16 lunar landing mission. (SBD, 
4/15/69, 209) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket with VAM— 20 booster launched by 

nasa from wsmr carried gsfc payload to 116.5-mi (187.5-km) alti- 
tude. Primary objective was to obtain solar x-ray spectra from 2 to 
400 A. Secondary objective was to obtain integrated solar flux from 8 
to 20 A. Data would be used to check calibration of spectrometer on 
board Oso V (launched Jan. 22). Rocket and instruments functioned 
satisfactorily, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• Nixon Administration was responding to NASA requests for $200 million 

supplemental R&D funds by "emphatically ordering future reductions" 
in FY 1970 budget, said William J. Normyle in Aviation Week & 
Space Technology, bob had told NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. 
Paine, to plan on $140-million loss despite conclusions of House sub- 
committees that nasa's R&D should be increased $234.4 million. Until 

108 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 14 

Nixon decisions on U.S. space future, cut would "wipe out" work on 
space stations, shuttle/logistics vehicles, and manned lunar exploration. 
Feasible future programs were being studied by President's ad hoc 
committee which would report in September. (Av Wk, 4/14/69, 27-8) 

• General aviation's impact on U.S. economy in 1980 would be $7.1 billion, 

222.7% above $2.2-billion industry contribution to gnp in 1967, ac- 
cording to The Magnitude and Economic Impact of General Aviation, 
study by R. Dixon Speas Associates for aia. Study said 1980 airports 
and airways system must be prepared to accept 260,000 general-avia- 
tion aircraft making 241 million takeoffs and landings and carrying 
317 million passengers, (aia Fact Book; Bramley, Amer Av, 4/14/69, 
17-9) 

• In Duke Univ. lecture, Dr. Peter van de Kamp, Director of Sproul Ob- 

servatory at Swarthmore College, Pa., described discovery of fourth 
planet-like body found outside solar system. Existence had been de- 
duced from 30 yrs telescopic observation of irregularities in Barnard's 
Star, six light years from earth. (NYT, 4/15/69, 16; AP, W Post, 
4/17/69, F13) 
April 15: USAF launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg AFB by 
Titan IIIB-Agena D booster. Satellite entered orbit with 292.7-mi 
1 471 -km) apogee, 78.9-mi (127-km) perigee, 89.9-min period, and 
108.7° inclination and reentered April 30. (gsfc SSR, 4/15/69; 
4/30/69; SBD, 4/25/69, 264) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXIX into orbit with 350-km (217.5-mi) 

apogee, 205-km (127.4-mi) perigee, 89.8-min period, and 51.8° 
inclination. West German Institute for Space Research later reported 
spacecraft was a Soyuz space capsule and that it reentered and soft- 
landed in U.S.S.R. April 24. (gsfc SSR, 4/15/69; AP, C Trib, 
4/25/69) 

• President Nixon submitted to Congress FY 1970 budget amendments 

[see April 12]. White House, dod, and nasa released details, nasa 
funds were reduced $45 million from $3.878-billion Johnson proposal 
to $3,833 billion (recommended $3,716 in new obligational authority 
plus $117 million carried over from prior years). 

Apollo Applications program would be cut by $57 million but new 
obligational authority of $46 million for resumption of Saturn V 
rocket production and $40 million for lunar exploration would be 
added, for net increase of $29 million in manned space flight funds. 

Space science and applications would be cut by $41 million, to 
$517.8-million new total. Advanced research and technology would 
be cut $13 million, to total $277.4 million; and tracking and data ac- 
quisition, $20 million, to total $278 million. University affairs funding 
would remain at $9 million, technology utilization at $5 million, and 
NERVA funding under nuclear rocket program at $36.5 million. 

Funds proposed for construction of facilities and for research and 
program management remained unchanged. 

At NASA budget briefing, NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas 0. Paine 
said: "The reductions we have been required to make will make neces- 
sary difficult program adjustments and will result in reduced accom- 
plishments in many areas. However ... in a context clearly requiring 
that Government spending be held to a minimum, the Administration 
has recognized the importance to the United States of a strong and con- 

109 



April 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tinuing program in space and aeronautics. . . . Last January, I char- 
acterized President Johnson's FY 1970 Budget as a 'holding' Budget 
. . . deferring to President Nixon's Administration the decisions the 
nation faces on the future of manned flight programs." President 
Nixon's recommendations, "if approved by the Congress, will ensure 
that the nation can continue a scientifically effective program of 
manned lunar exploration and avoid foreclosing our ability to continue 
large-scale space operations in the future by allowing the capability to 
produce Saturn V launch vehicles ... to lapse beyond the point where 
it can economically be resumed." 

DOD spending was reduced $1.1 billion and requested new obliga- 
tional authority, $3.1 billion, including $51 million from mol. Other 
science budget cuts: AEC funding, $78.6 million; agricultural and 
natural resources conservation, $345 million; hew university facilities, 
$107 million; and nih, $47.4 million, nsf budget remained at $495 
million. Nixon budget made available $92.7-million carry-over for SST 
R&D but no funds for prototype construction. Overall reduction in space 
and atomic energy funding was $140 million. {PD, 3/21/69, 561—3; 
NASA Budget Briefing Transcript; DOD Transript; W Post, 4/15— 
16/69; NYT, 4/16/69; Science, 4/25/69) 

• Project Tektite Aquanauts Richard A. Waller, Conrad V. W. Mahnken, 

John G. Van Derwalker, and H. Edward Clifton were brought to sur- 
face and placed in decompression chamber for 19 hrs, after record- 
breaking 59 days on ocean floor off St. John, Virgin Islands. They had 
submerged Feb. 15 in successful experiment to determine how men 
functioned for extended periods underwater. At news conference later, 
aquanauts revealed they had spent 25—40 hrs outside underwater habi- 
tat during first two weeks, moving no farther than 300 ft; later they 
averaged 70 hrs per week, swimming up to 3,000 ft from habitat to 
study marine life, ocean currents, and geology. (Lyons, NYT, 4/14/69, 
17; AP, W Star, 4/15/69, Bll; W Post, 4/16/69, A9; 4/17/69; 
4/19/69, A6) 

• At American Chemical Society meeting in Minneapolis, Univ. of Cali- 

fornia at Berkeley nuclear scientist Albert Ghiorso reported discovery 
of element 104 isotopes 104-257 and 104-259 and possibly 104-258. 
Discoveries, made by bombarding target in heavy ion linear accelerator 
(hilac), were announced by Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, operated 
at Univ. of California for AEC. (aec Release M-87) 

April 15—17: Conference on technology of food management for aerospace 
vehicles was sponsored by NASA, NAS, and Univ. of South Florida at 
Tampa, Fla. Discussions included Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo mission 
experience by Dr. Charles A. Berry, MSC Director of Medical Research 
and Operations, and feeding system requirements for Manned Orbiting 
Laboratory and Apollo Applications program. Food specialists had 
found they needed to improve methods on all types of aerospace flights 
with emphasis on more palatable food and less food preparation time 
in flight, (nasa Special Release) 

April 16: nasa would require $5- to $5.6-billion annual budget "within 
three years" for simultaneous development of orbiting space station 
and lunar exploration in 1970 and onward, NASA Associate Adminis- 
trator for Space Science and Applications, Dr. Homer E. Newell, said 
in Washington Post interview. (Cohn, W Post, 4/17/69, A3) 

110 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 16 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by nasa from wsmr with 

VAM— 20 booster carried Naval Research Laboratory payload to 
117.0-mi (188.3-km) altitude to record white-light corona of sun 
from three to nine solar radii with package containing two externally 
occulted coronagraphs and three related experiments. Rocket and in- 
struments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• NASA noted new level of maturity in conduct of Apollo 8 mission, NASA 

Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, Dr. 
Homer E. Newell, told National Space Club in Washington, D.C. "We 
got the feeling that the people . . . handling the operations had now a 
new tool that fit the hand." Maturing of total space capability was seen 
in use of Pioneers and earth orbiting satellites during Apollo 8 "to 
keep track of what the sun was doing so that the directors of the Apollo 
operation could know what radiation conditions in space were relative 
to . . . crew safety." Mission also used weather satellites and communi- 
cation satellites, "not only to transmit pictures . . . but also as an 
integral part of the operation, to transmit data. . . ." 

Asked NASA's priority on space station versus lunar exploration in 
view of increase in funding request for lunar landing program, Dr. 
Newell said: "Now you have touched upon what I think is going to be 
the most difficult question for the country to resolve in the months 
ahead." There was general agreement that manned space flight should 
continue. Debate would be over whether it would be done by continued 
lunar exploration, earth orbital operations, or both. "Our own feeling 
is that the country ought to do both. Certainly after having put all the 
investment into landing a man on the moon and developing the capa- 
bility to do so we must continue to explore the moon. And we cannot 
foresee any reasonable or rational national program in which we do 
not continue that exploration. At the same time ... we haven't 
finished developing the manned space flight capability. We have got to 
. . . get that permanent foothold in space and that is where the space 
station comes in." (Transcript) 

• LaRC and J PL announced formation of management teams to direct Vi- 

king Mars 1973 program to send two instrumented lander-and-orbiter 
spacecraft to Mars in 1973. LaRC had responsibility for overall project 
management and for lander portion of spacecraft. J PL would manage 
orbiter portion and tracking and data acquisition. James S. Martin, Jr., 
was LaRC project manager, with Henry W. Norris named Viking orbiter 
manager at jpl. (nasa Release 69-54; JPL Release 512) 

• MSFC announced award of eight-month identical $400,000 contracts to 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. and Bendix Corp. for preliminary 
design and definition studies of dual-mode lunar roving vehicles. DLRV 
would provide mobility for one astronaut on lunar surface and could 
be operated by remote control from earth while making automated, 
long-range traverses of large lunar areas, drlv would be delivered to 
moon aboard Apollo LM. After astronauts left, it would be placed in 
remote control for geological and geophysical trips of 600 mi or more 
for one year, during which it would collect up to 200 lbs of lunar 
samples and measure lunar terrain. It would then rendezvous with 
manned spacecraft and transfer samples for return to earth for analy- 
sis, (msfc Release 69-110) 

• At closed session of Senate Armed Services Committee Dr. Robert C. 

Ill 



April 16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, and Gen. John P. McConnell, 
Air Force Chief of Staff, said development of new intercontinental 
supersonic bomber was "perhaps our most urgent requirement." Air- 
craft, with proposed ABM system, would "provide insurance against 
unexpected Soviet developments." (Homan, W Post, 4/17/69, A9) 

• U.S.S.R. announced it would conduct series of rocket tests in Pacific 

from April 17 to June 15. Aircraft and ships were asked to avoid 
55-nm-dia circular area north of Midway Island with center at 35°23' 
north latitude and 172°24' west longitude, (upi, W News, 4/17/69, 9; 
SBD Space Log supplement, 4/18/69) 
° At Vienna peace conference, following three-day secret talks, AEC 
member Gerald F. Tape and Dr. Yevgeny K. Fedorov, head of Soviet 
Weather Bureau, issued joint communique expressing concern about 
amount of harmful radioactivity that would be released by nuclear 
explosions when used for such projects as canal digging. Tape pre- 
dicted widespread use of nuclear explosion for benefit of nonnuclear 
countries was still five years away; Fedorov said Soviet technology 
would permit general use of some types before 1974, but applications 
would come later. (Hamilton, NYT, 4/17/69, 8) 

• mit and usn unveiled in Boston computerized guidance and control sys- 

tem to enable pilot of deep-diving rescue vessel to rendezvous and dock 
with disabled submarines at depths to 5,000 ft. It would be used in 
Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicles — new class of USN submarines 
scheduled for first test dive in June 1969. (Wilford, NYT, 4/17/69, 
94; W Post, 4/17/69, A4) 

April 17: Maj. Jerauld R. Gentry (tjsaf) piloted usaf X-24A lifting-body vehicle 
on its first glide flight. The wingless craft, which depends on shape and speed for 
aerodynamic lift, was air-launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000-foot altitude and 
mach 0.66. Designed for maximum speed of mach 2 and altitudes to 100,000 feet, the 
X—24A was one of three wingless experimental vehicles in the joint usaf— nasa re- 
search program studying concepts for reusable and maneuverable reentry spacecraft. 







112 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 17 

April 17: X-24A lifting-body research vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld R. 
Gentry (usaf), successfully completed first glide flight from Rogers 
Dry Lake, Calif. Vehicle was air-launched from B-52 aircraft at 
45,000-ft altitude and mach 0.66 for pilot checkout and data on longi- 
tudinal trim, lift, and drag. (NASA Proj Off) 

• NASA's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by NASA test pilot John A. 

Manke, successfully completed 15th flight. Primary objectives were to 
expand flight envelope to mach 0.9 and to determine control character- 
istics at mach 0.9. Vehicle was air-launched from B— 52 aircraft north 
of Four Corners, Calif., at 45,000-ft altitude and mach 0.7. Manke 
ignited three chambers of XLR— 11 engine, rotated vehicle, climbed to 
55,000-ft altitude, and sustained flight at mach 0.9 for 100 sees, (nasa 
Proj Off) 

• Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.) introduced in House H.R. 10251, new 

NASA FY 1970 authorization bill totaling $3,716 billion in line with 
President Nixon's April 15 amended budget request. Bill was referred 
to House Committee on Science and Astronautics. (Text; CR, 4/17/69, 
H2806) 

• Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from Churchill Re- 

search Range carried trw Systems Inc. payload to 161.6-mi 
(260-km) altitude. Objectives were to measure total flux and energy, 
including spectrum of precipitated energetic (1—20 kev) H atoms and 
precipitated energetic protons and electrons; fluctuating DC electron 
fields; Hb light intensity altitude profile; and location and intensity of 
ionosphere current systems. Rockets and instruments functioned satis- 
factorily; good data were obtained, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR with 

VAM— 20 booster carried Naval Research Laboratory payload to 
113.7-mi (182-km) altitude to record white-light corona of sun from 
three to nine solar radii with package containing two externally oc- 
culted coronagraphs and three related experiments. Rocket and instru- 
ments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from NASA Wallops Sta- 

tion carried Univ. of Illinois and GCA Corp. payload to 130.5-mi 
(210-km) altitude to measure electron density, collision frequency, 
and temperature in lower ionosphere at vernal equinox during sunspot 
maximum. Rocket and dual-frequency propagation experiment for air- 
glow photometer performed satisfactorily. Langmuir-Smith probe and 
uv experiment produced no data and payload did not come out of 
calibration until near impact. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• MSFC announced modification of $3,057,503 to contract with Chrysler 

Corp. Space Div. for work on mechanical ground support equipment 
for Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles from Dec. 1, 1968, through 
March 31, 1970. msfc also announced one-year $5,704,116 extension 
to contract with RCA Service Co. Div. of Radio Corp. of America for 
technical services in support of msfc Management Services, (msfc 
Releases 69-115, 69-114) 

• dot released Study of Air Cargo and Air Passenger Terminal Facilitation 

by Simat, Helliesen, & Eichner, Inc., and TransPlan, Inc. — source doc- 
ument for Transportation Facilities Committee's industry-Government 
task forces. It forecast worldwide passenger traffic increase of nearly 
10% annually and air cargo increase of nearly 20% annually during 

113 



April 17 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

next decade. Documentation, processing, and handling delays were 
contributing to nearly six-day delivery time of air cargo despite six- 
hour Atlantic crossings, and Government clearance procedures were 
critical problem for international cargo operations. Report recom- 
mended: further consideration of high-speed rail, STOL, and VTOL 
services; computerized processing of cargo documentation and high- 
speed communication to facilitate advanced clearance; off-airport 
cargo terminals; automated passenger ticketing and baggage handling; 
and streamlined, mechanized border formalities. (DOT Release 5869) 

• Rep. Emilio Q. Daddario (D-Conn.) told House Dr. Franklin A. Long 

of Cornell Univ. had been asked to withdraw from nomination as nsf 
Director after refusing to support Administration's abm system. "It is 
unfortunate that the Nixon administration is sacrificing the National 
Science Foundation on the altar of the ABM, and, by so doing, seriously 
affecting its unique capability to be of service to our country." (CR, 
4/17/69, H2759) 
April 18: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
dressed in full landing attire, rehearsed simulated lunar landing at 
MSC for the 2 hrs 40 min they would spend walking and working on 
lunar surface in July. Astronauts practiced scooping rock and soil 
samples, unfurled umbrella-like antenna, and deployed seismometer to 
detect quakes and array of mirrors to serve as laser target for astron- 
omers on earth. (Wilford, NYT, 4/19/69; upi, P Bull, 4/19/69) 

• msfc announced it had issued RFPs for assistance in producing 320 com- 

pleted solar "arrays" to convert solar energy into electrical power 
to operate Saturn I Workshop. Two wings covered with 120 modules 
each, for total 1,200-sq-ft area, would produce 12,000 w for Workshop. 
Pre-proposal conference was scheduled at MSFC May 1. (msfc Release 
69-116) 

• INTELSAT Consortium had selected Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle for Intel- 

sat IV program, ComSatCorp announced. First Intelsat IV — 18-ft-high, 
8-ft-dia comsat with 5,000 two-way voice grade circuits — would be 
launched in early 1971. ComSatCorp would negotiate with NASA for 
purchase and launch of two Atlas-Centaur boosters with option for 
two more. Atlas-Centaur was manufactured by General Dynamics Corp. 
Convair Div. and managed by LeRC (ComSatCorp Release 69—19; 
Lewis News, 4/25/69, 1) 

• ComSatCorp announced earnings of $1,525,000, or 15 cents per share, for 

first quarter of 1969. It had earned $1,798,000 (18 cents per share) 
for similar period in 1968. Expected decline followed increased operat- 
ing expenses from expansion of satellite and earth station system. 
( ComSatCorp Release 69—18) 

• Having started from "near zero" in 1961, West Germany was spending 

about $90 million annually on space activities, said D. S. Greenberg in 
Science, with rise to $150 million expected within few years. About 
40% was in international programs like eldo and ESRO but emphasis 
was on building domestic facilities. All-German satellite was being 
built for launch by NASA and Germans were working with French on 
comsat for 1972 Munich Olympic Games coverage. "With no manned 
space effort or aspirations to divert their resources, and with the 
military barred from space, whatever the Germans muster in space 

114 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 18 

activity goes directly into scientific research or commercial applica- 
tions," Greenberg said. {Science, 4/18/69, 281—3) 

April 20: AH— 56A Cheyenne helicopter — integrated, aerial, vehicle-arma- 
ment-avionics-fire control gunship capable of firing machine guns, 
grenades, rockets, and missiles — could become latest DOD-purchased 
aircraft to incur Congressional and public criticism because of massive 
cost overruns, major technical difficulties, and hints of improper pro- 
curement practices, Robert Walters said in Washington Sunday Star. 
Lockheed Aircraft Corp.'s California Co. was prime contractor on 
Cheyenne project which "has been in trouble almost since its inception 
in August 1964." Total cost for Cheyenne program, including $195.3 
million estimated for R&D, was set as $1.06 billion and Lockheed 
contract allowed further increases. (W Star, 4/20/69, A8) 

April 21: NASA's Explorer XXXVIII (launched July 4, 1968), orbiting at 
3,640-mi altitude, had discovered earth, like Jupiter, sporadically 
emitted low-frequency radio signals, Radio Astronomy Explorer project 
scientist Dr. Robert G. Stone told 1969 spring meeting of U.S. Na- 
tional Committee of International Union of Radio Science in Wash- 
ington, D.C. "In the radio frequency range below 10 megahertz, the 
Earth looks very much like Jupiter. This suggests that the same 
processes that account for the Jovian radio noise may also be active 
in the Earth's magnetosphere." Signals from both planets appeared 
sharply beamed or directed in narrow cone, were quite intense and 
increased in intensity rapidly when observed toward lower frequencies, 
and were impulsive, occurring in rapid but sporadic bursts. 

Explorer XXXVIII also had revealed sun was more active source of 
radio outbursts in lower frequencies than expected, providing unique 
means of studying sun's outer atmosphere to 36-million-mi distance of 
Mercury orbit. "Such information," Stone said, "could shed further 
light on mystery of Sun's part in cause of low frequency radio storms 
on the Earth." Explorer XXXVIITs four 750-ft-long antennas had 
provided most comprehensive and detailed measurements of cosmic 
radio noise at low frequencies yet available. Information was providing 
first low-frequency maps of radio emissions in Milky Way galaxy, 
showing that most radio emissions originated in plane or disc of Milky 
Way. Satellite had remained stable since orbit despite repeated move- 
ment and had continued to operate successfully, (nasa Release 69—57; 
AP, B Sun, 4/22/69, A6; O'Toole, W Post, 4/22/69, Al) 

• President Nixon's amendments to proposed FY 1970 space budget would 

support post-Apollo manned flight at expense of unmanned planetary 
space flight, William J. Normyle wrote in Aviation Week & Space 
Technology. In effect, NASA had received "almost all it wanted for 
planning post-Apollo manned lunar exploration." Argument was ex- 
pected in House Committee on Science and Astronautics over relative 
apportionment. (Av Wk, 4/21/69, 16-7) 

• Senate Committee on Banking and Currency approved nomination of 

NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and Management 
Harold B. Finger as Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban De- 
velopment. iCR, 4/21/69, D289; W Star, 4/22/69, A3) 
April 22: NASA named Brian M. Duff, Vice President for Communications of 
National Urban Coalition, as Public Affairs Officer for msc. He would 

115 



April 22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

succeed Paul Haney who was named Special Assistant to Julian Scheer, 
Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs, NASA Hq. Duff had been 
Director of Special Events in NASA Office of Public Affairs before going 
to National Urban Coalition. In new position, Haney would coordinate 
development of news media materials, with concentration on Apollo 
manned lunar landing. Haney later told press he had been ordered to 
new position because of personal differences with Scheer. "I'm defi- 
nitely uncertain whether to go and have consulted a lawyer," he said. 
Scheer said on April 23 transfer was not personal matter but "case of 
using two very good people where they can best serve our needs." 
(nasa Release 69-59; H Chron, 4/22-23/69; H Post, 4/23/69, 1; 
W Post, 4/23/69, A3) 

• Rep. Charles W. Whalen, Jr. (R-Ohio), inserted in Congressional Record 

results of annual opinion poll of his constituents which showed 51% 
preferred continuation of space funding at present level, 21% pre- 
ferred cutback with reallocation of space funds to social welfare pro- 
grams, 16% wanted acceleration of space program with increased fund- 
ing if necessary, and 12% wanted none of these. {CR, 4/22/69, E3230) 

• DOD reported Soviet SS— 9 missile had been test-fired with multiple re- 

entry vehicles for first time over U.S.S.R.'s Pacific testing area at 
5,000-mi range. Missile, of which U.S.S.R. had deployed 200, was 
capable of carrying warhead of up to 25 mt or three warheads of 5 mt 
and was only Soviet missile credited with hard-site destruction capa- 
bility. Portions of its booster had been used in testing fobs, (dod 
Release 310-69; Homan, W Post, 4/23/69, A26) 
April 22—25: Discovery of six new mascons (mass concentrations of dense 
material) beneath moon's surface was reported by JPL scientists at 
50th Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union in Washington, 
D.C. William L. Sjogren, Paul M. Muller, and Dr. Peter Gottlieb re- 
ported discovery that brought to 12 total mascons mapped on moon's 
near face and leading and trailing edges and that were expected to 
refine gravity model used in Apollo navigation. 

Dr. Gottlieb said latest gravity model produced significant agreement 
with analysis of tracking information from Apollo 8 mission Dec. 21— 
27, 1968. JPL researchers were working with msfc to predict accurately 
landing sites several orbits before spacecraft landing. Most data avail- 
able had been taken from spacecraft in lunar orbit of about 60 mi. 
JPL team expected new and possibly higher resolution data from Apollo 
10 when lunar module orbited at lower altitude. (JPL Release 514; 
NASA Release 69-61) 

April 23: Cosmos CCLXXX was launched by U.S.S.R. into orbit with 251- 
km (156-mi) apogee, 198-km (123-mi) perigee, 88.1-min period, and 
51.0° inclination. Satellite reentered May 6. (gsfc SSR, 4/30/69; 
5/15/69; SBD, 4/25/69, 261) 

• Briefing on Apollo 9's earth resources survey experiment [see March 3— 
13] was held at NASA Hq. Dr. Leonard Jaffe, Director of Space Appli- 
cations Programs, stressed importance of satellite photos for earth re- 
sources program: ". . . we have taken advantage of the Apollo and 
Gemini, as we did with Mercury, opportunities to get pictures of the 
earth and its environment with cameras, largely held by hand, by the 
astronauts. These pictures have been a very large source of experi- 
mental data for our Earth Resources Survey Program." 

116 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 23 

Advantage of using space for earth resources survey was twofold. 
One was "large view that it gives you of the earth." Second was 
"ability to see the same phenomenon, or the same area of the earth 
time and time again, to be able to arrive over this particular spot on 
the earth periodically and observe temporal changes." Apollo 9 experi- 
ment had obtained some 120 or 130 useful frames of multispectral data, 
all of which had been distributed to principal investigators for analysis. 
(Transcript) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics accepted subcommittee re- 

ports on H.R. 10251, FY 1970 nasa authorization [see April 17] and 
added $258 million to amounts requested by President Nixon. Com- 
mittee would meet again April 29. I CR, 4/23/69, D302; Lannan, W 
Star, 4/24/69) 

• National Telemetry Conference of Institute of Electrical and Electronic 

Engineers, Inc., presented award for telemetry achievements to NASA 
team responsible for directing, planning, engineering, implementing, 
and operating Manned Space Flight Network in support of Apollo 
program. At Washington, D.C., luncheon, award was accepted by GSFC 
Assistant Director for Manned Flight Support, Ozro M. Covington. 
(gsfc Release G-l-69) 

• Australian Prime Minister John G. Gorton announced in Canberra that 

Australian government had accepted U.S. proposals for "a joint United 
States-Australian defense space communications facility" at Woomera, 
South Australia, site of Australian Weapons Research Establishment. 
(Sehlstedt, B Sun, 4/24/69, Al) 
April 24: NASA's Mariner VI and Mariner VII spacecraft were 10 million mi 
and 6.47 million mi from earth en route to Mars. Mariner VI Canopus 
tracker had failed to change position properly April 20 and search was 
underway to find substitute for Canopus. (jPL Status Bull) 

• President Nixon announced appointment of five new members to 19- 

member President's Science Advisory Committee: Dr. John D. Balde- 
schwieler, professor of chemistry at Stanford Univ.; Dr. Richard L. 
Garwin, Director of IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia Univ.; Dr. 
Murray Gell-Mann, professor of theoretical physics at Cal Tech; Dr. 
Patrick E. Haggerty, President of Texas Instruments, Inc.; and Dr. 
Gerald F. Tape, President of Associated Universities, Inc. ( PD, 
4/28/69, 602) 

• Signing of $8,802,472 supplemental agreement with McDonnell Douglas 

Corp. defining 18 change orders affecting S— IVB quality maintenance 
program was announced by MSFC. Agreement included reliability and 
quality reviews, documentation, and expanded production acceptance 
tests, (msfc Release 69-122) 

• faa announced initiation of Airport Data System (ads) to collect and 

validate data on facilities and service available at nation's airports in 
centralized section of faa — National Flight Data Center (nfdc). Data 
would be made available to U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and com- 
mercial chart producers, (faa Release T 69—201 
April 25: NASA's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by NASA test pilot 
William H. Dana, was air-launched from B— 52 aircraft at 45,000-ft 
altitude and glided to successful landing. Purpose of flight, 16th in 
series at frc, was pilot checkout, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Electrostatic zero-gravity workbench experiment by Chrysler Corp. at 

117 



April 25 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Michoud Assembly Facility might provide substitute for gravity in 
small space-station area, nasa reported. If successful, experimental 
equipment — three-foot-square workbench with coated metal top, high 
voltage and variable power supply, and ion source with interconnected 
cabling — would enable astronaut to manipulate loose objects like tools 
in weightlessness of orbiting space station. Ion source and high-voltage 
power supply, directed downward, would create force field to hold 
tools to bench top. Ground experiments would be completed in six 
months, (nasa Release 69-58) 

• Sen. Clinton P. Anderson (D-N. Mex.), for himself and Sen. Margaret C. 

Smith (R-Me.), introduced S. 1941, nasa authorization bill, similar to 
H.R. 10251 [see April 17]. Bill was referred to Senate Committee on 
Aeronautical and Space Sciences. (Text; CR, 4/25/69, S4118) 

• Senate confirmed nomination of Harold B. Finger, NASA Associate Ad- 

ministrator for Organization and Management, as Assistant Secretary 
of Housing and Urban Development. (CR 4/25/69, S4189) 

• Paul Haney, described by press as "Voice of Apollo," announced resig- 

nation after 10 yrs with nasa following NASA Hq. discussion of his 
April 22 appointment as assistant to Associate Administrator for Public 
Affairs Julian Scheer. Haney said decision to resign resulted from 
personal differences with Scheer, who told press he had tried to per- 
suade Haney to remain with agency. (AP, NYT, 4/26/69, 2; O'Toole, 
W Post, 4/29/69, A3) 
April 26: Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by nasa from wsmr 
carried MIT payload to 97.7-mi (157.9-km) altitude to study x-ray 
spectrum of Crab Nebula at long wavelengths and to search for weak 
x-ray sources associated with supernova remnants or with galaxies 
outside Milky Way. Rocket and instruments performed satisfactorily. 
(nasa Rpt srl) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Thumba 

Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (terls) carrying Indian-Japa- 
nese payload for x-ray astronomy studies. Rocket and instruments 
functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Testifying before Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of 

House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Joseph B. Mahon, 
NASA's Director of Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs, OSSA, said 
NASA planned to use Titan IIIC and Titan Centaur to carry out high- 
velocity Viking mission in FY 1970. They would provide capability for 
both orbital and lander scientific experimentation and would expand 
launch window. After proof test flight in 1972 of integrated Improved 
Centaur and Titan III, configuration would be flown in support of 
1973 Viking mission and other planetary missions, as well as earth 
synchronous missions using 4,000- to 8,000-lb spacecraft. Titan IIIC 
also would be used on two synchronous-altitude missions, ATS— F and 
ATS— G. (Transcript) 
April 27: Several thousand gallons of fuel escaped from prevalves in Saturn 
V 1st stage (S— IC) while it was being prepared for Apollo 10 count- 
down demonstration test (cddt) at ksc. Prevalves opened while leak 
was being repaired in nitrogen pressurization system on mobile 
launcher, cddt, scheduled to begin April 28, was delayed 24 hrs while 
vehicle was examined for damage. (O'Toole, W Post, 4/29/69, A3; 
Marshall Star, 4/30/69, 1) 

118 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 27 

• FRC announced retirement of NASA's two X-15 rocket research aircraft, 

designed for manned hypersonic flight research at speeds up to 4,000 
mph and altitudes of 50 mi. X-15 No. 1, which had made first flight 
June 8, 1959, would be displayed at Smithsonian Institution in Washing- 
ton, D.C. No. 2 would be displayed at Air Force Museum at Wright- 
Patterson afb, Ohio. No. 3 had been destroyed in accident Nov. 15, 
1967. During $300-million nasa-usaf-usn program X-15 had set two 
unofficial world records, reaching 354,200-ft altitude and 4,520 mph 
(mach 6.7). Aircraft served as reusable manned platforms for wide 
range of experiments that helped advance development of vital space- 
flight systems. Final flight, 199th, had been Oct. 24, 1968, and nasa 
had announced completion of program Dec. 20. (frc Release 9—69) 

• William Hines said in Washington Evening Star: "It now seems entirely 

possible that NASA may sneak into a Mars program without a specific 
go-ahead of the type given for the moon adventure in 1961. A case can 
be made that exploration of the planets is but a logical extension of 
exploration of the moon; that once the space frontier is crossed in 1969 
everything else is evolutionary, not revolutionary. This sort of gradual- 
ism, which is analogous to a girl's becoming a little bit pregnant, is 
just as effective in the long run as the flamboyant setting of spectacular 
goals, and probably a good bit more feasible in a time when there is 
already much grumbling about pre-occupation with other worlds when 
our own is in such a sorry state." (W Star, 4/27/69, G4) 

• Dr. Nicholas E. Golovin, technical adviser for aviation and space science 

and technology in Office of Science and Technology, died of heart 
attack in Washington, D.C, at age 57. He had been deputy Associate 
Administrator of NASA in 1960. After returning to private industry for a 
year, he had rejoined NASA as director of Large Launch Vehicle Plan- 
ning Group. Before coming to NASA he had been Chief Scientist at 
White Sands Missile Range for DOD and then Director of Technical 
Operations Div. of arpa. (W Post, 4/30/69, B14; W Star, 4/30/69, 
B6) 
April 28: Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, testified in FY 1970 
authorization hearings before Senate Committee on Aeronautical and 
Space Sciences that he believed "the greatest significance" of President 
Nixon's decision to include in budget amendment amounts for con- 
tinued lunar exploration after first Apollo landings and for continued 
Saturn V production was "that it recognizes the fundamental fact that 
the United States should not and does not plan to stop its further 
development and use of manned space flight." 

Early manned lunar landing would allow additional savings of per- 
haps as much as $39 million in amended Apollo budget. Budget in- 
cluded funds for improved scientific equipment for more advanced 
missions to moon and for limited Apollo Applications program. Fund 
cuts would mean some program reorientation as well as delay in Work- 
shop, previously scheduled for mid-1971. 

Amended budget supported continuation of plans for 1971 and 1973 
Mars missions and first mission to Mercury in 1973, with Venus 
swing-by. In space applications, "where we are placing special em- 
phasis," Earth Resources Technology Satellite program would enable 
NASA, with other agencies, to test practical use of space to gather in- 
formation on water levels, crops, forests, and other resources. "Despite 

119 



April 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

the sizable overall reduction ... we have not reduced the earth re- 
sources project." 

Budget included funds to proceed with nerva development and con- 
tinued to give "high priority to our work in aeronautics." New con- 
struction would include Aircraft Noise Reduction Laboratory at LaRC, 
"unique national facility for studying the fundamentals of noise genera- 
tion and reduction." 

U.S.S.R. was continuing vigorous program in both aeronautics and 
space. "The Soviet commitment represents . . . the application of 
resources at about the same rate as that we have averaged in recent 
years," with "significantly higher percentage of the gross national 
product." Soviets were "proceeding in manned space flight programs 
directed both at sending men to the moon and at substantially enlarged 
and extended manned operations in earth orbit. . . . Automatic ren- 
dezvous and docking flights with Cosmos 186—188 and 212—213 and 
the manned Soyuz 4—5 mission in January, with manned docking and 
crew transfer, demonstrated the increasing Soviet capability. . . . They 
appear to be pointed to a future capability for assembly in earth orbit 
of large space stations and of manned spacecraft to send to the moon 
and beyond." U.S.S.R. had "made attempts to launch one or more 
spacecraft to the planets at almost every opportunity — three or four 
times the number of attempts we have been able to make." (Testimony) 

• Mascons might be excess mass deposited by water and supported by 

internal strength of rigid moon, JPL scientist Paul M. Muller said in 
address before American Physical Society in Washington, D.C. Muller 
was codiscoverer of mascons [see April 25]. Mascons probably were 
not floating on liquid lunar interior as were earth's continents and 
mountains, but were held there by moon with structural strength. He 
illustrated with photos taken by Lunar Orbiters and Apollo 8 theory 
that lunar features might have been cut by primordial lunar water. 
(nasa Release 69-62; jpl Release 515) 

• NASA issued rfps for design and planning studies of 12-man, earth-orbital 

space station for 1975 with 10-yr operational life, subject to resupply 
of expendables and crew rotation with logistics vehicles. Work also 
would include conceptual design of 50-man space base of specialized 
modules assembled in low earth orbit in late 1970s and early 1980s and 
comparable to scientific and technical research, development, and 
operations center on earth. Modified Apollo and Gemini spacecraft 
would be considered as initial logistics systems if space shuttle did not 
become available in early phase of space station operations. Data from 
studies would be available for final design of future space station if 
program were approved for development. Proposals were due June 9. 
(NASA Release 69-65) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Thumba 

Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (terls) carrying Indian-Japa- 
nese payload for x-ray astronomy studies. Rocket and instruments 
functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj Off) 

• LeRC said its engineers had built and were operating world's largest 

acoustical testing facility for fan portion of compressors on turbofan 
engines — key element in aircraft noise. It could test fans up to six feet 
in diameter to collect basic noise information and help determine fan 
configuration for NASA's quiet engine program. Facility was powered 

120 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 28 

by supersonic wind tunnel's drive motor, whose 23,000 hp spun fan to 
3,500 rpm. Noise treated was recorded by strategically placed micro- 
phones to determine differences in level producing by fan blade con- 
figurations and effects of noise-deadening inlet lining materials. (LeRC 
Release 69-19) 

• At international airline conference in Dublin, U.S.S.R.'s First Deputy 

Minister of Civil Aviation, Gen. Leonid V. Zholudev, denied Tu-144 
supersonic transport had been in accident, American Aviation said. It 
was "undergoing tests according to our program," Gen. Zholudev said. 
He declined to speculate when Soviet aircraft would go into service 
and said "many complex problems must be solved." Tu-154, 170- 
passenger trijet, would enter service "in near future"; An-22 turbo- 
prop, with reported maximum takeoff weight of 551,160 lbs, was being 
used exclusively as cargo carrier. {Amer Av, 4/28/69, 17) 

• President Nixon met with National Science Board members and NAS 

council and promised to nominate nsf director without regard to his 
ABM position. He asked for names for possible nominee and promised 
to consider only scientific qualifications. President disclosed he had 
asked Cornell Univ.'s Dr. Franklin A. Long to consider having his 
name resubmitted to Senate after original decision not to nominate Dr. 
Long [see April 17] but Dr. Long had declined. (Kilpatrick, W Post, 
4/29/69, Al) 
April 28—30: At 106th annual meeting of National Academy of Sciences in 
Washington, D.C., Dr. Eugene N. Parker of Univ. of Chicago and Dr. 
J. P. Wild of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organi- 
zation in Sydney, Australia, received Henry Arctowski Medal for 
studies of solar activity changes and their effects upon ionosphere and 
terrestrial atmosphere. Dr. Parker was honored for "contributions to 
theoretical understanding of interaction between magnetic fields of 
sun and earth and surrounding ion plasmas"; Dr. Wild, for contribu- 
tions to solar radio astronomy, including development of technique of 
studying solar disturbances through moving pictures of sun "photo- 
graphed" in radio spectrum. Dr. Jiirgen K. Moser of New York Univ. 
received James Craig Watson Medal for mathematical contributions 
to dynamical astronomy, (nas Release 4/23/69) 

Cal Tech scientist Kip S. Thoren suggested pulsars were subject to 
quakes which accelerated their pulsation. At press interview during 
annual meeting, he said pulsars' insides were probably superfluids — 
more liquid than liquid — and were gradually cooling, with crust crys- 
tallization requiring adjustments. Adjustments, he said, would cause 
"pulsequakes" and could result in sudden speedups in pulsar 
periodicity. 

Cornell Univ. astronomer Dr. Thomas Gold said observations of 
pulsars indicated they slowed down as they aged, with oldest finally 
slowing billionths of seconds per year until they reached periods up to 
almost four seconds. He suggested pulsar radiation might account for 
luminosity of whole galaxies and even produce all cosmic rays detected 
throughout universe, including earth. 

Cornell Univ. astronomer Dr. Frank D. Drake, former director of 
Cornell's Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico, said space 
clocks were emerging as practical scientific tools, especially in testing 
Einstein's theories. Dr. F. Graham Smith of Nuffield Radio Astronomy 

121 



April 28-30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Laboratories, Manchester, England, said space clocks were being used 
to investigate interstellar medium — gas clouds between earth and other 
parts of solar system. (Lannan, W Star, 5/1/69, A6; O'Toole, W Post, 
5/1/69, Al) 

April 29: Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser, said at nas 
dinner in Washington, D.C.: "The relations between science, tech- 
nology, government and the various elements of our society are enor- 
mously complex. Science and technology are no longer separable from 
political and social problems. . . . Whether we like it or not, science is 
in politics and politics is in science. . . . The fact is that today science 
is too important to our nation to stay out of politics. Clearly we all — 
politicians and scientists — must find ways of adapting ourselves to a 
new era — an era which began . . . really on Hiroshima day in 1945." 
(Text) 

April 29— May 1: msfc held workshop on optical telescope technology to ex- 
change technical information on design of future space telescopes and 
identify research and technology efforts needed to support future mis- 
sions, (msfc Release 69-117) 

April 30: At KSC briefing on NASA FY 1970 budget for community leaders, 
ksc Director, Dr. Kurt H. Debus, said: "It is clear that we will con- 
tinue the present pace of launch operations in the Apollo program until 
the first lunar landing has been accomplished. . . . The continuation of 
space effort, however, must somehow take into account the same con- 
straints on Government spending which now affect the entire federal 
budget. . . . The total KSC budget is being revised from $455 million 
for all purposes to $410 million. I am taking action to accomplish this 
reduction without crippling the essential launch team capability or 
drastically impacting the local economy." Savings would be effected 
by: gradual cutback in efforts of contractors supporting design engi- 
neering; phasing down of Boeing technical integration effort; decelera- 
tion of Apollo/Saturn V launch rate to three manned vehicles annually, 
reducing employment; and greater use of five-day week and two-shift 
schedule, permitting stabilization of employment level at 18,500 by 
June 30, 1970, instead of current 23,500. 

KSC strength would remain at 80% of current level, with reduction 
in support and stage contractors. Civil service cadre would drop from 
2,920 to 2,880 by June 30, 1970. Employment already had been frozen 
at current level. 

Saturn IB Apollo Applications missions would require increased em- 
ployment at Launch Complexes 34 and 37 in 1971, with estimated 
increase in contract jobs of 2,600 to handle nearly simultaneous or 
dual launches. KSC also would participate in earth orbital space station 
studies. (Transcript) 

• ksc announced selection of Dr. Kurt H. Debus, KSC Director, to receive 
1969 Career Service Award of National Civil Service League at Wash- 
ington, D.C., banquet June 13. Citation said: "The development of 
Complex 39, the installation from which the Apollo program launches 
take place, is the crowning achievement of Dr. Kurt H. Debus' career. 
His leadership was pivotal in both the design and construction of the 
famed Apollo launch complex. Further, he has been responsible for 
many of the technical advances in launch technology, and for the for- 
mation of the government-industry launch team which has carried out 

122 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 April 30 

more than 150 successful launches, including several notable firsts." 
Award- — consisting of $1,000, inscribed gold watch, and citation — was 
one of most prestigious for which civil service career employees were 
eligible. 

Also among 10 selected was George S. Moore, Associate Adminis- 
trator for Operations, FAA, for "an extraordinary record in the de- 
velopment of up to date methods of evaluation of aircraft worthiness." 
(ksc Release 154-69; W Star, 4/30/69, A2) 

• NASA was engaged in "comprehensive continuing program" to gain 

"better understanding of the structural loads due to buffeting and the 
buildup of buffeting intensity for flight conditions above buffet bound- 
ary," Acting Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and 
Technology Bruce T. Lundin testified before Senate Committee on 
Aeronautical and Space Sciences. FRC program, in which F— 111 A was 
being used, also included verification in flight of favorable effects of 
flaps in alleviating buffeting. Program was supported and comple- 
mented by wind-tunnel studies at LaRC and arc. (Testimony) 

• Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space 

Flight, spoke before student seminar at California Museum of Science 
and Technology in Los Angeles: "Besides serving as a subject of scien- 
tific exploration for its own secrets, the moon may be an important 
base for outward looking space science programs of the future." It 
might eventually support large optical telescopes. There was strong 
evidence "that the most ideal location for large radio telescopes will 
eventually be the far side of the moon. This may be the only place 
within our convenient reach where the earth, which will become in- 
creasingly noisy as a radio source, may be completely screened out. In 
addition, the lunar surface presents us with a very large stable base, 
with only 1/6 gravity, no wind disturbance and no atmosphere absorp- 
tion at any wave length. . . . Another attractive possibility is to use 
stations on both the moon and earth as a radio interferometer baseline 
for highly precise directional radio astronomy." (Text) 

• NASA announced it would sponsor, in 1970, 90-day test of four-man life- 

support system with continuous regeneration of water and oxygen 
without resupply, under $586,885 contract with McDonnell Douglas 
Corp. Advanced waste management subsystem would be used. Experi- 
ment, scheduled to begin in March 1970, would demonstrate crew's 
ability to function during long period of uninterrupted confinement. 
(NASA Release 69-60) 

• Univ. of Miami and Chrysler Corp. Space Div. had conceived $100- 

million undersea laboratory "Atlantis" to be constructed on ocean 
floor near Miami, AP said. Laboratory would be testing ground for 
future USN centers directing submarine warfare and test bed for in- 
dustrial equipment to mine ores and drill for undersea oil. It would 
consist of 80-ft-long cylinder-shaped habitat housing 10 to 12 scien- 
tists at initial depth of 1,000 ft. Later it could be moved to 6,000- or 
12,000-ft depths. (B Sun, 4/30/69, A3) 

• President Nixon had apparently yielded to "top level economizers" and 

returned SST and airways and airports programs to dot for further 
study, said Associated Press. (AP, W Star, 4/30/69, All) 

• Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird issued statement expressing con- 

cern over C— 5A contract and procurement actions and announcing that 

123 



April 30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

new Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations and Logistics) 
had been nominated [Philip N. Whittaker had been nominated to re- 
place Robert H. Charles] and new Assistant Secretary of the Air Force 
(Financial Management) would be nominated [to replace Thomas H. 
Neilson]. "I am determined to insure that full and accurate informa- 
tion on C— 5A procurement, and on all other procurement matters, is 
given to the Congress and to the public promptly. I am also deter- 
mined to insure that past mistakes in the procurement of this transport 
aircraft will not be repeated." (dod Release 340-69; AP, W Star, 
5/1/69, Al; Nossiter, W Post, 5/1/69, Al) 

• Rep. William F. Ryan (D-N.Y.) presented to House petition by 729 sci- 

entists, engineers, and students in these fields, submitted by Scientists 
for Social and Political Action, care of Dr. Martin L. Perl of Stanford 
Univ. It called for open Congressional hearings to review substance 
and direction of entire military R&D program including ABM system. 
{CR, 4/30/69, H3220) 
During April: NAS— nrc Space Science Board published Sounding Rockets: 
Their Role in Space Research, report by Committee on Rocket Research 
recommending that NASA increase annual expenditures on rocket re- 
search to $27 million by 1971 and thereafter restore its earlier policy 
of increasing support 12% per year; that nsf, Naval Research Labora- 
tory, and USAF immediately increase their support by 36%, and then 
maintain an annual 12% increase until 1975; and, additionally, that 
support for rocket research be increased by appropriate ratio to com- 
pensate for any reduction in satellite support. 

Report noted sounding rockets were responsible for dozens of major 
scientific discoveries, including discovery of solar x-rays emanating 
from millionth-degree corona of sun; for mapping of solar spectrum 
and structure of earth's atmosphere; and for existence of three new 
branches of astronomy — UV, x-ray, and gamma-ray. Greatest single 
advantage of sounding rockets for studying upper atmosphere was 
unique ability to obtain direct, vertical profiles at altitudes of 24.8 to 
124.3 mi (40 to 200 km) . (nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 4/69, 2; nas pio) 

• Aerospace Industries Assn. released Annual Report 1968: Aerospace in- 

dustry had gained "in virtually every major category": sales reached 
record $30.1 billion, up 10.5% over 1967, with turbine-powered com- 
mercial aircraft sales accounting for $3.73 billion, up 211% over 1965. 
General-aviation aircraft sales reached 13,698 units valued at $426 
million. Civil helicopter production increased to 528 units valued at 
$59 million. DOD sales reached $16.9 billion, up nearly 7% over 1967; 
nonmilitary sales decreased 3.7%, to $4,047 billion. Backlog at end of 
third quarter was due primarily to commercial transport orders. 
(Text) 

• nasa issued Relay Program Final Report (nasa SP— 151), prepared by 

GSFC. It was sequel to Relay I Final Report (nasa SP— 76) and sum- 
marized operations of Relay II satellite (launched Jan. 21, 1964), in- 
cluding communications and other experiments. It compared Relay I 
(launched Dec. 13, 1962) and // performances and documented aspects 
of Relay I operations and experiment results not covered in Relay I 
report. Relay I transmitted last useful data Feb. 10, 1965; Relay II 
operated normally for last time Nov. 20, 1966. (Text) 

124 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During April 

• nas announced appointment of Dr. T. Keith Glennan, first NASA Admin- 
istrator (1958-1961) and Assistant to Chairman of the Urban Coa- 
lition, as Chairman of nrc's Committee on Radio Frequency 
Requirements for Scientific Research. Dr. Glennan had been President 
of Case Institute of Technology, aec Commissioner, and President of 
Associated Universities, Inc. (nas PIO; nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 
4/69, 10) 



125 



May 1969 

May 1: Canadian Black Brant IIIB sounding rocket was launched by nasa 
from NASA Wallops Station to 133.6-mi (215-km) altitude. Primary 
objective was to evaluate improved Black Brant IIIB single-stage 
rocket, using flight-performance instrumentation. Flight, second of two 
(first was Feb. 28), was successful and sounding rocket was recom- 
mended for consideration as operational vehicle in NASA sounding 
rocket program, (nasa Rpt SRL; NASA Release 69-9) 

• NASA was developing novel technique for photographing faint x-ray 

sources, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applica- 
tions, Dr. John E. Naugle, told Senate Committee on Aeronautical and 
Space Sciences. Testifying on supporting research and technology pro- 
gram, he said technique would reduce required exposure time 1/10 to 
1/1000 and was "likely to revolutionize x-ray observations where tele- 
scopes are not usable." Based on Princeton Univ. development and 
laser image-enhancement technique, it was "major technological ad- 
vance as an outgrowth of the space program and should find applica- 
tions in all fields of x-ray science." gsfc was developing advanced 
gamma-ray telescope to observe center of galaxy and other celestial 
objects. Univ. of Colorado was developing advanced coronagraph to 
observe solar corona from earth orbit six months instead of the few 
minutes per year possible during solar total eclipse by ground-based 
observation. (Testimony) 

• National Aviation Club's highest honor, Award for Achievement, was 

presented at Washington, D.C., ceremony to m/g Jewell C. Maxwell 
(usaf), Director of Supersonic Transport Development for faa, for 
"laboring so magnificently and conscientiously in the public and 
national service." (faa Release T 69—25) 

• U.S.S.R. celebrated May Day without military participation. In tra- 

ditional address from atop Lenin's tomb in Moscow, Communist Party 
General Secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev said: "The Soviet Union will 
further consistently uphold the cause of peace and security of people, 
the Leninistic principles of peaceful coexistence of states with different 
social systems. It will come out for the solution of unsettled inter- 
national problems by way of talks." (Kamm, NYT, 5/2/69, 1) 
May 2: usaf launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg afb by 
Thor-Agena booster. One entered orbit with 202.1-mi (325.2-km) 
apogee, 104.6-mi (168.3-km) perigee, 89.5-min period, and 64.9° 
inclination and reentered May 23. 

Second satellite entered orbit with 283.2-mi (455.7-km) apogee, 
255.9-mi (411.7-km) perigee, 93.2-min period, and 65.7° inclination. 
Satellites reentered Feb. 16, 1970. (gsfc SSR, 5/15/69; 5/31/69; 
2/28/70; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• Data from Mariner V flyby Oct. 19, 1967, indicated Venus was layered 

with deadly compounds of mercury, GSFC scientist Dr. S. Ichtiaque 

127 



May 2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Rasool said in interview. Although bulk of its atmosphere was pri- 
marily carbon dioxide, mercury and halides — reactive chemicals in- 
cluding iodine, bromine, and chlorine — had boiled off planet's surface 
and combined to form clouds of poisonous gas and dust, often covered 
by water vapor. Findings, Dr. Rasool said, upset scientific notions of 
origin of Venus' heat as "greenhouse" effect — which might be occur- 
ring on earth with addition of carbon dioxide to atmosphere through 
burning of coal and oil. Clouds of carbon dioxide were assumed to 
retain heat, but planet covered with four layers of heavily colored at- 
mosphere would never feel sun's heat. (Lannan, W Star, 5/3/69) 

• Basic research program conducted by Dr. Wilhelm Rindner had led to 

development of cardiovascular pressure transducer, ERC reported. Tiny 
device had been placed in arteries and hearts of laboratory animals to 
measure blood pressure while using 100 times less power than con- 
ventional devices. Medical team headed by Harvard Univ. cardiologist 
Dr. Bernard Lown, in collaboration with NASA, said device was signifi- 
cant advance in monitoring important blood flow changes. Eventually 
it should be possible to implant device in human beings to observe 
blood flow and pressure in persons suffering from hypertension and 
other blood pressure disorders, including heart attacks. 

Discovery of properties of device was made during ERC study of 
effects of pressure on semiconductors. Properties would also be impor- 
tant in space applications; sensing of acceleration already had been 
demonstrated, (erc Release 69—9) 

• NASA unloaded eight-ton airlock at MSFC for ground testing to qualify it 

as part of orbiting space station. Part of Apollo Applications program 
cluster to be launched in mid-1970s, 65-in-dia, 17-ft cylindrical unit 
was flown from McDonnell Douglas Corp.'s St. Louis plant to be joined 
to multiple-docking adapter. It would provide interconnecting passage- 
way between S— IVB rocket stage and multiple-docking adapter in 
flight, condition environmental gases, and provide instrumentation, 
data management, intercommunication, and other services. ( MSFC Re- 
lease 69-124) 

• msfc announced it had issued rfps for experiment modules to be used 

with proposed manned space station to orbit earth in 1970s. Study, 
under eight-month contract, would analyze scientific and engineering 
need for experiment modules and develop concepts for least number 
of modules needed. Study tasks included further defining candidate ex- 
periment groupings, developing preliminary module concepts, defining 
minimum number of concepts, developing preliminary design and cost 
analysis for each module concept, and making proposed plan schedule. 
Proposals were due May 22. (msfc Release 69-125) 

• At DOD news conference, Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. Robert C. Sea- 

mans, Jr., said current estimate of cost to Government of C— 5A aircraft 
was $4,348 billion, increase of $882 million (25%) over original esti- 
mate of $3,466 billion on which Lockheed Aircraft Corp. contract was 
based. 

Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Robert H. Charles said USAF 
had not disclosed Feb. 1, 1967, "cure order" to Lockheed on aircraft 
procurement contract because of concern over its effects on financial 
community. He maintained data on cost overruns had been developed 
too early in program to be solid enough for publication and that sub- 

128 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 2 

sequent firmer cost estimates had been made public. (Transcript; 
Corddry, B Sun, 5/3/69, A4) 

• In editorial directed to "Americans who think Soviet Russia is 'mellow- 

ing' " and who opposed President Nixon's Safeguard abm plan, New 
York Netvs noted U.S.S.R. had paraded no military gear in Moscow 
May Day parade and limited oratory "to a peace-it's-wonderful speech" 
by Brezhnev. Paper then quoted April 30 issue of Partinaya Zhizn in 
which Marshal Matvey V. Zakharov, U.S.S.R. Chief of Staff, described 
Soviet stockpile of nuclear missiles: "'These rockets are always pre- 
pared for immediate firing. Global rockets have unlimited range, and 
are able not only to carry colossal payloads but to overcome the anti- 
missile defense of the adversary.' " (NY News, 5/2/69) 
May 3: Press conference on results of NASA's Oao II orbiting astronomical 
observatory (launched Dec. 7, 1968) was held at NASA Hq. oao Project 
Manager Joseph Purcell of gsfc said spacecraft's five months of 
orbital operations had been "a fabulous success" and all spacecraft 
systems were operating normally. As of last week, he said, "we had 
137 mission days. [Univ. of] Wisconsin [experiment] has been pointed 
to 846 different locations in the sky [and] 344 of those were unique 
objects that they were studying. SAO, the Smithsonian package, has 
been pointed at 483 separate locations and taken some 1,172 pictures." 
(Transcript) 

• nasa's Explorer XXXIV (imp— f) Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 

(launched May 24, 1967) reentered earth's atmosphere. More complex 
than previous imp spacecraft, Explorer XXXIV had carried 11 experi- 
ments and obtained more than 170,000 hrs of data on solar activity, 
near-earth environment, and magnetosphere. (gsfc SSR, 5/15/69; 
nasa Release 69-63) 

May 4—11: London Daily Mail sponsored eight-day "Great Transatlantic 
Air Race of 1969" between top of New York's Empire State Building 
and top of London's General Post Office to commemorate 50th anni- 
versary of first nonstop transatlantic flight by John W. Alcock and 
Arthur W. Brown in 1919. Nearly 400 entrants devised combinations 
of land, sea, and air transportation to compete for 21 prizes worth total 
$150,000 in separate categories. Fastest west-to-east time — 5 hrs 11 
min 22 sees — was made by l/c P. M. Goddard (rn) in U.S. -built F^l 
Phantom jet, motorcycle, and helicopter. Air time was 4 hrs 46 min. 
Royal Navy later claimed this was new world record for New York- 
London flight. Previous unofficial record had been set during race by 
Phantom which made flight in 4 hrs 53 min. Best east-to-west time in 
race was made by s/l Tom Lecky-Thompson (raf) in RAF Harrier 
vtol jet, which flew from London to New York in 6 hrs 11 min 57 
sees. (NYT, 5/6/69, 93; 5/12/69, 93) 

May 5: At dedication ceremony in Houston for Apollo 8 stamp, Postmaster 
General Winton M. Blount said: "The fact that this is the fifth stamp 
the Post Office Department has issued commemorating accomplishments 
of the space program signifies the extent to which space exploration 
has captured the imagination of the American people. . . . The nation's 
concerted effort to reach the moon and outer space reflects two tra- 
ditional aspects of our national character. One is scientific: the search 
for truth, knowledge, discovery. The other is psychological: the strong 
urge for adventure — an urge kindled by the unknown. We are all ex- 

129 



May 5 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

plorers at heart. The space program has made an entire nation ex- 
plorers in fact. The flight of Apollo 8 around the moon and back was 
perhaps the greatest technological achievement of man to date. Cer- 
tainly it was the most dramatic." (Text) 

• NASA announced Bernard Moritz, Assistant Administrator for Special 

Contracts Negotiations and Review, would serve as Acting Associate 
Administrator for Organization and Management since Harold B. 
Finger had assumed new duties with HUD. (nasa Ann) 

• Senate confirmed nomination of Philip N. Whittaker, former NASA Assist- 

ant Administrator for Industry Affairs, to be an Assistant Secretary 
of the Air Force. {CR, 5/5/69, S4668) 

• U.S. returned 14-in metal sphere from Soviet spacecraft to U.S.S.R. 

under terms of space rescue treaty. Later, State Dept. spokesman said 
object- — gas storage tank — was washed up on Alaskan coast in late 
1968. Delay in return was due partly to efforts in identifying it. 
(Reuters, W Post, 5/8/69, A25) 

• In letter to Attorney General, Sen. William F. Proxmire (D-Wis.) asked 

that Justice Dept. investigate possible violations of Federal law in 
handling of Government's contract with Lockheed Aircraft Corp. for 
production of C— 5A aircraft and urged that DOD immediately freeze 
funding for C-5A. (Proxmire Off; Nossiter, W Post, 5/6/69, A3) 

• Jerald R. Kubat, former Director of NASA Manned Space Flight Program 

Control Office, died in Seattle, Washington. He had joined Apollo 
Program Office in 1964. (nasa Hq WB, 5/12/69, 5) 
May 6: Milton Klein, Manager of aec-nasa Space Nuclear Propulsion 
Office and Director of Space Nuclear Systems, aec, testified in nasa 
authorization hearings before Senate Committee on Aeronautical and 
Space Sciences that for second decade "what is clear is that regardless 
of the specific directions the space program may take, if it is to be a 
progressive one, nuclear energy will play an increasingly important 
role. As payloads become larger and energy requirements become 
greater to move these payloads farther from the earth, the nuclear 
rocket will become a workhorse propulsion system. As we move farther 
from the sun or as the power requirements increase for the more so- 
phisticated payloads, electric power generated from radioisotopes or 
nuclear reactors will similarly become more and more important. 
(Transcript) 

• Apollo 9 mission to prove capability of LM to operate in space (March 

3—13) was adjudged successful by NASA. Overall performance of launch 
vehicle, spacecraft, flight crew, ground support and control facilities, 
and personnel was satisfactory and all primary mission objectives were 
accomplished, (nasa Proj Off) 

• At annual meeting of Aerospace Medical Assn. and interview which fol- 

lowed in San Francisco, msc Director of Medical Research and Opera- 
tions, Dr. Charles A. Berry, said it was almost certain that at least one 
Apollo 11 astronaut would develop illness during 21-day quarantine 
period following return from moon. "We have to face the fact that 
we've had post-flight illness on every Apollo mission so far. Our prob- 
lem will be to determine whether any illnesses that show up . . . are 
due to the stresses of space flight or to some micro-organism picked up 
on the moon." Among difficulties noted during Apollo program were 
loss of exercise capacity for period after return to earth, motion sick- 

130 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 6 

ness in flight, and damage to red blood cells from atmosphere of 100% 
oxygen. Blood cell damage had been alleviated by addition of nitrogen 
to spacecraft atmosphere. (Huntsville Times, 5/7/69) 

• Dr. John S. Foster, Jr., Director of Defense Research and Engineering, 

discussed aeronautical portion of DOD FY 1970 program before Senate 
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences hearing on NASA ap- 
propriations. Upsurge in DOD aircraft weapon systems development was 
"reflected in the DOD fiscal year 1970 budget of $1,372 million for air- 
craft and related equipment r.d.t. & E., an increase of about $387 
million" over FY 1969. High-priority programs were USn's F-14A air 
defense fighter and S-3A carrier-based antisubmarine warfare aircraft; 
USAF's F— 15A air superiority fighter, advanced manned strategic air- 
craft (amsa), and ax close-support aircraft; and USA's heavy helicopter 
(hlh). Comsat program included Defense Satellite Communications 
System, Tactical Satellite Communications Program, and Very Low 
Frequency Propagation Satellite. (Transcript) 

• American Security Council published The ABM and the Changed Stra- 

tegic Military Balance, U.S.A. vs. U.S.S.R. Although U.S. gnp ran 
almost twice that of U.S.S.R., latter was investing two to three times 
more in strategic military forces annually. Report concluded: "Anti- 
ballistic missile defense is not a cure-all for the security of the United 
States. It is not the ultimate defense system, for technology knows no 
limits and each decade produces fresh challenges and fresh need for 
response on the part of free nations. But anti-missile defense is an es- 
sential component in the network of military systems designed to give 
the American people a seamless garment of security in an age of acute 
danger. . . . We firmly believe that an American abm system is the 
soundest insurance for peace and against war that the United States 
can buy in 1969, for the 1970s. ... It may well be . . . the single most 
important step the United States can take toward a real and lasting 
peace at this moment in history." (Text) 

• Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) released report on Safeguard abm 

system prepared at his request by Harvard law professor Abram 
Chayes and mit provost Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner and scientists George 
W. Rathjens and Steven Weinberg. It said that "the Sentinel/Safeguard 
anti-ballistic missile system should not be deployed at this time." Rec- 
ommendation was based on conclusions system was unlikely to perform 
according to specifications under nuclear attack, was susceptible to 
penetration, and was not well adapted to perform missions assigned to 
it. Deployment would probably start "new round in the arms race" and 
"seriously impede the conclusion of an arms control agreement." 
(Kelly, W Star, 5/7/69, A8; Chapman, W Post, 5/7/69, Al) 
May 7: NASA announced establishment of task group on manned space sta- 
tion under Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for 
Manned Space Flight, and of task group on space shuttle under Charles 
W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight. 
Reporting to Dr. Mueller would be LeRoy E. Day, former Director of 
Apollo Test. His group would develop NASA material for report on 
space shuttles to President's Space Task Group by June 15. Frank Bor- 
man, former Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC and 
Apollo 8 commander, would report to Mathews as Field Director for 
Space Station effort, (nasa Release 69-70) 

131 



May 7 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1968 was presented to Apollo 8 Astronauts 

Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders by Dr. 
Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, at Statler Hilton Hotel cere- 
mony in Washington, D.C. National Aeronautic Assn. award was 
made annually for greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics 
in U.S. toward improving performance, efficiency, and safety of air or 
space vehicles, (naa News; W Star, 5/8/69, A3) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 

carried GSFC payload to 80.4-mi (129.4-km) altitude to provide data 
on wind, temperature, pressure, and density in 21.8- to 59.0-mi (35- 
to 95-km) range during atmospheric warming. All 19 grenades ejected 
and exploded as programmed and sound arrivals were recorded on 
ground. Mission was launched in conjunction with Nike-Cajun launch 
from Arenosillo, Spain, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• MSC announced Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., had been cleared medi- 

cally for return to space flight status following correction of inner ear 
disorder which had grounded him in 1963. (NYT, 5/8/69, 2; W Post, 
5/8/69, A7) 

• George J. Vecchietti, NASA Director of Procurement, would serve as Act- 

ing Assistant Administrator for Industry Affairs, replacing Philip N. 
Whittaker, who had assumed new duties as Assistant Secretary of the 
Air Force, NASA announced, (nasa Ann) 

• Associated Press said NATO nations U.K., West Germany, Canada, Italy, 

Belgium, Holland, and Norway had agreed to participate in tactical 
satellite communications experiments with U.S. France was interested 
but would not participate; system was for use of closely integrated 
forces and she had withdrawn her troops from integrated NATO com- 
mands. Satellite for exclusive use of alliance was scheduled for launch 
by end of year. (W Star, 5/7/69, A9) 

• Four contract modifications totaling nearly $10 million, for change 

orders issued in connection with Saturn V 2nd stage, had been awarded 
to North American Rockwell Corp., msfc announced, (msfc Release 
69-127) 

• v/a Hyman G. Rickover (usn), addressing Convocation on Ecology and 

the Human Environment at St. Alban's School in Washington, D.C, 
said that "keeping our small crowded planet inhabitable" was "of ut- 
most importance and great urgency. . . . We have been brought to this 
critical situation by the scientific-technological revolution, and can ex- 
tricate ourselves only by a change of direction in thought and action 
so drastic it would rate the term counterrevolutionary." Science, "pure 
thought," harmed no one. "But technology is action . . . often poten- 
tially dangerous action. Unless it is made to adapt itself to human 
interests, needs, values, and principles, more harm will be done than 
good. Never before . . . has man possessed such enormous power to 
injure himself, his human fellows, and his society. . . . That is why it 
is important to . . . recognize clearly that . . . technology can have no 
legitimate purpose but to serve man — man in general, not merely some 
men " (Text; W Star, 5/11/69, E2) 

• Securities and Exchange Commission said it had begun inquiry into all 

phases of Government's contractual dealing with Lockheed Aircraft 
Corp. on C-5A procurement. (Nossiter, W Post, 5/8/69, Al; AP, 
W Star, 5/8/69, A3) 

132 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 8 

May 8: X-24A lifting-body research vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld R. 
Gentry (usaf), successfully completed second glide flight over South 
Rogers Lake Bed, Calif., to obtain additional data on handling quali- 
ties. (NASA Proj Off) 

• New direct value for sun's thermal radiation of 125.7 vv per sq ft, ob- 

tained from Mariner VI and VII en route to Mars, was nearly twice as 
accurate as old value of 129.5 w per sq ft, NASA announced. JPL 
Mariner project engineer Joseph A. Plamondon said change in prob- 
able error in new measurement was one-half that of old figure. Results 
of inflight measurements obtained with temperature-control flux moni- 
tors (tcfm) monitoring solar radiation since Mariners' launch Feb. 
24 and March 27 would be compared with preflight predictions of solar 
radiation and spacecraft temperature variations in flight, to establish 
new standard for temperature-control design and testing. Data from 
TCFM agreed with data obtained by NASA from high-altitude experi- 
ments on Convair 990 research aircraft and X-15. (nasa Release 
69-69; jpl Release 518) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Arenosillo, 

Spain, carrying grenade payload for Spain to conduct meteorological 
studies. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj 
Off) 

• Smithsonian Institution celebrated 50th anniversary of May 8, 1919, 

takeoff of first aircraft to cross Atlantic Ocean with display on Wash- 
ington, D.C., mall of original NC-4 (restored by Smithsonian Air 
Museum Curator Paul Garber) and with presentation to Institution of 
Plaque and aircraft's log. Glenn Curtiss-built, long-range seaplane 
ordered by USN as bomber during World War I but completed too late 
to see service had been flown by USN crew from Rockaway Beach, 
N.Y., to Plymouth, England, with two sister aircraft which crashed in 
Azores. NC— 4, known as "Nancy," made journey in 53 hrs 58 min 
flying time and 23 days elapsed time. (Lydon, NYT, 5/1/69, 22; Dur- 
bin, W Post, 5/8/69, CI) 

• Sen. Warren G. Magnuson (D-Wash.) submitted to Senate S.C.R. 23, 

expressing sense of Congress that U.S. participate in international dec- 
ade of ocean exploration. Measure was referred to Senate Commerce 
Committee. (CR, 5/8/69, S4688) 
May 9: nasa's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by nasa test pilot John 
A. Manke, reached 54,000-ft altitude and 724 mph (mach 1.1)— first 
supersonic flight by HL-10 — after 45,000-ft-altitude air-launch from 
B-52 aircraft. Primary purpose of 17th flight, made north of Four 
Corners, Calif., was to obtain stability and control data. (NASA Proj 
Off) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 

carried gsfc payload to 79.4-mi (127.7-km) altitude to obtain data 
on wind, temperature, pressure, and density in 21.8- to 59.0-mi (35- 
to 95-km) range during atmospheric warming. Seventeen of 19 gre- 
nades ejected and exploded as programmed and sound arrivals were 
recorded. Mission was launched in conjunction with Nike-Cajun 
launch from Arenosillo, Spain, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• Astronomers at 60-in optical telescope at Cerro Tololo, Chile, began 

two-week alert in attempt to photograph Scorpio X-l, brightest x-ray 
star, best seen in southern skies. When flare-up occurred, they would 

133 



May 9 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

radio message to astronomical teams in Hawaii, which would launch 
two Nike-Tomahawk rockets above atmosphere to photograph x-rays 
from giant star. At 200-in Palomar, Calif., telescope, astronomers 
would try to photograph star's visible and infrared light during flare 
period, while astronomical team in Wisconsin would order Oao II to 
observe uv light from star. Astronomers hoped to match all photos of 
flare-up to determine element in star which excited x-rays. (W Post, 
5/4/69, A3; Hines, C Sun-Times, 5/5/69) 

• Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser, testified before Sen- 

ate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences during nasa FY 
1970 authorization hearings: "Nothing can do more harm to support 
for the space program than to have a series of missions for which there 
are no clear objectives — such as a series of manned revisits to the 
moon without providing the capability to perform new scientific ex- 
periments and to explore interesting new lunar features." When Space 
Task Group considered urgent items in manned space flight area for 
FY 1970, it "gave high priority to the provision of additional science 
payloads for lunar flights and increased capability for man on the 
lunar surface, to support Apollo missions after the first four landings. 
Funding for this purpose is included as part of the budget amendment 
to the nasa request for fiscal year 1970. 

"An additional item ... is funding for maintaining the production 
of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Although specific commitment to a 
particular mission or missions has not been made for the initial ve- 
hicles to be produced under this budget amendment, it was the judg- 
ment of the Space Task Group that this vehicle represented a unique 
and valuable resource that we would undoubtedly wish to continue to 
use, at least through the mid-1970s. Because of the long lead times in- 
volved in a vehicle of this size, action is necessary now if we are to 
have follow-on vehicles produced and available by 1973 and after." 
(Transcript) 

• Harold R. Kaufman, Assistant Chief of Electromagnetic Propulsion Div., 

LeRC, would receive James H. Wyld Propulsion Award for "outstand- 
ing leadership in the field of electric propulsion, including the concep- 
tion design, and development of the world's most successful ion rocket" 
at aiaa 5th Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference in Colorado 
Springs, Colo., June 9-13, aiaa announced, (aiaa News; Lewis News, 
5/9/69, 1) 

• Associated Press said Astronaut- Aquanaut M. Scott Carpenter (Cdr., 

ijsn) would retire from USN July 1 to enter private business in ocean- 
ography field. He was second U.S. astronaut to orbit earth, during 
May 24, 1962, Mercury mission in Aurora 7. (W Post, 5/10/69, A3) 

• Tom Barker, owner of bingo hall in Cardiff, Wales, had written to 

American and Soviet embassies in London for permission to open first 
amusement and bingo hall on moon, Reuters said. U.S. Embassy 
spokesman had replied: "There are no proposals to colonize the moon 
and many factors inhibit large-scale development." (NYT, 5/9/69, 16) 

• New York Times editorial: "Now it appears that the solution to the 

cosmic ray mystery may be intimately related to the explanation for 
the strangest astronomical phenomena discovered in recent years, if 
not all history, the pulsars." Present favored explanation "views pul- 
sars as neutron stars composed of matter packed so tightly that a mass 

134 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 9 

the weight of the earth would be a sphere with a diameter of a few 
hundred feet. The extremely swift rotation of a neutron star, it is now 
theorized, produces both the periodic radio emissions of the pulsars 
and the super-energetic cosmic rays." (NYT, 5/9/69, 46) 
May 10: Loose wire in 1st stage of Delta launch vehicle's guidance system 
had been identified by final failure review committee as most probable 
cause of Intelsat-III F— 1 mission failure Sept. 18, 1968, NASA an- 
nounced. Report did not eliminate possibility that electrical failure in 
unrecovered pitch gyro or interconnecting wiring had caused failure. 
(nasa Release 69-71) 

• Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Arenosillo, 

Spain, carrying grenade payload for Spain to conduct meteorological 
studies. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. ( nasa Proj 
Off) 

• Comsat station for communications with Europe was opened at Yama- 

guchi, Japan, to replace telephone and telegraph relay through U.S. 
(Reuters, W Post, 5/11/69, A3) 
May 11: Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced appointment of Dr. Robert 
J. Mackin, Jr., as Manager of Space Sciences Div., succeeding Dr. 
Donald P. Burcham. Dr. Burcham had been named Research and Ad- 
vanced Development Manager for Space Science, J PL Office of Re- 
search and Advanced Development. (jPL Release 517) 

• Vice President Spiro T. Agnew announced President's Council on Youth 

Opportunity and NASA would explain mechanics of scheduled July 
Apollo 11 lunar landing to high school and junior high school pupils 
in 50 cities under summer program to be held in city streets, play- 
grounds, and classrooms. (W Star, 5/12/69, A3) 

• Rise of costs of Mark II electronic equipment for F— 111 aircraft of more 

than 100% above original contract with Autonetics Div. of North 
American Rockwell Corp. were described by Bernard D. Nossiter in 
Washington Post article based largely on memo from dod official. 
Memo had warned, "If it fails to enforce the contract, the Air Force 
and the entire Department of Defense can count on many more years 
of misleading promises from contractors and failures to meet contrac- 
tual requirements." (W Post, 5/11/69, Al) 

• Fire at aec plutonium-handling facility at Rocky Flats, Colo., might halt 

U.S. nuclear missile production for remainder of 1969, Associated 
Press reported testimony released by Senate Appropriations subcom- 
mittee had disclosed. Most nuclear weapons needed plutonium to 
trigger atomic warheads. [W Post, 6/24/69, A3) 
May 12: NASA launched two Nike-Apache sounding rockets from Wallops 
Station: first carried GSFC payload to study ionospheres; second 
carried Univ. of Michigan payload to conduct studies on atmospheric 
structure. Rockets and instruments functioned satisfactorily. ( nasa 
Proj Off) 

• Melvin S. Day became NASA Acting Assistant Administrator for Tech- 

nology Utilization, succeeding Dr. Richard L. Lesher, who had re- 
signed to accept position in industry. (NASA Ann) 

• Author Norman Mailer's total publishing rights on book on lunar land- 

ing would exceed $1 million when book was published by Little, 
Brown & Co. in January or February 1970, according to his agent, 
Scott Meredith. If film rights were sold, total could approach the $1.5 

135 



May 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

million paid for Lyndon B. Johnson memoirs. Mailer planned to visit 
KSC during Apollo 11 launch to interview astronauts and describe 
space center operations. He also planned chapter on philosophical and 
technological implications of lunar landing. Meredith said he was sur- 
prised at "phenomenal competition among foreign publishers for book 
and magazine rights." (Raymont, NYT, 5/13/69, 44) 

• Science students, younger scientists, and many older professors of 

physics and physiology were engaging in what Harvard Univ. political 
scientist Prof. Don K. Price called "a new kind of rebellion," linked 
only in part with radical activists on campuses, said Victor Cohn in 
Washington Post. It was rebellion against ABM "and other costly mili- 
tary-technological systems, against 'weaponeering' at secret labora- 
tories on or near campuses and, in many cases, against doing any 
research, secret or non-secret, to help the military." It had helped 
cause Stanford Univ. to decide to phase out 50% of secret projects at 
Applied Electronics Laboratory, made Stanford's trustees place mora- 
torium on new chemical and biological warfare contracts at Stanford 
Research Institute, caused MIT moratorium on new secret contracts, 
and forced American Univ. to cancel partly secret USA research con- 
tract. Movement and student protests had, in past year, forced dod to 
cut from 400 to 200 its classified R&D contracts on U.S. campuses. 
{W Post, 5/12/69, Al) 

• In American Aviation, Eric Bramley called 1969 year of "cautious op- 

timism" for air transport industry. Deliveries of new aircraft to U.S. 
carriers would drop from 478 in 1968 to 309. Trunk traffic was ex- 
pected to grow at same 14% rate as 1968, with available seat-mile 
increase of 17%. CAB-approved fare increases would add $194 million 
to revenues with profit level and rate of return expected to improve. 
(Amer Av, 5/12/69, 40-1) 
May 12-24: At 10th annual meeting of Committee on Space Research 
(cospar) in Prague, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman received 
medal from Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. 

NAS— NRC submitted United States Space Science Program, compre- 
hensive summary of scientific research in space science in U.S. during 
1968. "Although the principal concern of the space science program 
in the United States continues to be with the Earth, its environment, 
the Sun, interactions of solar and terrestrial phenomena, the Moon and 
planets, and the biological effects of weightlessness and radiation, 
there is a trend toward increasing emphasis on the use of space ve- 
hicles for stellar and galactic astronomy, especially in areas of the 
electromagnetic spectrum for which the atmosphere is essentially 
opaque. The successful operation of the Orbiting Astronomical Ob- 
servatory satellite and the rapid development of improved instruments 
and techniques for ultraviolet and x-ray astronomy . . . are examples 
of this trend." 

In interview with press, NAS— NRC Space Science Board member Dr. 
Richard W. Porter said U.S. would probably have to review its expen- 
sive prophylactic measures in planned Mars landings if U.S.S.R. 
landed there first with same techniques and precautions used in Venus 
shots. Outgoing contamination of planets might well be bigger prob- 
lem than contamination of incoming spacecraft. There was little likeli- 
hood of spacecraft landing on Mars and Venus and returning for at 

136 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 12-24 

least 10 yrs, Dr. Porter said, and risk from lunar bacteriological con- 
tamination was infinitesimal. But contamination of planets was serious 
problem because it could spoil man's first chances to make a pure in- 
vestigation of biological evolution elsewhere in the solar system. (Text; 
W Post, 5/23/69, A15) 
May 13: Cosmos CCLXXXl was launched by U.S.S.R. from Plesetsk into 
orbit with 301-km (187.0-mi) apogee, 188-km (116.8-mi) perigee, 
89.3-min period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered May 21. 
(gsfc SSR, 5/15/69; 5/31/69; SBD, 5/14/69, 61) 

• Countdown for NASA's Apollo 10 mission, scheduled for launch May 18, 

began at KSC. Astronauts completed three-hour physical examinations 
and were reported to be in good health and good spirits. ( W Post, 
5/13/69, A7; Sehlstedt, B Sun, 5/14/69, A3) 

• NASA and Australian Dept. of Supply and Dept. of Education and Science 

announced that 210-ft-dia radiotelescope at National Radio As- 
tronomy Observatory in Parkes, Australia, might be used to relay TV 
signals from moon during Apollo 11 lunar landing mission in July. 
Signals from Apollo 11 antennas were scheduled to be received by 
Goldstone Tracking Station. If mission were delayed and moon were 
not visible from Goldstone while TV was scheduled, signals would be 
received at Parkes, transmitted to Sydney, and transmitted to NASA's 
Mission Control Center at Houston via Intelsat-Ill F—3 over Pacific. 
(nasa Release 69-72) 

• ComSatCorp President Joseph V. Charyk told Annual Meeting of Share- 

holders in Washington, D.C., key goal of establishing global comsat 
system was "within immediate view." When Early Bird [Intelsat I] 
"was launched just four years ago, there were only a handful of ex- 
perimental stations in Europe and the United States. Today, there are 
25 earth stations operating in 15 different countries of the world, with 
many more nearing completion. It is expected that a total of 43 sta- 
tions will be in service by the end of this year and that 26 different 
countries will have direct access to all forms of high quality communi- 
cations that the global system of satellites makes economically available 
to them." By 1972 "there will be more than 70 stations operating in 
nearly 40 countries of the world, thereby making this high quality 
means of communications available directly to practically every na- 
tion on earth." 

At end of first quarter of 1969 1,209 full-time circuits were being 
leased, up from 777 at end of 1967. Leased voice and record tariffs 
published by international carriers represented 40% reduction in 
Atlantic and Pacific areas since advent of comsats. Transmission of 
TV via satellite increased from 225 hrs in 1967 to 666 hrs in 1968, 
with 40% reduction in TV rates. (Text) 

• New York Times editorial urged President Nixon to "undo a mistake 

and strike a blow for the more rational ordering of Federal spending 
priorities" by supplanting Government subsidy of SST program with 
SST Authority. "The Government's S.s.T. contribution should be con- 
verted to a preferred equity interest in a new public corporation with 
variable proportions of the total common stock being reserved for the 
airlines and the investing public. To the extent necessary, the S.S.T. 
authority would be authorized to raise development funds by selling 
bonds . . . guaranteed by the Federal Government." (NYT, 5/13/69) 

137 



May 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

May 14: Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.) introduced in House H.R. 11271, 
substitute NASA FY 1970 authorization bill increasing total from $3,716 
billion of April 15 amended budget request (as reflected in H.R. 10251 
introduced April 17) to $3,966 billion. 

Bill added $258 million to R&D funds for new total of $3,264 billion, 
including increase of $75.7 million for Apollo program, to total $1,767 
billion. Of this increase, $32.1 million was for Saturn V improvements 
and $4.6 million for lunar exploration. Within new total of $354.8- 
million noa for manned space flight operations, bill restored $57 
million cut from Apollo Applications by budget amendment and added 
$66 million for space station and shuttle and $6.2 million for Saturn V 
production. 

In space science and applications, bill reduced funds for supporting 
research and technology by $12 million and deferred funding for four 
proposed Explorer satellites and for Mariner-Mercury 1973 mission, 
but restored biosatellite program to originally requested $18 million 
plus $1.6 million restored for Delta launch vehicle for Biosatellite-F. 
Earth Resources Technology Satellite funds were increased by $10 
million, with transfer of funds to other projects prohibited. 

Advanced research and technology funds were increased by $31.5 
million, including $13.5-million increase for nuclear rocket program, 
$5.25 million for chemical propulsion, and restoration of $1.20 million 
for aeronautics. 

Research and program management total was cut by $7.15 million, 
to $643.75 million. Construction of facilities total remained unchanged. 
(Text; CR, 5/15/69; House Rpt 91-255) 

• In press statement, Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird said gao team 

investigating Lockheed Aircraft Corp. books had estimated cost of 
120-aircraft C— 5A program exceeded advance estimates by about 
$550 million, dod analysts had computed $450-million overrun and 
usaf had used $350-million figure. Laird denied there was $2-billion 
overrun. Figures had been turned over to Congressional committee. 
(AP, B Sun, 5/15/69, A4) 

• usaf's Arnold Engineering Development Center at Tullahoma, Tenn., 

had "brought much of the universe down to pocket-size" for scientists 
working on Apollo 10, Henry J. Taylor wrote in Washington Daily 
News. Tests to establish spacecraft's ability to withstand lunar environ- 
ment were under way in Center's 216,000-hp wind tunnel, which pro- 
duced 8,000-mph winds and was "largest hypersonic wind tunnel in 
the free world." {W News, 5/14/69, 31) 

• Eugene S. Burcher, nasa Tektite Program Manager, omsf, received Navy 

Distinguished Public Service Award for "distinguished and outstand- 
ing service to the United States and to the Department of the Navy as 
a participant in Project tektite i mission, as well as its planning and 
implementation." (nasa Hq WB, 6/2/69, 6) 

• Charles L. Lawrence Award of Aviation/Space Writers Assn. was pre- 

sented to Volta Torrey, Publications Officer, NASA Scientific and Tech- 
nical Information Div., for "efforts to inform the public of nasa's 
activities." Citation and silver tray were presented at Dayton, Ohio, 
banquet, (aswa letter of notification, 4/15/69; nasa Sci and Tech 
Info Div) 

• U.S. District Court Judge Gerhard A. Gesell had turned down appeal of 

138 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 14 

Aircraft Owners and Pilots Assn. to prevent enforcement of FAA regu- 
lation limiting nonscheduled flights at five major airports, Washington 
Evening Star said, aopa had asked for preliminary injunction to stop 
regulations from becoming effective June 1. (W Star, 5/14/69, G8) 
May 15: Aerobee 150 A sounding rocket launched by NASA from NASA Wal- 
lops Station carried payload containing two white rats to 97.9-mi 
157.6-km) altitude in fourth of four experiments to study rats' be- 
havior in artificial gravity field and determine minimum level of 
gravity needed by biological organisms during space flight. During 
free fall rats selected artificial gravity levels created through centrif- 
ugal action by walking along tunnel runway in extended arms of 
payload. Data on their position and movement were telemetered to 
ground stations. Last flight in series had been Nov. 21, 1968. (nasa 
Rpt SRL; WS Release 69-10) 

• Dr. John E. Naugle, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 

Applications, announced reorganization of Hq. Space Applications 
Programs Office in recognition of increasing importance of applica- 
tions satellite programs. Leonard Jaffe, former Director of Space Ap- 
plications Programs, had been named Deputy Associate Administrator 
for Applications, responsible for near-term and long-range planning 
and interagency policy coordination. As Acting Director of Earth Ob- 
servations Programs Office- — one of two new program offices into 
which Space Applications Programs Office was being divided — he 
would supervise R&D efforts in meteorology and earth resources survey 
including TIROS, Nimbus, Synchronous Meteorological Satellite, ERTS, 
and sounding rocket programs in support of meteorology. Dr. Morris 
Tepper would continue to direct scientific activities. 

Communications Programs Office — concerned with R&D for com- 
munications, navigation, traffic control, and geodetic satellites; ATS 
program; and COMSAT support — would have as its Director Dr. 
Richard Marsten, Manager of Advanced Programs Technology, RCA 
Astro-Electronics Div. Dr. Marsten's NASA appointment would become 
effective June 23. (nasa Release 69-76) 

• ERC Director James C. Elms discussed NASA's role in computer R&D at 

Spring Joint Computer Conference in Boston. While Apollo guidance 
computer was best known among major computer activities undertaken 
by NASA in its first decade, other onboard computer developments "of 
considerable technical challenge" had been pursued. Versatile test-bed 
multiprocessor exam was oriented toward use of "hierarchy of mem- 
ories" to increase capability to evaluate advanced technology for very 
large bulk-storage systems, particularly for spaceborne computers. 
trim— for Transformation of Imagery — was experimental tool for ad- 
vancing state of art in imagery processing; computer-driven flying-spot 
scanner with color capability had auxiliary display terminal permitting 
man-machine-interactive operation. SOFix — for Software Fix — was co- 
ordinated university research program on problems in developing 
computer software at same pace as hardware. (Text) 

• Soviet astronomer Dr. Nikolay A. Kozyrev had revealed detection by 

Pulkovo Observatory of volcanic activity on moon, Space Business 
Daily reported. Two spectrograms of Aristarchus crater's western side 
taken April 1 had shown "an unusual red spot of approximately 102 
kilometers [63.4 mi]" which was "result of the emission of gases — 

139 



May 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

molecular nitrogen and cyanogen." Emissions, which had occurred 
one day after earthquakes in U.A.R. and Japan, affirmed link between 
tectonic phenomena on earth and moon and showed "that the moon 
had 'responded' to this terrestrial phenomenon." (SBD, 5/15/69, 67) 

• AFSC announced new UHF communications terminal developed by Elec- 

tronic Systems Div. might solve problems in relaying messages be- 
tween spacecraft and ground stations. Designed for USAF aircraft as 
part of joint-service Tactical Satellite Communications Program, ter- 
minals would be installed and tested on USAF jet tracking aircraft used 
for communications support in Apollo program. They would allow 
aircraft to relay spacecraft information and recovery operations reli- 
ably from parts of globe where communications had posed problem. 
(usaf Release 51.69) 

• Strategic threat to U.S. security was rapidly increasing, Secretary of the 

Air Force, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., told Chamber of Commerce 
Armed Forces Day luncheon in New Orleans. U.S.S.R. had built inter- 
continental missile force from 250 in 1966 to 1,150 operational or 
under construction. "With their large SS— 9 missiles, the Soviets will 
soon have about twice as much missile payload ... as our missile 
force, even including our advantage in submarine launched missiles. 
In addition, the Soviets have already deployed an antiballistic missile 
system that includes some 60 long-range ABM missiles." (Text) 
May 16: U.S.S.R.'s Venus V planetary probe (also designated Venera V) 
entered atmosphere of planet Venus at 2:01 am edt and ejected instru- 
mented capsule [see June 4]. Probe decelerated from 6.9 mps to 
688.8 fps, deployed parachute, and transmitted data during 53-min 
descent through dense clouds to night side of Venusian surface. 
Launched Jan. 5, Venus V had traveled 217-million-mi trajectory. Tass 
said: "The instrument capsule was automatically jettisoned from the 
station before entry into Venusian atmosphere. The aerodynamic 
deceleration of the apparatus in the atmosphere began . . . and was 
accompanied by a sharp decrease in overloads and a growth of tem- 
perature on the craft's outer surface. . . . During the 53-min parachute 
descent, measurements of the temperature, pressure and chemical com- 
position of Venusian atmosphere were made. This information was 
uninterruptedly transmitted to earth." Venus IV (launched June 12, 
1967) had reached Venus Oct. 18, 1967; Venus VI (launched Jan. 
10) was scheduled to reach planet May 17. (Winters, B Sun, 5/17/69, 
Al; Bausman, W Post, 5/17/69, A3; SBD, 5/19/69, 77; Gwertzman, 
NYT, 5/17/69) 

• lntelsat-III F—3 comsat, launched Feb. 5 and in orbit over Pacific, had 

lost some of potential capacity and would be moved to 62.5° east 
longitude over Indian Ocean, ComSatCorp announced. In new position 
satellite would link directly all countries with appropriate earth sta- 
tions in Western Europe, Near East, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Move 
would be made soon after launch of lntelsat-III F— 4 May 21. Future 
satellites would be modified for additional redundancy. (ComSatCorp 
Release 69-27) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from wsmr carried 

GSFC payload to 125.5-mi (202-km) altitude to obtain solar EUV spectra 
from 40 to 390 A and from 10 to 390 A using bbrc-spc 330D solar- 

140 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 16 

pointing control and recovery system. Rocket and instruments per- 
formed satisfactorily. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• President Nixon submitted to Senate nomination of Apollo 8 Astronaut 

William A. Anders as Executive Secretary of nasc to succeed Dr. 
Edward C. Welsh. It was highest Government post ever offered to an 
astronaut. (PD, 5/19/69, 705; Kirkman, W Post, 5/15/69, A25) 

• msc announced revised quarantine procedures for Apollo 11 after land- 

ing. To prevent back contamination from moon, astronauts would 
dispose on moon under containment conditions equipment exposed 
there; brush, vacuum-clean, and bag other equipment and clothing for 
return; prevent dust from being transferred from lm to cm; and 
continuously filter cm atmosphere during return trip to remove dust 
particles. 

Under original plans Apollo 11 crew would have remained in CM 
after splashdown while it was hoisted onto recovery ship. After review- 
ing loads to be lifted in transferring CM to deck, reliability of ship- 
board cranes, and capacity of available load-limiting elastic tackle, 
NASA decided to retain helicopter lift used on previous Apollo missions. 
Crew would emerge from CM to raft, where they would put on bio- 
logical isolation garments that would cover them completely and pro- 
vide high-efficiency air outlet filter. Interagency Committee on Back 
Contamination — NASA, Dept. of Agriculture, HEW, Dept. of Interior, 
and NAS — had agreed that helicopter lift, combined with other pre- 
landing procedures, would provide maximum achievable precautions 
against back contamination, (msc Release 69—47) 

• In Science, Leonard D. Jaffe, Surveyor data analysis manager at J PL, 

cited important findings of five Surveyor spacecraft which softlanded 
on lunar surface: surface of both maria and highlands was covered 
with layer of particulate material of 10-micrometer particles scattered 
with rocks and clods; layer was few meters deep in maria and varied 
from few centimeters to tens of meters in highlands, with density and 
other properties varying with depth; particulate material had cohesion; 
fine material moved gradually downhill; freshly exposed fine material 
from below surface was darker than previously exposed surface mate- 
rial; density of surface rock was 2.8 ± 0.4 gr per cc; composition of 
surface material was approximately that of basalt (mare material had 
elemental composition like high-iron basalt; highland material, like 
low-iron basalt; not more than one-quarter volume percent of metallic 
iron was present) ; lunar surface material had experienced extensive 
melting and chemical differentiation. {Science, 5/16/69, 775—8) 

• faa and usaf announced that m/g Jewell C. Maxwell (usaf), Director 

of Supersonic Transport Development for faa, would become Com- 
mander of Armament Development and Test Center at Eglin afb, Fla. 
His successor at faa had not yet been selected, (faa Release 69—56) 
May 17: U.S.S.R.'s Venus VI planetary probe (also designated Venera VI) 
launched Jan. 10 landed on night side of planet Venus at 2:03 am edt, 
186.4 mi (300 km) from Venus V after 51-min descent [see June 4]. 
Tass said landing of both probes "was accomplished with tremen- 
dous precision." Throughout flight "the necessary temperature in the 
compartments and the permanent orientation of solar batteries on the 
Sun were ensured. During radio communication sessions the direc- 

141 



May 17 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tional parabolic antennae were oriented on Earth. As envisaged by 
plan, the detachable capsules of both stations descended through the 
planet's atmosphere on its night side. In the course of descent, scientific 
equipment measured the chemical composition, pressure, density and 
temperature of the planet's atmosphere. Experts analysed the graph of 
temperature and pressure changes while the apparatus was approaching 
. . . and found in it a resemblance with the . . . picture of the landing 
of Venera 5. The apparatus performed with the same precision all 
major operations of the landing." (SBD, 5/20/69, 84; AP, W Post, 
5/18/69; upi, W Star, 5/18/69, A9) 
• Apollo 10 astronauts would each carry out about two hours of head 
exercises early in mission in attempt to prevent motion sickness which 
plagued previous Apollo astronauts, MSC Deputy Director of Medical 
Operations, Dr. A. Duane Catterson, said. Exercises — which included 
nodding, rocking, and twisting head — would be done to point just 
below threshold of illness until normal adaptation occurred. Since 
pilots who regularly performed drastic maneuvers in aircraft seldom 
suffered motion sickness, astronauts had flown aerobatic jet flights in 
barrel rolls and high-gravity maneuvers during week before launch. 
(Cohn, W Post, 5/18/69, A8) 
May 18-26: NASA's Apollo 10 (AS-505), first lunar orbital mission with 
complete Apollo spacecraft, was successfully launched from ksc Launch 
Complex 39, Pad B, at 12:49 pm EDT by Saturn V booster. Flight 
carried three-man crew and CSM— 106 and LM— 4. Primary objectives 
were to demonstrate crew, space vehicle, and mission support facilities 
during manned lunar mission with CSM and LM and to evaluate LM 
performance in cislunar and lunar environment. 

Launch events occurred as planned and spacecraft — carrying Astro- 
nauts Thomas P. Stafford (commander), John W. Young (cm pilot), 
and Eugene A. Cernan (lm pilot) — entered initial parking orbit with 
118.1-mi (189.9-km) apogee and 114.6-mi (184.4-km) perigee. Check- 
out followed lunar trajectory insertion; then CSM, code-named Charlie 
Brown, separated from Saturn V 3rd stage (S— IVB) and lm, code- 
named Snoopy. Crew successfully transposed CSM and docked with LM. 
Excellent quality color TV coverage of docking sequences was trans- 
mitted to Goldstone tracking station and seen on worldwide commercial 
TV. Crew extracted lm from S— IVB and conducted 1st sps burn. All 
launch vehicle safing activities were performed as scheduled and suc- 
cessful propellant dump provided impulse to S— IVB for slingshot 
maneuver to earth-escape velocity. 

On second day, first midcourse maneuver was not required. Crew 
conducted midcourse maneuver number two, which was so accurate 
that third and fourth maneuvers were canceled. Five color TV trans- 
missions totaling 72 min and showing excellent views of receding earth 
and spacecraft were made during translunar coast. Spacecraft entered 
moon's sphere of influence on fourth day, May 21, at 61:50 GET. 
Crew conducted first lunar orbit insertion maneuver with 356-sec 
sps burn to reduce speed to 5,474 fps and place spacecraft in initial 
lunar orbit with 196.1-mi (315.5-km) apolune and 68.6-mi (110.4-km) 
perilune. Second loi maneuver, 13.9-sec SPS burn, circularized orbit 
with 70.8-mi (113.9-km) apolune and 67.8-mi (109.1-km) perilune. 
Crew tracked lunar landmarks and transmitted 29-min color TV of lunar 

142 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 18-26 

surface. Cernan transferred to LM at 81:55 GET for two hours of house- 
keeping activities and communications test. 

On fifth day Stafford and Cernan entered LM and checked out all 
systems before firing SM reaction control system thrusters to separate 
CSM and lm about 30 ft and again for 2.3-mi separation. LM descent 
propulsion system burn propelled lm to within 9.6 mi of lunar surface 
over landing site No. 2. Crew had no difficulty identifying landmarks 
and Stafford said, "It looks like all you have to do is put your tail 
wheel down and we're there. . . . The craters [around No. 2 landing 
site] look flat and smooth at the bottom. It should be real easy" for 
Apollo 11 landing. LM crew took numerous photos of lunar surface and 
provided continuous commentary on their observations after cameras 
malfunctioned. Astronauts described volcanoes and light-colored craters 
that glowed as if lit by radioactive substance. 

Crew conducted LM radar test during low-altitude pass which indi- 
cated 47,000-ft pericynthian (lowest point in orbit), dps phasing burn 
raised apocynthian (orbital high point) to 218.6 mi (351.7 km). LM 
descent stage was jettisoned and RCS separation maneuver and staging 
were accomplished. Anomaly in automatic abort guidance system 
caused LM ascent stage to undergo extreme gyrations. By taking over 
manual control, Stafford reestablished proper attitude, aps insertion 
maneuver burn at pericynthian established equivalent of standard LM 
insertion orbit of lunar landing mission (51.8 by 12.9 mi), where LM 
coasted for one hour. Concentric sequence initiation at apocynthian, 
constant-delta-height maneuver, and terminal maneuver were con- 
ducted, lm successfully docked with csm at 106:33 GET, after eight- 
hour separation; and LM crew returned to CSM. 

On sixth day LM ascent stage was jettisoned; its batteries burned to 
depletion and it entered solar orbit. Crew made 18 landmark sightings 
and took extensive stereo and oblique photos of moon. Two scheduled 
TV periods were deleted because of crew fatigue and crew rested and 
prepared for return to earth. SPS burn at 137:36 get injected csm into 
transearth trajectory after 61.5 hrs (31 orbits) in lunar orbit. Ma- 
neuver was so accurate that two other scheduled midcourse maneuvers 
were not necessary. During return to earth astronauts made star-lunar 
landmark sightings, live color TV transmissions, star-earth horizon 
navigation sightings, and CSM S-band high-gain antenna reflectivity 
test. Pictures of moon from receding spacecraft were spectacular. 
Scheduled 10- and 29-min color TV broadcasts of earth, moon, and 
spacecraft interior were later followed by unscheduled TV transmis- 
sion, which provided beautiful pictures of earth and brought total color 
TV broadcasts to 19 transmissions totaling almost six hours. 

On eighth day crew prepared for reentry and SM separated from CM 
on schedule. Parachute deployment and other reentry events occurred 
as planned. Apollo 10 splashed down in Pacific at 12:52 pm edt May 
26, 3.4 mi from recovery ship U.S.S. Princeton 192 hrs 3 min after 
launch and precisely on time. Crew was picked up and reached re- 
covery ship at 1 :31 pm edt. 

All primary Apollo 10 mission objectives and detailed test objectives 
were achieved. All launch vehicle and spacecraft systems performed 
according to plan, with only minor discrepancies, which were corrected. 
Flight crew performance was outstanding; all three crew members 

143 



May 18-26 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




May 18-26: Apollo 10, first lunar orbital mission with complete Apollo spacecraft, 
carried Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, John W. Young, and Thomas P. Stafford {left 
to right above) around the moon for the first demonstration of lunar orbit rendezvous. 
Apollo 10 cm (at right), carrying Young, was photographed by the lm with Stafford 
and Cernan aboard, 60 miles above the moon's far side. Craters below were unnamed. 



remained in excellent health and their prevailing good spirits were 
continually evident. Accomplishments included evaluation of LM steer- 
able antenna at lunar distances; demonstration of lunar landing mis- 
sion profile; low-level evaluation of lunar visibility; inflight demon- 
stration of Westinghouse color TV camera; testing of landing radar 
in near-lunar environment; and manned navigational, visual, and photo- 
graphic evaluation of lunar landing sites 2 and 3, and in addition 
other possible landing sites in highland areas. 

Apollo 10 was seventh Apollo mission to date, fourth manned Apollo 
mission, largest payload ever placed in earth and lunar orbits, and 
first demonstration of lunar orbit rendezvous. Mission acquired major 
quantities of photographic training materials for Apollo 11 and sub- 
sequent missions and numerous visual observations and photos of 
scientific significance. First manned Apollo mission, Apollo 7 (Oct. 
11—22, 1968), had achieved all primary objectives and had verified 
operation of spacecraft for lunar-mission duration. First manned lunar 
orbital mission, Apollo 8 (Dec. 21—27, 1968), had proved capability of 
Apollo spacecraft and hardware to operate out to lunar distances and 

144 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



May 18-26 




return through earth's atmosphere at lunar velocity. Apollo 9 (March 
3—13, 1969) had proved capability of manned lm to operate in space. 
Apollo program was directed by NASA Office of Manned Space Flight; 
msc was responsible for Apollo spacecraft development, MSFC for Sat- 
urn V launch vehicle, and ksc for launch operations. Tracking and 
data acquisition was managed by GSFC under overall direction of NASA 
Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition, (nasa Proj Off; NASA Release 
69-68; W Post, 5/19-27/69, Al; Sehlstedt, B Sun, 5/19-27/69, Al; 
W Star, 5/19-27/69) 
May 18: On NBC TV program "Meet the Press" NASA Administrator, Dr. 
Thomas 0. Paine, said there was possibility U.S.S.R. would land men 
and instruments on all planets before U.S. "The Russians have publicly 



145 



May 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

taken the position that they are extremely interested in landing on the 
planets, and . . . one of the popular songs in the Soviet Union right 
now is a song about little apple trees growing on Mars." NASA felt with 
Apollo lunar landing "we are really taking a lead in the ability to 
operate on all other bodies. . . . the technology we are developing . . . 
is a kind . . . that would be required." If July lunar landing succeeded, 
"we will have enough hardware for nine additional flights to begin the 
exploration of the lunar surface. In parallel with that, we see activities 
in earth orbit which will be the precursors to the eventual emplacement 
of a large permanent space station, a laboratory in the sky." 

NASA expected to find "surprising amount" to study on moon. "In 
fact, we have already radically changed our views of the moon just 
with the activities we have carried out in preparation for the Apollo 
landing. For example . . . men are beginning to seriously question 
whether there may have been water at one time on the surface of the 
moon. Indeed, whether the large mare areas, the smooth areas . . . may 
even have been the beds of ancient seas. As we get more and more 
familiar with the moon we realize how little we know about it. It will 
take those ten flights and many other trips to the moon before man 
really begins to understand his twin planet." 

Dr. Paine said USAf's mol and NASA orbiting workshop were "two 
very different projects." NASA's was "longer range program aimed at a 
very substantial facility which would be really a university campus 
type of research station in orbit." MOL was "program that is well ad- 
vanced, and is designed to find out the military applications of space." 
(Transcript) 

• On ABC radio-TV program "Issues and Answers," Secretary of Defense 

Melvin R. Laird said he did not favor increased military participation 
in U.S. space program. "We've had very good cooperation between the 
military and our civilian programs and I think that's the way it should 
continue." (B Sun, 5/19/69, Al) 

• Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl had rejected NASA request to install 

communications equipment aboard his papyrus boat for July hookup 
between Apollo 11 and Heyerdahl's voyage into the past, his navigator, 
Norman Baker, said. Also rejected, Baker said, was request to install 
satellite-controlled navigation system on replica of 4,700-yr-old vessel 
in which Heyerdahl hoped to reach Mexico from Morocco in four 
months, to reinforce theory that Egyptian adventurers reached Amer- 
icas more than 2,500 yrs before Christ. Heyerdahl felt craft could not 
safely carry 400-lb communications equipment load. He had refused 
satellite navigation system because Egyptians had managed without 
navigational aids. (AP, W Post, 5/19/69, A15) 

• Tass quoted unidentified Soviet space scientist, described as chief de- 

signer of automatic interplanetary stations, as saying U.S.S.R. favored 
manned space flight, but only in earth orbit "so far." It would continue 
probing planets with automatic apparatus. (Reuters, B Sun, 5/19/69, 
Al) 

• Soviet Embassy Second Secretary Oleg M. Sokolov said in Washington, 

D.C., that U.S.S.R. definitely would display supersonic Tu-144 airliner 
at 28th Paris Air Show, May 29— June 8. He said aircraft would beat 
Anglo-French Concorde into operation and plans were under way to 
set up worldwide logistics support for Tu-144. dot officials said West 

146 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 18 

would be watching closely to see whether U.S.S.R. could fulfill pledge 
and, if so, would take good look at Tu-144, which could hurt com- 
mercial market for SST if it had worldwide logistics backup. (Bentley, 
B Sun, 5/19/69, A5) 
May 19: At dedication of Robert Hutchings Goddard Library of Clark 
Univ., Worcester, Mass., Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) said: "I 
am for the space program. But I want to see it in its right priority: 
One which will let it continue into the future and not have to be cut 
back or abandoned because the nation that supports it is hobbled by 
internal disorder. And so, once the lunar landing and exploration are 
completed, a substantial portion of the space budget can be diverted to 
the pressing problems here at home. We should develop a plan for an 
orderly programmed exploration of outer space. But we no longer need 
an accelerated program. . . . We should continue an orderly and ra- 
tional space program for the advancement of man's knowledge of the 
universe and for the considerable benefits it will bring us here at 
home." NASA program "has been the first time, outside wartime, in 
which the nation has organized its scientific and industrial disciplines 
and techniques. 

"Our challenge today is to use the same techniques and the same 
discipline: To lower the cost of production of home building . . . ; to 
develop command and control systems in the fight against crime; to 
apply the versatility of computers to education and worker training and 
the vital work of neighborhood health centers; to organize government 
and scientific resources to find new and cheaper ways to end the de- 
struction of our environment. The American team of government, in- 
dustry and labor has been able to achieve Dr. Goddard's impossible 
dream: Certainly the same industries, the same employees, the same 
techniques and support can be applied to the urgent business here at 
home." (Kennedy Off Release) 

Honorary Doctor of Laws degrees were awarded to Sen. Edward M. 
Kennedy (D-Mass.) ; J. Leland Atwood, President of North American 
Rockwell Corp. and general chairman of Goddard Library program; 
and Jack S. Parker, General Electric Co. Vice Chairman; and Doctor 
of Science degree to Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. Mrs. 
Robert H. Goddard, widow of U.S. rocket pioneer, spoke during rib- 
bon-cutting ceremony at which Dr. Charles G. Abbot, 97-yr-old Smith- 
sonian Institution Secretary Emeritus and Dr. Goddard's close friend, 
received ovation from audience of 4,000. MSFC Director, Dr. Wernher 
von Braun, and North American Rockwell Corp. Vice President 
Francis D. Tappaan received Clark Univ. chairs during luncheon after 
ceremonies. (Program) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics favorably reported, 

without amendment, H.R. 11271, NASA FY 1970 authorization bill in- 
troduced May 14. (House Rpt 91-255) 

• William R. Frye described magnificence of Apollo 10 liftoff in Philadel- 

phia Evening Bulletin: "TV cameras do not do it justice. It is like 100 
claps of thunder, each following the other with machine-gun speed. 

"The flame that leaps from behind the rocket could have come 
straight from Dante's inferno. It is too bright to be seen with comfort 
by the naked eye. The earth trembles beneath the feet, two miles away. 
Then the towering rocket, nearly twice as high as Niagara Falls, two- 

147 



May 19 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

thirds the height of the Washington Monument, creeps with agonizing 
slowness the first few feet off the ground, enveloped by a white cloud. 
"Then it is gone — and man is left to wonder and to pray." (P Bull, 
5/19/69) 

• NASA announced it would close transportable tracking station near Too- 

woomba, Queensland, Australia, following August launch of ats— e and 
relocate it later for use in advance versions of ATS series scheduled for 
late 1972 launch. Emplaced in 1966, $6-million station included 40-ft 
parabolic antenna and trailers containing electronic gear to maintain 
communications and receive telemetry from ATS satellites. (NASA Re- 
lease 69-77) 

• Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor announced termination of pro- 

duction phase of AH— 56A Cheyenne armed helicopter program for 
default of contractor, Lockheed Aircraft Corp., and said USA might 
issue "cure notice" on R&D contract with Lockheed for same aircraft. 
USA had concluded that any aircraft delivered in accordance with con- 
tractual schedule would fail to meet performance specifications, par- 
ticularly those for safe speed and maneuverability, (dod Releases 416- 
69, 417-69) 

May 19—20: Officials of Eurocontrol, seven-nation organization established 
under Convention of Cooperation for the Security of Air Navigation, 
met with dot and faa in Washington, D.C., to exchange information 
on air traffic control and other aviation developments, (faa Release T 
69-30; faa pio) 

May 20: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXII from Plesetsk into orbit 
with 321-km (199.5-mi) apogee, 201-km (124.9-mi) perigee, 89.7-min 
period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered May 28. (gsfc SSR, 
5/31/69; sbd, 5/22/69, 98) 

• NASA's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by NASA test pilot William H. 

Dana, reached 50,000-ft altitude and mach 0.9 after air-launch from 
B-52 aircraft at 45,000-ft altitude north of Four Corners, Calif. Flight 
objectives were to complete pilot checkout and to obtain stability and 
control data, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, said to press representatives 

in Houston he was "surprised and disappointed" by May 19 speech of 
Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) suggesting slowdown in U.S. 
space program after lunar landing and exploration. "He is wrong," Dr. 
Paine said. "The United States should not weakly yield technological 
supremacy in space to the Soviets. We should not ground our astro- 
nauts after Apollo." He told press he did not want Apollo 10 astronauts 
in flight to moon to hear news of speech and would not include item in 
news reports sent up to spacecraft. {W Post, 5/21/69, A12) 

• Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, presented paper "Space-Age 

Management and City Administration" at 1969 National Conference on 
Public Administration in Miami: "Mobilizing modern science, tech- 
nology and management to accomplish bold ventures in space is clearly 
far simpler than better organizing the extraordinarily complex human 
interactions that comprise a modern metropolis, nasa's spectacular 
advances in space are undoubtedly exacerbating public frustration with 
urban failures, but . . . they are encouraging the nation to tackle its 
more complex human problems with greater confidence on a bolder 

148 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 20 

scale. If America can go to the moon, it can indeed do much better 
here on spaceship earth. 

"nasa's range of management approaches is nearly as broad as the 
range within an urban complex." Urban manager, like NASA manager, 
"can and should directly manage only a limited part of the complex 
interacting human enterprise for which he has responsibility. For the 
important remainder he must structure a 'Darwinian Discipline' system 
to encourage essential contributions from industry, from universities, 
and from the entrepreneur, the free wheeler, the scientist, the brilliant 
innovator, the gifted teacher, and other committed individuals. . . . 
The greatest single achievement of the space age may have been the 
formation of NASA; the rest followed as the energies and talents of 
America were released and given direction." (Text) 

• Stacked spacecraft and Saturn V launch vehicle for Apollo 11, first lunar 

landing mission, rolled out to Launch Complex 39, Pad A, at ksc. (ksc 
Hist Off; McGehan, B Sun, 5/21/69) 

• Philadelphia Evening Bulletin editorial on Apollo 10 color TV pictures: 

"Of all the visions man sees from his new and precarious vantages in 
space, the most compelling is still the planet from which he comes. In 
the eye of Apollo 10's color TV camera, Earth is indeed the fairest 
object, the 'oasis' the Apollo 8 astronauts saw last Christmas on 
Earth's first manned mission to the moon. 

"For a stranger entering the solar system from the outer reaches of 
the Universe, surely Earth's mist-shrouded blues, browns and reds 
would be a goal to satisfy the utmost yearning. Set against the cold 
blackness of space, it would be a prize to draw bold and venturesome 
inhabitants of other planets across incredible distances. It would be a 
goal courageous strangers would endure incredible hardships to 
win. . . . 

"The awe expressed by the intrepid Apollo 10 astronauts ... is 
further reminder that the greatest space prize presently within man's 
comprehension is already in his keeping. And it is one to leave man 
wondering whether beings on other planets strive and dream as he 
does. For the moment certainly, it would not seem so. For what people 
on another planet could resist the vision in the eye of Apollo 10 s TV 
camera?" (P Bull, 5/20/69) 

• Baltimore Sun noted Apollo iO's first day in space enabled men to be 

"as near as they will ever come to being in two places simultaneously — 
there in their own living rooms with their television sets before them 
and, at the same moment more than 22,000 miles away, observing the 
planet on which they live. 

"What we saw with such marvelous cold clarity was, of course, a 
round and mottled swirl of blue, brown and white, a small fragment of 
the cosmos which until less than a decade ago had fixed absolute limits 
upon all of mankind's history. Now suddenly we saw it as a unity, a 
whole, as the habitation common to all of us, just as it would be seen 
by a non-human visitor approaching it as the astronauts are approach- 
ing the moon, silent, mysterious and seemingly lifeless and motionless. 
The observer had to remind himself that this was indeed the earth he 
knew " (B Sun, 5/20/69) 

• Philadelphia Inquirer cited possible danger to Apollo spacecraft from 

149 



May 20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

"drifting junk" in space. "One notable sidelight to the Apollo 10 flight 
came in a report that the spaceship brings the number of man-made 
objects in space to 1691. Although the chance of Apollo 10 colliding 
with any of the objects is infinitesimal, it is significant that there is so 
much hardware floating around in space 12 years after Sputnik I. . . . 
"U.S. and Soviet scientists should find ways of bringing back or 
destroying rockets and satellites and their separate components after 
they have become inoperable. If some sort of solution isn't found, it 
may not be long before a tragic collision will occur." (P Inq, 5/20/69) 

• NASA announced it had invited commercial and educational broadcast 

organizations interested in experimental use of Applications Tech- 
nology Satellites (ats) to send representatives to June 13 briefing at 
NASA Hq. to learn possibilities for working with ATS. ATS I (launched 
Dec. 6, 1966) and ATS III (launched Nov. 5, 1967) were in orbit but 
had largely filled basic technical assignments. Their facilities could be 
made available for additional experiments. Third ATS, scheduled for 
August launch, might be available for additional experimental use on 
completion of technical missions assigned, (nasa Release 69—74) 

• aia released results of survey which showed expected decline of 4.5% in 

aerospace industry employment between September 1968 and Septem- 
ber 1969, from 1,416,000 to 1,353,000, because of continuing decline 
in civilian space program and decreasing sales of civilian aircraft. 
Employment in aircraft production and R&D plants was expected to 
decline 4.6%, transport aircraft employment, 7%; general-aviation air- 
craft employment, 0.3%; and missile and space employment, 5.7%. 
Helicopter and nonaerospace employment, including oceanographic 
research, was expected to increase slightly. Scientists and engineers 
would continue to account for 16% of total aerospace employment. 
(Text) 

• USAF announced issue of $1,616,000 initial increment to $5,370,750 cost- 

plus-incentive-fee contract with Lockheed Aircraft Corp. for prototype 
development and testing of system to improve navigation and guidance 
of space vehicles, (dod Release 415—69) 

• Lockheed Aircraft Corp. laid off 700 workers and reassigned 1,800 others 

as result of May 19 USA cancellation of contract for AH— 56A Cheyenne 
helicopter. Company's stock fell $2.50 per share to $32.37 on New 
York Exchange. (AP, B Sun, 5/21/69, A6) 

• At Wings Club luncheon in New York world aviation leaders honored 

80th birthday of aeronautical pioneer Igor I. Sikorsky and presented 
him with silver goblets and tray, (a&a, 7/69, 110) 

• Sen. George Murphy (R-Calif.) introduced S. 2204, bill to establish 

National Oceanic Agency. It was referred to Senate Commerce Com- 
mittee. (67?, 5/20/69, S5403) 
May 21—23: Intelsat-lII F—4 was successfully launched by NASA for Com- 
SatCorp on behalf of International Telecommunications Satellite Con- 
sortium. The 632-lb cylindrical satellite, launched from etr by 
Long-Tank, Thrust- Augmented Thor (lttat) -Delta (DSV— 3E) booster, 
entered elliptical transfer orbit with 22,802. 7-mi ( 36,689. 5-km) apogee, 
183-mi (294.4-km) perigee, and 29.1° inclination. All systems were 
functioning normally. On May 23 apogee motor was fired to kick 
satellite into planned near-synchronous orbit over Pacific with 22,164.3- 

150 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 21-23 

mi (35,644.2-km) apogee, 21,887.2-mi (35,216.5-km) perigee, and 5° 
inclination. 

Intelsat-Ill F—4 was third successful launch in Intelsat III series. 
Intelsat-III F—3 had been launched Feb. 5, and Intelsat-III F—2, Dec. 
18, 1968. Intelsat-III F— 1 had been destroyed minutes after launch 
Sept. 18, 1968. New satellite was scheduled to begin commercial service 
June 1, handling up to 1,200 voice circuits or four TV channels. (NASA 
Proj Off; ComSatCorp Release 69-27) 
May 21: USAF's C— 5A Galaxy jet became heaviest aircraft flown, in test 
flight from Dobbins afb, Ga., with 728,100-lb takeoff weight. Manu- 
facturer, Lockheed-Georgia Co., said weight exceeded design gross 
takeoff load by 100 lbs. Its previous record was 703,826 lbs. (AP, 
W Star, 5/22/69, A5) 

• NASA announced it had issued 12 RFPs for definition and design of Earth 

Resources Technology Satellite system including study of ground data- 
processing system. Responses were due June 18. First of two planned 
spacecraft, erts-a was scheduled for late 1971 or early 1972 launch 
as R&D satellite to test new technology to verify effectiveness of earth 
resources survey from space, erts— a sensors would obtain image data 
in regions of near and infrared spectrum. Satellite, weighing 1,000 lbs, 
would also carry experimental data-collection system for measurements 
of remote, unattended sites. It would be placed in sun-synchronous, 
near-polar orbit at 500-mi altitude to view entire earth in 100-mi-wide 
increments in less than three weeks for at least one year. (NASA Release 
69-73) 

• aiaa submitted to President Nixon's Science Advisory Committee The 

Post-Apollo Space Program: An AIAA View. While "remarkable prog- 
ress of the Apollo-Saturn lunar program has erased almost all doubt 
about man's ability to travel in space and return safely," program's 
magnitude had overshadowed "very solid accomplishments" of un- 
manned satellites. It was based largely on technology available at its 
inception; neglected "growing accumulation of feasible, but unde- 
veloped technology" in space vehicle design that could affect space 
transportation costs; and failed to specify goals beyond manned lunar 
landing. 

Report rejected single national space objective for next decade. It 
recommended programs to determine man's usefulness in space over 
prolonged periods and to reduce cost of manned operations and urged 
Government to give high priority to multifaceted applications satellite 
program. It urged planning and funding for communications data 
relay, meteorology data, earth resources data, and navigational aids 
satellite programs and "well-integrated inter-agency plan to develop 
data-management subsystems." 

aiaa considered Apollo Applications program and MOL of "sub- 
stantially greater importance" than last four or five lunar landing 
missions and encouraged "their timely continuance." It urged designs 
proceed for extensions of capability in aa and MOL orbital hardware 
to permit continuation of manned orbital program after 1973, sup- 
ported retention of at least one crew-carrying vehicle with increased 
capability for 1973—1975; encouraged early steps to commit to flight 
demonstration partially reusable low-cost space transportation system 

151 



May 21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

for 1974—1976; encouraged accelerated study of space station hard- 
ware to succeed AA program and MOL; and encouraged early steps 
toward commonality of NASA and DOD subsystems. It considered "com- 
mitment to an entirely new station" was "less urgent than commitment 
to a new logistics system." 

aiaa recommended continued Apollo lunar program through at least 
two or three missions and then evaluation, as well as immediate begin- 
ning of "vigorous study and controlled funding" of advanced sub- 
systems for 1973—1975 to permit continuation if early success provided 
support for extension. It recommended manned planetary exploration 
commitments await evaluation of current programs. 

Search for extraterrestrial life was "perhaps the most exciting and 
spectacular of all space-science program objectives" and might well 
serve as one of "central themes for set of balanced space goals for the 
1970s." (a&a, 6/69, 39-46) 

• U.S.S.R. publicly demonstrated Tu-144 supersonic airliner in 90-min test 

flight from Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport. Test pilot Eduard V. 
Yelyan said aircraft had not yet exceeded speed of sound although it 
was designed for speeds to 1,600 mph (mach 2). At airport press 
conference Boris Savchenko, head of U.S.S.R. aircraft export agency, 
said production had started on 120-seat, 130-ton airliner. In New York 
Times, Bernard Gwertzman said observers believed purpose of demon- 
stration was to dispel Western reports of accident to aircraft. {NYT, 
5/22/69, 94; upi, W Post, 5/21/69, Cll) 

• Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, Chairman of nasc, issued statement on 

Administration's attitude toward space program: "In response to those 
who would denigrate our space effort, I think it is clear that this Ad- 
ministration has already demonstrated its belief in the strength and 
potential of America's space program." Administration was taking 
steps to "evaluate the costs and alternatives available to us in extending 
the program once man has been placed on the moon and returns." (AP, 
W Post, 5/22/69, A5) 

• Pope Paul VI hailed Apollo 10 flight and said man's presence in cosmos 

was sign of God's presence "in our world and our life." Pope told 
30,000 persons at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, "Even more than the 
face of the moon, the face of man shines before us; no other being 
known to us, no animal, even the strongest and most perfect in its 
vital instincts, can be compared to the prodigious beings we men are." 
{NYT, 5/22/69) 

• Press commented on Apollo 10 mission: 

Washington Post editorial: "The mission of Messrs. Cernan, Stafford 
and Young, as dramatic and daring as it is, is only an interim step 
between the first trip to the moon and the first landing on the moon. 
It is, however, a crucial step since any major problems in this mission 
or any major unanticipated discoveries about the moon's gravity might 
well delay the ultimate landing. Because it is both so crucial and so 
risky, the Nation will wait with special concern when they disappear 
behind the moon for the first time this afternoon and when the lunar 
landing craft breaks away from the mother ship tomorrow afternoon 
for its descent toward the moon's surface. The hope hardly needs to be 
expressed that these maneuvers, like those in the other Apollo flights, 

152 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



May 21 




May 21: The supersonic Soviet airliner Tu-144 following its landing at Sheremetyevo 
Airport, Moscow, after a public-demonstration test flight. (AP tvirephoto) 

will be executed with the same precision that marked the early stages 
of this trip." {W Post, 5/22/69, A24) 

John Lannan in Washington Evening Star: "Where manned space 
flight once was fraught with fright and peril, it seems to have moved 
into an era of fun and games. . . . The astronauts have learned to fly 
their spacecraft, the ground crews to launch them and the Defense 
Department to recover them. What remains is to use this accumulated 
knowledge, and that's what NASA is attempting to do." It all pointed to 
fact that "space flight has come of age." (W Star, 5/21/69, A4) 



153 



May 21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Marquis Childs in Washington Post: "When the moon landing . . . 
is completed the cost to the government will be just under $24 billion. 
The achievement represents an unprecedented orchestration of the 
resources of science and technology. The contrast with the failures here 
on earth to begin to try to cure rudimentary ills could hardly at this 
moment of grave uncertainty be sharper." {W Post, 5/21/69, A25) 

Christian Science Monitor editorial: Apollo 10 mission "has again 
posed the old, old question: If mankind can achieve so spectacularly 
in space, why cannot we improve matters faster here on earth? The 
answer, surely, is that it is simpler to mobilize the complex electronics 
and space-science gadgetry to rocket a spacecraft to the moon than it 
is to coordinate the manifold and conflicting human emotions, am- 
bitions, and processes necessary for cleaning up the cities, thrusting the 
black revolution forward with a minimum of friction, and banishing 
earth's pollutants. The earth problem is more complex than the moon 
problem. Yet success in the moon venture will offer assurance that the 
earth challenge can be met. 

"So let no one call the moon venture a waste of ambition, treasure, 
achievement. The whole brilliant enterprise is immensely horizon- 
widening, thought-expanding." (csm, 5/21/69) 
May 22: Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, presented nasa Distin- 
guished Service Medal to Jesse L. Mitchell, Director of Physics and 
Astronomy in OSSA, and Joseph Purcell, OAO Project Manager at GSFC, 
for their contributions to Oao II, at GSFC ceremonies. Dr. Frederick 
Seitz, nas president, received Distinguished Public Service Medal, spe- 
cial award, for leadership in solid-state physics. Without solid-state 
circuitry, Oao II would not have been possible. Additional awards were 
presented to 13 persons from Government, industry, and universities 
for Oao II efforts, gsfc oao project team, Atlas/Centaur personnel 
from LeRC, and launch operations personnel from KSC received Group 
Achievement awards, (nasa Release 69—78) 

• MSFC announced award of $4,620,310 contract modification to Chrysler 

Corp. Space Div. for vehicle systems engineering and integration on 
Saturn IB vehicles scheduled for NASA AA program flights. Work begun 
Jan. 1, 1969, would extend through March 31, 1970. (msfc Release 
69-133) 

• nasa Wallops Station announced selection of Aerojet-General Corp. to 

fabricate and support launch of two Orbiting Frog Otolith spacecraft 
for basic research on frog's balance mechanism under $1,676,000 cost- 
plus-fixed-fee contract. Project was part of NASA's human factor sys- 
tems program to investigate functioning of primary balance mechanism 
within inner ear under zero g conditions. (WS Release 69—11) 

• In Washington Evening Star, Crosby S. Noyes said: ". . . it would be 

a mistake to consider the space program itself as nothing more than 
a kind of inspirational stunt to show us what we can do if we really 
put our minds to it. The idea that once the demonstration is over, we 
should divert all of its resources to domestic problems is excessively 
simple-minded. Of all the resources that have gone into the space 
program, the money that is so much on everyone's mind is undoubtedly 
the least critical. The major resources . . . are people and organization 
and a continuing process of research and application. These resources 
cannot be 'diverted' into new areas; nor can a program such as this 

154 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 22 

be turned off and on again like a spigot. Once the process is interrupted 
and the concentration of talent is broken up, it will be virtually im- 
possible to reassemble it." (W Star, 5/22/69, A9) 

• LeRC announced it had acquired F— 8 single-seater supersonic jet from 

USN for use as chase aircraft during flights by its F— 106 research jet in 
program to evaluate advanced inlets and exhaust nozzles. Although F— 8 
could achieve mach 1.5 plus speeds, it would be flown at mach 1.2 — 
top speed in F-106 flight plan. (LeRC Release 69-24) 

• U.S. submitted draft treaty to Geneva Disarmament Conference to pro- 

hibit emplacement of nuclear weapons, other weapons of mass destruc- 
tion, and fixed launching platforms "on, within or beneath the seabed 
and ocean floor." Proposal completed U.S. rejection of Soviet draft 
treaty that would prohibit not only such weapons but also "all objects 
of a military nature." U.S., Canada, Italy, and other coastal states 
opposed ban on submarine detection devices included in Soviet treaty. 
(Hamilton, NYT, 5/23/69, 12) 

• F— 111A fighter-bomber crashed in northern Arizona on training mission 

from Nellis afb, Nev. usaf said both pilots had ejected safely. (AP, 
B Sun, 5/23/69, A6; W News, 5/23/69, 3) 
May 23: usaf Titan IIIC booster launched from etr successfully orbited 
five unmanned satellites — two Vela nuclear detection satellites and 
three orbiting vehicle research satellites. Launch was 17th for Titan 
IIIC and last in development program. 

Vela IX entered orbit with 69,387-mi (111,643.7-km) apogee, 
68.653-mi (110,462.7-km) perigee, 6,718.5-min period, and 32.7° in- 
clination. Vela X entered orbit with 69,614-mi (112,008.9-km) apogee, 
68.774-mi (110,657.4-km) perigee, 6,707.6-min period, and 32.8° in- 
clination. Velas would monitor nuclear weapon detonations and natural 
radiation sources. 

OV V-5 (ERS-29), OV V-6, and OV V-9 entered orbits with 
69,427-mi ( 111,708.0-km) apogee, 10,480-mi < 16,862.3-km ) perigee, 
3,119-min period, and 32.9° inclination to study particles and fields 
and solar processes. {Pres Rpt 70 [69]; gsfc SSR, 5/31/69; upi, 
NYT, 5/24/69, 6) 

• Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman ended four-day visit to Czechoslovakia 

— first visit by U.S. astronaut to any Communist country, (upi, W Post, 
5/24/69, A3) 

• Press commented on personal qualities of Apollo 10 astronauts during 

crises and technological marvels. 

New York Times: "Their courage and high technical skill were evi- 
dent. There was total absence of posturing or pomposity. Notable, too, 
was the absence of false patriotism or of any attempt to use the space 
feat as the basis for claims of national or ideological superiority. The 
astronauts' personal behavior added a warm human luster to the 
superb scientific and technological feats they were and are perform- 
ing." (NYT, 5/23/69) 

Washington Evening Star: ". . . the flight of Apollo 10 has shown 
something . . . about the durability of human nature. . . . However 
rigorous the training, however unworldly and unreal the surroundings, 
man is still capable of awe, error, fright, outrage and — when the occa- 
sion calls for it — profanity. It's good to know." (W Star, 5/23/69, 
A16) 

155 



May 23 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Project research method of supporting principal investigators' research 

within universities accounted for about 70% of NASA funds obligated 
to universities and was serving NASA and schools well, Dr. George E. 
Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, said 
in speech at Ohio State Univ. More than 10% of project research sup- 
port funds had been invested in equipment in university laboratories 
for continuing education and research. "More than 90% of balloon 
borne experiments, more than 40% of sounding rocket experiments, 
and more than 50% of satellite experiments flown on NASA vehicles had 
principal investigators or co-investigators in our universities. A large 
share of the significant discoveries in space science were made in uni- 
versity originated experiments." NASA "supports about 13,000 project 
oriented research grants and contracts in universities . . . [and] 32 
universities in 21 states are now working with NASA on various aspects 
of the earth resources satellite program." (Text) 

• At Second Advanced Marine Vehicles Meeting in Seattle, Wash., Frank 

E. Rom, Chief of LeRC Advanced Nuclear Concepts Branch, discussed 
technical developments in reactor design which could make nuclear 
propulsion feasible for use on hovercraft. Water-moderated nuclear 
reactor would heat helium, which then would pass through heat ex- 
changer where water would be boiled. Resultant steam would drive 
6,500-hp steam turbines to power lift and thrust fans. Nuclear propul- 
sion would increase hovercraft range, reduce cargo hauling costs, and 
make vehicle competitive with freighters. (LeRC Release 69—26) 

• faa Administrator John H. Shaffer announced allocations of $34,144,479 

to construct and improve 177 U.S. airports under FY 1970 Federal-aid 
Airport Program. Appropriations, based on $30 million authorized by 
Congress and carryover funds from previous years, represented last 
year of funding authorized under current Federal Airport Act. Pro- 
gram stressed preservation and expansion of facilities at existing air- 
ports to accommodate high-performance, sophisticated aircraft; in- 
creasing airport capacity; relieving congestion; and continuing con- 
struction of airports initiated under earlier programs, (faa Release 
69-59) 

• Use of new "alphanumeric" system — computer-originated display of 

letters and numbers on radarscopes indicating aircraft identification, 
direction, altitude, speed, and flight attitude at faa's Atlanta, Ga., con- 
trol center — was described by Robert Lindsey in New York Times. 
System, in which each airliner constantly radioed flight data to ground 
where it was processed through computer and then displayed on radar 
screen, would eventually be used by FAA throughout its traffic control 
network. (NYT, 5/23/69, 92) 

• U.S.S.R. announced completion of rocket tests begun in Pacific April 17. 

Tests had been scheduled to end June 15. (SBD, 5/26/69, 109; W 
Post, 5/24/69, A12) 

May 23—24: NASA Astronomy Missions Board, chaired by Dr. Leo Goldberg 
of Harvard Univ., met at msfc to evaluate potential astronomy mis- 
sions for NASA. Board would submit formal recommendations for space 
astronomy to NASA later in year, (msfc Release 69—135) 

May 24: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and 
Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., practiced splashdown and anticontamination pro- 
cedures they would use after return from moon in July. Astronauts 

156 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 24 

donned plastic-coated biological isolation garments and sprayed each 
other with Betadine disinfectant before leaving dummy spacecraft in 
Gulf of Mexico, lupi, W Star, 5/25/69, A6) 
May 25: Excited U.S. residents called air control towers, police depart- 
ments, and newspapers to report citing NASA's Apollo 10 spacecraft 
circling moon. Weather Bureau explained bright object actually was 
planet Jupiter, which was approaching its nearest distance to earth, 
i W Star, 5/26/69, A7 ) 

• New York Times — while urging precautions against contamination on 

Apollo 11 lunar landing mission— praised Apollo 10 mission as "tri- 
umphant scientific climax" of Apollo effort: "The breathtaking virtu- 
osity of Apollo 10's equipment and crew leaves little doubt that similar 
apparatus can deposit properly trained men on the moon and bring 
them back safely to earth — always barring the possibility of unex- 
pected mechanical or other malfunction. At the cost of more than $20 
billion the United States has acquired the capability of manned travel 
to the moon. Whatever the wisdom of concentrating such vast resources 
on the space race, the accomplishment is brilliant and merits awed 
congratulations for all those whose work and talent made it possible." 
(NYT, 5/25/69, E16) 
May 26: President Nixon telephoned congratulations to Apollo 10 crew fol- 
lowing successful splashdown after lunar mission for its "magnificent 
achievement" and invited astronauts and their wives to dinner at White 
House. "This is a proud moment for the country," President said. 
(NYT, 5/27/69, 29; PD, 6/2/69, 775) 

• Soviet Embassy praised Apollo 10 mission as event that "inspires into us 

pride for man." Message, written by academician Boniface Kedrov, 
called astronauts "20th Century Columbuses" and said mission was an 
"immeasurably more complex, dangerous and almost unrealizable aim 
compared with that Columbus set before himself at the dawn of the 
new era." Moscow TV showed splashdown. (W Post, 5/27/69, A9) 

• Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of U.N. Committee on the Peace- 

ful Uses of Outer Space had recommended new U.N. initiatives to 
promote access to applications of space technology by small and non- 
space powers, Richard S. Kahn said in Newsweek. Recommendations 
included appointment of U.N. official to serve as contact point for 
member states; panel meetings for promoting collaboration; U.N. 
assistance for survey missions, panel meetings, and fellowships; inves- 
tigation of use of earth resource satellites; and dissemination of in- 
formation on opportunities for education and training in space-related 
fields. 

Points of debate between large and small powers were on whether 
new technical assistance was required or whether existing machinery 
was sufficient. NASA Assistant Administrator for International Affairs 
Arnold W. Frutkin, as U.S. Representative on subcommittee, had ob- 
served that the "only two applications of space technology substantially 
available today are in . . . meteorology and communications, in both 
of which U.N. agencies are active." (Newsweek, 5/26/69, 57—61) 

• Lockheed Aircraft Corp. founder Allan H. Lockheed died in Tucson, 

Ariz., at age 80. He had begun career at 16 as auto mechanic, taught 
himself to fly, and in 1915 established aircraft manufacturing firm with 
brother Malcolm. In 1926 he formed partnership with John K. North- 

157 



May 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

rop which developed into Lockheed Aircraft Corp. They pooled re- 
sources to produce Lockheed Vega aircraft, which set 27 records from 
1928 to 1932. Lockheed resigned in 1929 but served as adviser to 
several aviation companies, (upi, W Star, 5/28/69, B7; W Post, 
5/28/69, CIO) 
May 27: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXIII into orbit with 1,501 -km 
(932.7-mi) apogee, 196-km (121.8-mi) perigee, 102.0-min period, and 
81.9° inclination. Satellite reentered Dec. 10. (gsfc SSR, 5/31/69; 
12/15/69; NYT, 5/28/69, 16) 

• Special message to Apollo 10 crew from five Soviet cosmonauts was re- 

leased by Soviet Embassy: "We Soviet cosmonauts followed your diffi- 
cult work very closely. We sincerely admire the high accuracy with 
which you carried out all the maneuvers planned, your excellent pre- 
paredness and courage." Message was signed by Cosmonauts Gherman 
S. Titov, Andrian G. Nikolayev, Aleksey Leonov, Georgy Beregovoy, 
and Vladimir Shatalov. (upi, W Post, 5/28/69, A13) 

• International comment on NASA's Apollo 10 mission: 

U.N. Secretary General U Thant said flight was "a thrilling com- 
pound of great skill, boundless courage and fabulous technology, as 
impressive for its perfection as for its informality and its great 
humor. ... It is refreshing to have been able to turn for a moment 
from all our troubles on earth to this magnificent spectacle of man's 
extraordinary capacity for achievement and peaceful quest." 

Sir Bernard Lovell, Director of U.K.'s Jodrell Bank Experimental 
Station, said mission represented almost miraculous achievement at- 
tainable only by finest technology and engineering in world: "Every 
part of the Apollo 10 concept now appears to have been performed 
perfectly. . . . We are nearly about to enter an epoch when men and 
materials can be transferred to other planets in the solar system." 

U.K. Prime Minister Harold Wilson termed flight "a great triumph 
in both human and technical terms." 

Soviet space scientist, Dr. Vassily V. Parin, called mission "big 
event in the history of cosmonautics," impressive because of "the accu- 
racy of all its maneuvers." 

Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, said of Apollo 10 
crew, "These men who could have come back with moon dust on their 
feet are leaving that for others in the true spirit of detachment of great 
pioneers." 

Heinrich Luebke, President of West Germany, said mission "brings 
the United States to the brink of an historical high point — the landing 
of the first man on the moon." {NYT, 5/27/69, 29; AP, B Sun, 
5/27/69, Al) 

• Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman, as Field Director of Space Station 

Studies for NASA, told Pasadena, Calif., press conference before ad- 
dressing annual meeting of Chamber of Commerce there were five 
valid reasons for continuing space program despite high cost: (1) need 
for program that challenged U.S. in only way it could in time of peace, 
(2) educational impact of space technology in lower grades as well as 
among graduates, (3) scientific findings in space, (4) sheer quest and 
exploration, and (5) tendency of all countries to cooperate and per- 
haps realize earth's fragility. Borman said, "I hope we can isolate 
successes and failures from funding because I think space exploration 

158 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 27 

is an important phase of American life." (LA Times, 5/28/69; Pasa- 
dena Star-News, 5/28/69) 

• nasa's Pioneer IX, launched into heliocentric orbit Nov. 8, 1968, to col- 

lect data on electromagnetic and plasma properties of interplanetary 
medium, was adjudged successful by NASA. Spacecraft had transmitted 
more than 6 billion bits of data and was continuing to transmit useful 
data from all scientific experiments. Pioneer IX had passed through 
inferior conjunction Jan. 30 and had reached perihelion of 0.75 au 
April 7. It would pass through superior conjunction in November 1970, 
when special experiments utilizing spacecraft-earth radio communica- 
tion frequencies would be conducted, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Discovery of microscopic evidence in lava on Deception Island, Antarc- 

tica, indicated algae, fungi, and minute bacteria had begun to thrive 
in previously sterile lava within 13 mos after volcanic blasts, NASA 
reported. JPL scientist Dr. Roy E. Cameron and Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute biologist Dr. Robert Benoit brought back samples in February 
of lava rubble from Dec. 4, 1967, volcano-earthquake. Discovery indi- 
cated sterile material could withstand invasion of growing things for 
only limited time, (nasa Release 69-80) 

• U.S. patent No. 3,446,999 was granted to Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus, aaas 

President-elect, for rolling device — toy that could move around circu- 
lar track. Same propulsion method — attraction of electromagnets in 
car to circuitry in rails, providing continuous revolving movement — 
could be adapted to larger equipment. Patent had been assigned to 
Experimentoy Corp. (Pat Off pio; Jones, NYT, 5/31/69, 29) 
May 28: nasa's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, flown by nasa test pilot John 
A. Manke, successfully completed 19th flight after air-launch from 
B— 52 aircraft at 45,000-ft altitude north of Four Corners, Calif. Manke 
fired engine at full power for 66 sees and at half power for 40 sees, 
reaching 64,500-ft altitude. Objectives — expansion of flight envelope 
to mach 1.2 and collection of stability, control, and performance data 
—were met. (nasa Proj Off; upi, W Star, 5/29/69, A16; SBD, 
6/4/69, 152) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Wallops Sta- 

tion carrying Dudley Observatory payload to collect micrometeoroids. 
Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj Off) 

• nasa released first of hundreds of photos and moving pictures taken by 

Apollo 10 crew. Pictures showed moon from variety of positions and 
CSM as seen from LM. Photo of Triesneck Crater showed network of 
broad rilles which resembled tracks left by large snowballs rolled over 
snow-covered plain. Photo of Sea of Tranquility, prime landing site, 
had only few rugged features, including medium-sized Moltke Crater 
and Hypatia Rille. Pictures showed striking resemblance to aerial 
photos of Antarctica. Films included scenes of moon taken from LM 
at pericynthian and of Astronaut John W. Young shaving in CSM. 
^ (AP, B Sun, 5/29/69, Al; W Post, 5/29/69, A4) 

• Soviet Deputy Minister of Aviation Vasily Kazakov told press in Paris 

on eve of 28th Paris Air Show that U.S.S.R. would not bring Tu-144 
supersonic airliner to show. U.S.S.R. would exhibit its An-22 700- 
passenger turboprop and would make major effort to promote sales of 
10 competitive Soviet aircraft. Cosmonauts Vladimir A. Shatalov and 
Aleksey S. Yeliseyev said two Zond moon-orbiting capsules launched 

159 



May 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Sept. 15, 1968, and Nov. 10, 1968, were large enough to have carried 
men. Shatalov said he hoped in future U.S. and Soviet space crews 
would be able to work together. (NYT, 5/29/69, 78) 

• In letter to stockholders, Lockheed Aircraft Corp. said it had initiated 

appeal to Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals against cancel- 
lation of its Government contract to produce AH— 56A Cheyenne heli- 
copter for USA and asked USA to defer demand for $50 million in re- 
payment of progress payments until appeals board ruling, (upi, W 
Post, 5/29/69, A7; WSJ, 5/29/69, 7) 
May 29: Cosmos CCLXXXIV was launched by U.S.S.R. into orbit with 
297-km (184.6-mi) apogee, 204-km (126.8-mi) perigee, 89.5-min 
period, and 51.7° inclination. Satellite reentered June 6. (gsfc SSR, 
5/31/69; 6/15/69) 

• Specific objectives of lunar exploration were discussed in testimony by 

NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. 
Mueller, before Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 
Evaluation of natural resources on 14.6-million-sq-mi lunar surface 
would include minerals of yet undetermined nature and unique com- 
bination of high vacuum and gravitational field one-sixth as strong as 
earth's. "On the results of our evaluation will depend our decision 
some years from now as to whether there is sufficient potential to jus- 
tify establishing a lunar base." NASA also would investigate use of 
moon as "island near our shores to which we can voyage ... to de- 
velop man's potential to function as an explorer throughout the solar 
system." (Testimony) 

• NASA selected Martin Marietta Corp. for $280,000,000 cost-plus-incentive- 

fee/award-fee contract for Viking lander system and technical inte- 
gration of project to send two instrumented spacecraft to Mars during 
summer of 1973. (nasa Release 69-82) 

• At USN Symposium on Military Oceanography in Seattle, Wash., Naval 

Oceanographic Office scientists Paul E. La Violette and Sandra E. Seim 
said pictures taken by astronauts during Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo 
missions had been of greater value than expected. "The high resolution 
of these color photographs has shown a wealth of detail impossible to 
duplicate by television pictures." Surface and near-surface conditions 
"appear as sea scars, rips, sea state, bathymetric features. . . ." Many 
of these features had been shown to exist over large areas on a scale 
previously unimagined. (AP, NYT, 6/1/69, 82) 

• NASA published Significant Achievements in Space Science 1967 

(SP— 167). Among achievements described were discovery of strong 
x-ray-emitting objects in stellar astronomy; controlled, quantitative 
testing of biological hypotheses provided by Biosatellite II data; in- 
creased use of remote-sensing radio techniques in ionosphere and radio 
physics; acquisition of data on surface temperature, total pressure, at- 
mospheric composition, exospheric temperature and composition, and 
strength of magnetic field of Venusian atmosphere by Soviet Venus IV 
and simultaneous flybys of U.S. Mariner V in planetology. Develop- 
ments in solar physics had led to revision of existing set of numbers 
and had repercussions on interpretation of measurements from sun. 
(Text) 

• If NASA's Apollo 11 successfully landed on moon July 20, "it will be a 

proud moment for Americans and a costly one for British bookmakers, 

160 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 29 

who will pay out at least $172,000 in bets they wish they had never 
made," Karl E. Meyer reported in Washington Post. Big winner would 
be David Threlfall of Preston, Lancashire, who in April 1964 bet £10 
($24) that man would land on moon before January 1971. Since odds 
were 1,000 to 1, Threlfall would collect $24,000 from William Hill 
Organization betting firm. As one broker explained: "When you think 
about it, it's a bit ridiculous. This is one of the few times we've made 
a mistake — the man in the street knew more about space than we did." 
(W Post, 5/29/69, A4) 

• Terre Haute [Ind.] Star said: "In backing Columbus, according to 

Samuel Eliot Morison, historian, Queen Isabella had two motives: To 
make a buck in the spice trade, and to open new territories for her 
Catholic missionaries. It did not occur to her that she was about to 
change the history of mankind. That is the way of most turning points 
in human history. The Manhattan Project which resulted in the atomic 
bomb was basically a defensive move against the danger of Germany's 
doing it first. It launched the atomic age. Johann Gutenberg found a 
way to print with movable type for the simple reason that he wanted 
more people to read the Bible. He had no idea that he was introducing 
mass literacy. These great human adventures had two things in com- 
mon: They were done for practical reasons, and most contemporaries 
said, 'who needs it?' The space program began for practical, everyday 
reasons. Russia's Sputnik scared the pants off most Americans. The 
initial goal of catching up with the Russians has been achieved, and 
this is part of the reason why there is now a slowing interest. However 
. . . this country now has the potential of changing the world. . . . The 
U.S. should continue in the forefront of space exploration, with a well- 
funded and stable program. Space should continue to have a perma- 
nent, though not extravagant, position in the priority of national 
goals." (Terre Haute Star, 5/29/69) 

• Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development transmitted to 

House Committee on Science and Astronautics Centralization of Fed- 
eral Science Activities. Report, prepared by Library of Congress Sci- 
ence Policy Research Div., described centralization and potential 
organization of Federal science activities, summarized arguments for 
and against centralization, examined major functions of Federal Gov- 
ernment in dealing with science and technology and present organiza- 
tion, and presented historical summary of evolution of Federal 
organization for science and of proposals for reorganization and con- 
solidation. (Text) 

• Wendell F. Moore, assistant chief engineer at Bell Aerosystems Co. and 

developer of rocket belt which could lift man and carry him length of 
football field, died in Niagara Falls, N.Y., at age 51. He had won John 
Price Wetherill Medal of Franklin Institute of Philadelphia in 1964 for 
his invention, first flight-tested in 1961. (upi, NYT, 5/30/69) 
May 29— June 8: 28th Salon Internationale de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace 
— Paris Air Show — featured nearly 550 exhibitors representing 14 
nations. U.S., with largest pavilion, emphasized space achievements, 
taking "Countdown Apollo" as theme. On opening day biggest display 
attraction, said United Press International, was Apollo 8 spacecraft, 
which Apollo 9 Astronauts James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and 
Russell L. Schweickart unveiled in ceremony attended by U.S. Ambas- 

161 



May 29-June 8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

sador to France, R. Sargent Shriver. U.S. exhibit also included F-l 
and J-2 engines of 1st and 2nd stages of Saturn V rocket and full-scale 
model of Apollo 11 LM. 

French prototype of Concorde 001 supersonic transport was flown 
over Paris for first time and later took its place on apron at Le Bourget 
Airport among 150 aircraft, helicopters, and gliders. 

Opening day also marked signing of agreement for joint develop- 
ment of short-haul airbus by French Transport Minister Jean Chamant 
and West German Economics Minister Karl Schiller. Spokesman for 
U.K. manufacturer Hawker Siddeley said firm was still negotiating on 
building wings for 250-seat airbus. U.S. exhibited 490-passenger 
Boeing 747 but did not show Lockheed C-5A, world's largest aircraft 
U.K. exhibits at Air Show included Concorde 002, British prototype: 
Hawker Siddeley Harrier VTOL jet fighter; and Hawker Siddeley Nim 
rod, maritime reconnaissance version of Comet. French exhibits in 
eluded Dassault Mirage fighters and Dassault Hirondelle turboprop 
U.S.S.R.'s chief entry was 500-passenger An-22 turboprop airliner 
{Amer Av, 5/26/69, 33-6; upi, W Star, 5/29/69, A10; Reuters, NYT, 
5/30/69, 40) 
May 30: nasa's Biosatellite III, scheduled to carry monkey on 30-day earth 
orbital mission June 18, was damaged when unexplained pressure blew 
top off spacecraft at KSC. Accident, which severed electrical wire har- 
nesses and caused minor structural damage, might delay launch. (AP, 
W Star, 5/31/69, Al; 6/1/69, A8) 

• Science magazine published letter from Rep. Joseph E. Karth (D-Minn.), 

Chairman of Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, clarifying his views on 
cost effectiveness evaluation of Earth Resources Satellite system. He 
reiterated opinion he stated in Dec. 1968 Earth Resources Satellite 
System report: "Precise determination of cost effectiveness at this early 
stage ... is not possible. . . . The magnitude of the economic benefits 
simply cannot be calculated in the absence of the type of data which 
the system is designed to produce." Conclusions of studies already 
completed had constituted "strong evidence that precision was not pos- 
sible. Yet, I am reassured by the fact that all such studies . . . have 
concluded that the potential economic benefits will exceed the costs of 
such a system by a substantial margin and some predict that benefits 
will someday be measured in billions of dollars annually. It is my per- 
sonal conviction that an operational ERS system will ultimately prove 
highly cost-effective." 

Karth said he considered it "nasa's responsibility to experiment with 
new space systems that appear to have potential, and to conduct the 
necessary research and development which will lead to a firm founda- 
tion for a subsequent determination as to whether operational systems 
should be built. In this context, I believe cost effectiveness is not an 
appropriate standard to apply in advance to nasa's experimental work, 
though it is certainly applicable when the time comes to decide whether 
to go forward with an operational system." {Science, 5/30/69, 1009) 

• In Science editorial, Kenneth V. Thimann said: ". . . there is no doubt 

that some of our most thoughtful young people see science as a destruc- 
tive force. Some of this disillusionment stems from a preoccupation 

162 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 May 30 

with the failings of science, and especially the failings of technology." 
But people complaining had forgotten past history of far worse air 
and water pollution and malnutrition. "On the contrary, the record of 
steady progress can give us confidence that the residual blemishes and 
pockets will indeed be wiped out as the power of science and tech- 
nology is increasingly brought to bear on them." In some fields "scien- 
tist wields almost unlimited power for good." International Rice 
Research Institute, with staff of 16 Ph.D.s, had apparently changed 
"whole nutritional future of Asia in a scant 5 years" by doubling or 
even tripling rice yields. Discovery of penicillin and streptomycin had 
saved countless lives. (Science, 5/30/69, 1013) 

• There was "growing conviction that Soviet authorities have taken ad- 
ministrative measures to punish the noted physicist Andrey R. Sak- 
harov," said Bryce Nelson in Science. Washington, D.C., sources had 
said Sakharov was summoned for verbal criticism after July 11, 1968, 
publication in New York Times of his essay "Progress, Coexistence, 
and Intellectual Freedom." Discipline was thought to have been per- 
formed in early 1969. Fragmentary accounts in Western publications 
indicated he had been deprived of work as consultant to ministry, re- 
moved from position as chief consultant at State Committee for Atomic 
Energy and from work in restricted physics institute at Chernogolovka, 
barred from research institute at Dubna, and possibly expelled from 
Soviet Academy of Sciences. (Science, 5/30/69, 1043—4) 

May 31: New York Times said dot had received detailed proposals for con- 
struction of 150- to 300-mph, air-cushioned vehicle guided by track 
or guideway. Agency hoped to design vehicle that could avoid prob- 
lems of steel train wheels and rails, which lost traction and spun at 
speeds of 150—200 mph. dot expected to award contract for Tracked 
Air Cushion Vehicle (tacv) within three months, with completion of 
prototype and several miles of test track by mid-1971. (NYT, 5/31/69, 
46) 

During May: Space/ Aeronautics said: "Reshaping of the budget, in com- 
bination with a flurry of new activity among NASA, the Air Force and 
the President's in-house and specially commissioned science advisors, 
has left no doubt that the Administration favors continuation of a 
strong manned space flight program and a total space effort much 
more national in character than the current one. The latter point in- 
volves greater pressure on the Air Force and NASA to bring their future 
programs together, particularly in the space station and support areas. 
"Although manned space flight was the clear victor in the Repub- 
lican amendments to the NASA budget, the surgery on the unmanned 
sectors was artfully performed." Although $41 million was cut from 
OSSA, none of it came from Earth Resources Survey satellite program. 
Although $14 million was cut from OART, none came at expense of 
nerva program. Only notable individual reductions in areas other 
than manned space flight came in deferral of Sunblazer program, can- 
cellation of Biosatellite-F, and deferral for one year of new Planetary 
Explorer project. In net increase in OMSF, NASA essentially traded off 
slippage in aa program for resumption of Saturn V production and 
insurance that lunar exploration would continue into early 1970s. 
(S/A, 5/69, 31-6) 

163 



During May ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• nas-nrc Space Science Board had formed 13-member standing Commit- 

tee on Space Medicine to respond to requests from NASA on problems 
in manned aspects of national space effort, NAS-NRC-NAE News Report 
said. Chairman was Dr. Shields Warren of Cancer Research Institute 
of New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, who was noted for his 
work on effects of radiation, (nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 5/69, 1) 

• oar Research Review summarized 1968 research activities of Air Force 

Cambridge Research Laboratories: During 1968 afcrl scientists had 
"placed more instruments on board more research vehicles than any 
other research group" in U.S. Experiments included 46 research 
rockets, 75 small meteorological rockets, 110 research balloons, and 
374 research flights by 6 flying laboratories. Eight of nine satellite 
experiments were successfully orbited; most significant was 600-lb 
OV 1—16 ("Cannonball") low-altitude-density satellite launched July 
11 to measure atmospheric density, (oar Research Review, 5—6/69, 9) 

• nsf published R&D in the Aircraft and Missiles Industry, 1957—68 (nsf 

69—15). In 1967 aircraft and missiles industry spent record $5.6 billion 
for R&D — 34% of all industrial R&D spending and 116% increase from 
1957 level of $2.6 billion. Federal Government had continued to fi- 
nance more than 80% of industry R&D. In 1967 this was $4.5 billion, 
of which estimated $2.7 billion was supplied by dod, $1.6 billion by 
NASA, and $0.2 billion by all other Federal agencies combined. How- 
ever, Federal spending in 1967 was $100 million less than in 1964. 
Companies' own R&D funds rose from $445 million in 1964 to $1.1 
billion in 1967, with growing emphasis on nonmilitary and nonspace 
areas, particularly commercial aircraft and general-aviation fields. 
(Text) 

• Flying magazine issued special report on F— 111, including "The People 

vs. the F-lll" by John Fricker and "The F-lll— a Pilot's Verdict" 
by Richard B. Weeghman. Fricker called F— 111 "not guilty" of 
charges that concept of commonality was invalid, that selection of 
General Dynamics Corp. instead of Boeing Co. as prime contractor 
was result of "political consideration," that F— 111 suffered from ex- 
cessive flight restrictions, that it was unsafe, and that it was "opera- 
tional flop." To charge that cost escalation of F— 111 program had been 
excessive, Fricker delivered verdict "Guilty, with mitigating circum- 
ctances" — factory, engineering, and research costs had risen twice as 
much as originally estimated. {Flying, 5/69) 

• Copy of original tape recording of excited voices of astronomers as they 

discovered first optical pulsar on night of Jan. 15—16 had been de- 
posited in Niels Bohr Library, American Institute of Physics News- 
letter noted. Tape, made accidentally during moment when optical 
pulses from Crab Nebula were discovered, had been preserved by dis- 
covery team, W. J. Cooke, M. J. Disney, and D. J. Taylor at Steward 
Observatory, Univ. of Arizona. ( aip Newsletter, 5/69) 

• In Communist Party cultural weekly Kultura, Warsaw, Janusz Wilhelm 

said: "Once more the world is experiencing a sense of exultation over 
the universe. Man's latest cosmic achievements have caused talk, writ- 
ing and speculation everywhere. Moreover they are almost personally 
experienced by all." Exultation over man's ability to cope with uni- 
verse "surpasses all national and political boundaries." It was rare for 

164 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 Durin- May 

people to react "just as human beings without any special differences 
or distinctions." Moon flight was not going to solve "dramatic prob- 
lems and conflicts besetting earth," but exultation represented "the 
essence of rationalism and pragmatism to a much greater extent than 
most of our emotions." What we felt was "the unity ( or oneness) of 
humanity. ... So it carried with it a hope." i Atlas, 5/69, 23) 



165 



June 1969 



June 1: Special Task Force report submitted to President Nixon Jan. 8 but 
not released by White House called for NASA revamping and shift in 
space priorities, John Lannan said in Washington Sunday Star. Panel, 
chaired by Univ. of California at Berkeley physicist Dr. Charles H. 
Townes, included Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air 
Force, then NASA Deputy Administrator; Dr. James A. Van Allen of 
Univ. of Iowa; Dr. Harry H. Hess, chairman of nas-nrc Space Science 
Board; and Dr. Walter Orr Roberts of National Center for Atmos- 
pheric Research. 

Report recommended continuation of $6-billion space effort, with 
$2 billion for dod and rest for NASA; disapproved of any commitment 
to large orbiting space station; and urged commitment to unmanned 
planetary probes. It considered NASA's present structure inappropriate 
for post-Apollo program and urged bringing "an outstanding scientist 
into its top administrative ranks." It was desirable to avoid manned 
versus unmanned operations argument and to focus on search for most 
appropriate role for human being in entire system. NASA organization 
was not "adapted to this approach." 

nasc should be chaired by President rather than Vice President. 
Panel advocated lunar exploration and gave high priority to use of 
space for commercial and civil benefits. It urged space spending at 
Vl°/o to 1% of GNP and proposed U.S. intensify efforts toward inter- 
national cooperation in space, Lannan reported. (W Star, 6/1/69, Al) 

• nasa's Mariner VI spacecraft (launched Feb. 24) was 21,731,091 mi 

from earth and would fly past Mars July 30. Mariner VII (launched 
March 27) was 19,526,893 mi from earth and would fly past Mars 
Aug. 4. Both spacecraft were operating normally, (jpl Release 521) 

• Atomic scientist Dr. Edward Teller thought nuclear explosion on moon 

would be scientifically useful, Associated Press reported after New 
York interview. Vibrations would be source of seismographic measure- 
ment for study of moon's interior. "The best information on earth" 
came from nuclear explosions, "because the energy-generating event is 
confined very sharply both in space and in time." Factors making 
moon extremely inhospitable to life — absence of air and water — were 
highly desirable to researchers, since "change that has taken place 
billions and billions of years ago is still visible today." Dr. Teller also 
favored development on moon of research station powered by nuclear 
reactor that heated lunar rocks to high temperature and liberated 
oxygen for breathing purposes. There was probability rocks also con- 
tained water, which reactor could reduce to hydrogen and oxygen for 
making rocket fuel to power short-range rocket trips on moon and soft- 
landing interplanetary spacecraft. Moon's environment might lead to 
advances in low-temperature physics and surface chemistry in elec- 
tronics, which could result in development on earth of smaller, more 

167 



June 1 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

efficient, and more sophisticated electronic equipment, particularly for 
information-storing and information-reordering. (Nicholson, AP, W 
Star, 6/1/69, Al) 

• Retiring Chief Justice of Supreme Court Earl Warren said at Lincoln 

Univ. commencement in Oxford, Pa., "We're going to be on the moon 
— perhaps by July, they tell us. But it would be better if our universities 
taught us how to live in our great cities." (AP, W Post, 6/3/69, A9) 
June 2: NASA announced preliminary flight plan for Apollo 11 lunar landing 
mission. Spacecraft, carrying Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (com- 
mander), Michael Collins (cm pilot), and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (lm 
pilot), would be launched from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, by 
Saturn V booster at 9:32 am edt July 16, with touchdown on moon's 
Sea of Tranquility at 2:22 pm edt July 20. At 12:12 am edt July 21 
Armstrong would step onto lunar surface, followed hour later by Al- 
drin. Astronauts would collect up to 50 lbs of lunar surface samples 
for return to earth, take photos, and deploy experiments package before 
leaving moon at 12:00 pm edt July 21 and returning to csm piloted 
by Collins. They would complete eight-day mission with splashdown 
in Pacific at 12:52 pm edt July 24, 195 hrs 20 min 42.2 sees after 
launch, (nasa Release 69-83) 

• Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman acknowledged that he had discussed 

possibility of running for Governor of Arizona or U.S. Senate with 
Rep. Morris K. Udall (D-Ariz.) but said he did not "foresee right 
now" that he would do so, Associated Press reported. (W Post, 
6/4/69) 

• Prearranged meeting at Paris Air Show between Apollo 9 Astronauts 

James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart and 
Cosmonauts Aleksey S. Yeliseyev and Vladimir Shatalov and wives 
developed from brief technical exchange into what U.S. officials called 
an epic of all space meetings. After inspecting interior of Apollo 8 
spacecraft and joining astronauts for drinks in vip lounge at U.S. pa- 
vilion, cosmonauts escorted astronauts through U.S.S.R. pavilion, pro- 
vided technical explanation of 1968 Soyuz missions, and entertained 
with vodka and caviar in Soviet trijet Yak-40 on display field and 
later in 500-passenger An-22. {NYT, 6/3/69, 78; AP, B Sun, 
6/3/69, Al) 

• Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, received honorary Doctor of 

Science degree from Brown Univ., his alma mater. (NASA Off of 
Administrator) 

• X-ray, one of science's foremost photographic tools, was being supple- 

mented by revolutionary process of neutron radiography called "neu- 
rography," said New York Times. It had been used to check safety of 
components in Apollo 10 spacecraft and was subject of Government- 
supported research in U.K., France, West Germany, and Japan. In 
U.S., commercially oriented studies were being pursued by General 
Electric Co., Aero j fit-General Corp., and North American Rockwell 
Corp. Process — in which object to be radiographed was placed in 
large, high-density beam of neutrons that passed through object and 
registered data concerning its internal structure on film — had applica- 
tions in inspection of pyrotechnic devices and nuclear reactor fuel and 
detection of excessive moisture or minute cracks. Critical welds, guid- 
ance components, and "honeycomb" bonding used in NASA program 

168 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 2 

could also be inspected — as well as home TV sets, telephones, radios, 
missiles, and sst. (NYT, 6/2/69, 39) 

• North American Rockwell Corp. announced it had reduced its activity 

on lsaf's Advanced Manned Strategic Aircraft (AMSA) but was main- 
taining team effort in connection with program. Reduction was made 
to permit maximum attention to F— 15 fighter weapon system compe- 
tition. Inar Release NN-28; Wilson, W Post, 5/31/69, Al) 
June 3: usaf launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afh by Titan 
IIIB-Agena D booster. Satellite entered orbit with 265.3-mi 
(426.9-km) apogee, 86.4-mi (139.0-km) perigee, 89.8-min period, 
and 110.0° inclination and reentered June 14. (gsfc SSR, 6/15/69; 
upi, W Post, 6/4/69, A18; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXV into orbit with 493-km 

(306.3-mi) apogee, 266-km (165.3-mi) perigee, 92.1-min period, 
and 71.0° inclination. Satellite reentered Oct. 7. (GSFC SSR, 6/15/69; 
10/15/69; AP, NYT, 6/4/69, 5) 

• International team of scientists might man first U.S. permanent space 

laboratory, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, said at London 
news conference. Work on project would begin about 1975 and ad- 
ditional sections would be added each year for decade, eventually pro- 
ducing laboratory for about 50 scientists. Dr. Paine, on his way to 
Paris Air Show, said it was too early to say if there would be perma- 
nent U.S. lunar space station or to predict if man would land on Mars. 
He had no information to support rumors of imminent Soviet moon 
landing. I Reuters, W Post, 6/5/69, E5) 

• Boeing Co. pilot Don Knutson flew 362-passenger version of Boeing 

747 — world's largest passenger aircraft — on 9-hr 8-min maiden At- 
lantic crossing from Seattle-Tacoma Airport, Wash., to Le Bourget 
Airport, Paris, for 28th Paris Air Show. Aircraft was fourth 747 off 
assembly line and acquired one-third of its 27 hrs flying time during 
transatlantic flight at average 570-mph and maximum 656-mph 
speeds. (NYT, 6/4/69, 74; Amer Av, 6/9/69, 16-7) 

• House adopted resolution electing Rep. Barry M. Goldwater, Jr. 

(R-Calif.), to Committee on Science and Astronautics. ( CR, 6/3/69, 
H4401) 

• London Times published four-page space supplement On the Edge of the 

Moon. Man had been traveling to moon for centuries in transport 
which was "romantic, ingenious, foolish and brilliant: chariots of 
swans, giant guns, artificial clouds and enormous metal springs; even 
rockets." Journeys, "dreams that ranged between ludicrous fantasy 
and prophetic imagination," had not been recorded much before sec- 
ond century A.D. "But later, as writers discovered science fiction and 
the appetite men had for it, the stories proliferated." At times, either 
by luck, reasoning, knowledge of science, or uncanny inspiration, they 
foresaw details of voyages like Apollo 10's and that planned for next 
month." Article traced 1,800 yrs of space travel "from dream to 
reality." Supplement also described stage sequences planned for NASA's 
lunar landing, specifications of lunar module and its achievements, 
data which scientists hoped to extract from lunar explorations, and 
possible construction of lunar observatory. Costs of observatory would 
be justified "only as part of a space programme much larger than 
what is envisaged for the immediate future, and too large, perhaps, 

169 



June 3 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

for the resources of any one nation." (London Times, 6/3/69, I— IV) 
June 3—5: NASA held Spacemobile Conference in Washington, D.C., to fa- 
miliarize all personnel with Vice President's Summer Space Education 
Program for the Cities conducted by NASA in cooperation with Presi- 
dent's Council on Youth Opportunity. (Program) 
June 4: President Nixon addressed Air Force Academy commencement in 
Colorado Springs, Colo.: "A nation needs many qualities, but it needs 
faith and confidence above all. Skeptics do not build societies; the 
idealists are the builders. Only societies that believe in themselves can 
rise to their challenges. Let us not, then, pose a false choice between 
meeting our responsibilities abroad and meeting the needs of our 
people at home. We shall meet both or we shall meet neither. 

"This is why my disagreement with the skeptics and the isolationists 
is fundamental. They have lost the vision indispensable to great leader- 
ship. They observe the problems that confront us; they measure our 
resources and then they despair. When the first vessels set out from 
Europe for the New World these men would have weighed the risks 
and they would have stayed behind. . . . 

"Our current exploration of space makes the point vividly, here is 
testimony to man's vision and man's courage. The journey of the as- 
tronauts is more than a technical achievement: it is a reaching-out of 
the human spirit. It lifts our sights; it demonstrates that magnificent 
conceptions can be real. 

"They inspire us and at the same time they teach us true humility. 
What could bring home to us more the limitation of the human scale 
than the hauntingly beautiful picture of our earth seen from the moon? 

"When the first man stands on the moon next month every Ameri- 
can will stand taller because of what he has done, and we should be 
proud of this magnificent achievement. 

"We will know then that every man achieves his own greatness by 
reaching out beyond himself, and so it is with nations. When a nation 
believes in itself — as Athenians did in their Golden Age, as Italians 
did in the Renaissance — that nation can perform miracles. Only when 
a nation means something to itself can it mean something to others. 

"That is why I believe a resurgence of American idealism can bring 
about a modern miracle — and that modern miracle is a world order 
of peace and justice." \PD, 6/9/69, 797-802) 
• In Huntsville interview, Dr. Wernher von Braun, MSFC Director, said 
accomplishment of first lunar landing would not necessarily mean U.S. 
was first in space race. ". . . whether the Russians have this particular 
objective in their program, I just don't know." It was no longer pos- 
sible to decide in simple terms who was ahead. ". . . today the space 
program has so many facets that it may be impossible for all eternity 
from now on to be ahead of them in all fields. And . . . impossible for 
them to be ahead of us in all fields." It was still possible for U.S.S.R. 
to reach moon first if July launching date for Apollo 11 was delayed. 
Russians now had rocket more powerful than Saturn V, which would 
allow direct lunar flight. "If this rocket is flown in the very near 
future — which it might — they may still have a chance of landing a 
man on the moon in the latter part of 1969." As for Soviet unmanned 
lunar landing, Dr. von Braun said, "I think the Russians very defi- 
nitely have the capability as far as their equipment is concerned to 

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ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 4 

soft land enough payload on the moon to take a sample of lunar soil 
and fly it back to earth." (upi, NYT, 6/6/69, 18) 

• Tass released reports which revealed that neither Venus V (launched 

Jan. 5) nor Venus VI (launched Jan. 10) had reached Venusian sur- 
face intact in May. Data radioed from two spacecraft suggested terrain 
was very uneven, with height differences of more than 50,000 ft. Re- 
ports also conceded that Venus IV, which purportedly had landed on 
Venus Oct. 18, 1967, had not relayed data from Venusian surface, but 
had apparently been crushed during descent by extreme atmospheric 
pressure. "The pressure might have pushed in the upper lid of the in- 
strument department and affected the instruments of the radio com- 
plex," Tass said. Data suggested that Venus V had descended over deep 
basin where temperature was almost 1,000°F and pressure was 140 
times that on earth. Venus VI had descended over plateau where tem- 
perature was 750°F and pressure was 60 times that on earth. Since 
spacecraft had not been designed to withstand pressures greater than 
25—27 times that on earth, they had not sent data from below 12 mi. 
(Sullivan, NYT, 6/5/69; W Post, 6/5/69, A25) 

• ComSatCorp announced selection of General Telephone & Electronics In- 

ternational as contractor for construction of earth station for satellite 
communications near Talkeetna, Alaska. Contract price was $3,558,000. 
(ComSatCorp Release 69—32) 
June 5—8: NASA's 1,393-lb Ogo VI (OGO— f) Orbiting Geophysical Observa- 
tory, carrying 25 experiments to study sun's influence on earth's near- 
space environment during period of maximum solar activity, was suc- 
cessfully launched from wtr at 7:42 am put by Thorad-Agena D 
(SLV— 2G) booster. Spacecraft entered orbit with 682.4-mi 
(1,098.2-km) apogee, 246.4-mi ( 396.6-km ) perigee, 99.8-min period, 
and 82.0° inclination. 

Primary mission objective was to conduct correlative studies of 
latitude-dependent atmospheric phenomena during period of maximum 
solar activity. Secondary objectives were to search for celestial hydro- 
gen Lyman-alpha radiation, conduct neutron and cosmic-ray observa- 
tions, measure solar uv and x-ray radiation, make detailed observations 
of vlf radio emissions, and exceed one year of active, three-axis sta- 
bilization. By June 8, all experiments except one — Naval Research 
Laboratory's x-ray spectrometer, which was expected to have humidity 
problems — had been turned on and were operating satisfactorily. Two 
30-ft antennas had been deployed. 

Ogo VI was sixth and last spacecraft in NASA's ogo series. Scientific 
instrumentation for Ogo VPs 25 experiments had been provided by 
10 U.S. universities, 1 foreign university, 4 Government centers, and 
5 private companies. Ogo VI joined four other operational oco's — 
Ogo I (launched Sept. 4, 1964), Ogo III (launched June 6, 1966), 
Ogo IV (launched July 28, 1967), and Ogo V (launched March 4, 
1968) — which had provided more than 1.2-million hrs of scientific 
data on earth-sun relationships and on near-earth environment. Ogo II 
(launched Oct. 14, 1965) had been turned off in November 1967. Re- 
sults from ogo program included: first observation of protons re- 
sponsible for ring of current surrounding earth at distance of several 
earth radii during magnetic storms; first satellite global survey of 
earth's magnetic field, resulting in proposed new magnetic field model 

171 



June 5-8 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



S 




June 5-8: Ogo VI— sixth and last of nasa's Orbiting Geophysical Observatory series- 
carried 25 experiments into orbit to study the suns influence on the earth's near-space 
environment during a period of maximum solar activity. The satellite was launched 
from wtr by a Thorad-Agena D booster into near-polar orbit. By June 8, all but one 
experiment had been turned on and were operating satisfactorily. 

172 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 5-8 

for International Geomagnetic Reference Field; clear identification of 
controlling influence of earth's magnetic field on ion population; veri- 
fication of existence of inward boundary (plasma-pause) surrounding 
region of stable trapped radiation ; first evidence that region of low- 
energy electrons completely enveloped trapped radiation regions; first 
observation of daylight auroras; and first worldwide map of airglow 
distribution. 

OGO program was managed by GSFC under OSSA direction. LeRC was 
responsible for Thorad-Agena D launch vehicle, and ksc for launch 
operations, (nasa Proj Off; nasa Releases 69-81, 69-92) 
June 5: Electronic disorder in NASA's Oao II orbiting astronomical observa- 
tory (launched Dec. 7, 1968), first noted June 2, had been successfully 
adjusted from ground, NASA announced. Spacecraft's inability to re- 
ceive ground commands or maintain correct orientation was similar to 
malfunction April 12 which had almost caused spacecraft's death, gsfc 
controllers corrected problem by adjusting ground command trans- 
mitters and computer programs and switching attitude control system 
from gas-operated to gyro stabilization, (nasa Release 69—88) 

• Investigating board headed by Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., reported 

primary cause of Dec. 8, 1968, crash of nasa's lunar landing training 
vehicle (lltv) No. 1 was "that the vehicle entered a region of flight 
where aerodynamic moments overpowered the control system . . . such 
that attitude control was lost. The source of the control problem was 
not identified ... in time to add (use) a second control system which 
could have restored control capability." Crash did not involve any mal- 
functions of systems. Adverse region of flight was entered because the 
aerodynamic limitations of LLTV were not completely understood, wind 
conditions were insufficiently accounted for, and displays in lltv and 
support van were inadequate for conditions. Board made 11 recom- 
mendations — including wind-tunnel tests to assess lltv aerodynamic 
characteristics — for improved safety, (nasa Release 69—87; AP, H 
Chron, 6/6/69) 

• U.S.S.R.'s Tu-144 supersonic aircraft exceeded mach 1 for first time 

during flight test, according to Tass. No further details were released. 
{ InteraviaAirLetter, 6/9/69, 5) 

• At Paris Air Show Sud Aviation test pilot Andre Turcat demonstrated 

Concorde 001. During engine checks before takeoff, noise level at 300 
m to side and behind was not excessive even with afterburners switched 
in. Fly-pasts at various speeds and configurations showed good han- 
dling characteristics and low noise levels. Aircraft landed smoothly and 
stopped in relatively short distance on wet runway with brake chute. 
(InteraviaAirLetter, 6/6/69, 4) 

• Dr. Eugene G. Fubini, former Assistant Secretary of Defense, was sworn 

in as consultant to NASA Administrator. He would advise NASA senior 
officials on scientific and engineering aspects of agency programs and 
review and advise on work of President's Space Task Group and nasa— 
dod cooperation on space shuttle. Before joining nasa Dr. Fubini had 
been Vice President and Group Executive at IBM. (nasa Release 
69-85) 

• nasa announced selection of United Aircraft Corp. for $4-million, three- 

year contract to design and develop life support and environmental 

173 



June 5 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

control systems to sustain astronauts for long-duration earth orbital 
space flights. {WSJ, 6/5/69) 

• Secretary of State William P. Rogers told Washington, D.C., news con- 

ference Nixon Administration was resolved to continue test firings of 
advanced strategic missiles. He said tests would not affect chances for 
U.S. success in disarmament talks with U.S.S.R., scheduled for summer, 
and that they should be continued even after negotiations had begun. 
(Grose, NYT, 6/6/69, 1) 
June 6: nasa's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Peter Hoag 
(usaf), successfully completed 20th flight over Buckhorn, Calif. Ve- 
hicle was air-launched from B-52 aircraft at 45,000-ft altitude and 
glided to landing, (nasa Proj Off) 

• At New York meeting sponsored by Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 

MSC, and Columbia Univ.'s Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, 
MSC scientist Wilbur R. Wollenhaupt said Apollo 8 computer had erred 
in prediction of spacecraft's position by 15,000 ft in range and 1,500 
ft in elevation. Apollo 10 computer erred only 2,000 ft in range and 
500 ft in elevation with programming of more accurate model of 
moon's asymmetrical gravity field. Apollo 10 results made it likely 
Apollo 11 could be guided to extremely accurate landing in July. 

Dr. Richard Lingenfelter of UCLA described study of meandering 
tracks across moon's surface which showed evidence that at least 130 
river-like rilles around large circular lunar mare had been formed by 
flowing water. Evidence was presented from gravity studies and mag- 
netic observations in nearby space that moon's interior was homoge- 
neous rather than subdivided into heavy core surrounded by lighter 
mantle. (Sullivan, NYT, 6/7/69, 16) 

• In Life, Hugh Sidey said: "It was just exactly eight years ago that John 

Kennedy set the moon goal and called the nation into 'the exciting ad- 
venture of space.' There have been great space moments in these years, 
but they have faded rather rapidly as the earth problems pressed in. 
Now there is a lasting excitement which will build to the big launch 
[Apollo 11] this summer and probably will linger for months or years. 
. . . History suggests that man, despite his obvious and obsessive 
miseries, craves something to lift him beyond himself. War too often 
has been one outlet. Americans in particular have needed a quest, 
across the mountains or the continent, into the sky and the sea, to the 
poles or inside the atom." This pointed up "classic dilemma in presi- 
dential leadership." Did national pride in space achievement and its 
technological and military benefits mean more to nation than plans 
for aid to education, welfare programs, or feeding the hungry? "It 
could be that the world's ills are not too great to allow such dreams. 
It could also be that Americans cannot live without them." (Life, 
6/6/69, 4) 

• President Nixon announced intention to appoint Stanford Univ. physicist 

Hubert B. Heffner as Deputy Director of Office of Science and Tech- 
nology, succeeding Ivan L. Bennett, Jr., who had resigned. Nomination 
was submitted to Senate June 9. (PD, 6/9/69, 806; 6/16/69, 845) 

• nas and nae issued Scientific and Technical Communication: A Pressing 

National Problem and Recommendations for Its Solution. Committee 
on Scientific and Technical Communication (satcom) emphasized 
need for maintaining pluralistic, diverse communication activities in 

174 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 6 

science and engineering as opposed to monolithic, centralized system 
and recommended 55 methods for meeting accelerating growth of 
technical data — product of $27-billion R&D enterprise in U.S. Recom- 
mendations included creation of Joint Commission on Scientific and 
Technical Communications responsible to nas— nae councils to stimu- 
late greater coordination among private organizations and facilitate 
interaction with government. (Text; NAS Release; nas-nrc-NAe News 
Rpt, 5-7/69, 1) 

• Florida Legislature passed concurrent resolution asking President Nixon 

and Congress to restore name "Cape Canaveral" to Cape Kennedy, 
subject to agreement by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), brother 
of late President John F. Kennedy. Original Spanish name meant 
"plantation of cane." (AP, W Star, 6/7/69, Al) 
June 7: World's largest passenger airliner, 629,000-lb Boeing 747, landed 
at Dulles Airport, Washington, D.C., en route from Paris Air Show. 
Pan American World Airways would take delivery of its first 747 in 
September and inaugurate passenger service shortly after first of year. 
(W Star, 6/8/69, A23) 

• Since "any contamination of the earth from the moon would affect all 

men and all nations," said New York Times, protective arrangements 
"should be approved by an international group, preferably by a formal 
United Nations committee. In the future men will go to Mars and other 
parts of the solar system where the prospects of finding living or- 
ganisms are much greater than they are on the moon. If Americans 
now monopolize the key decisions regarding protection of the earth's 
environment, they will have no grounds for objecting later on if 
Russians, Chinese, Germans, Japanese, Brazilians or others monopolize 
similar decisions affecting human beings returning from more distant 
celestial bodies." (NYT, 6/7/69, 32) 

• In Nature, Stanford Univ. astronomer Dr. Edward K. Conklin reported 

recording earth's motion using background radiation believed to have 
been produced at early stage in universe's expansion. If theory was 
correct, radiation defined extremely distant reference frame for meas- 
urement of earth's motion. Recording showed 100-mi-per-sec move- 
ment in direction midway between direction of Big Dipper and star 
Arcturus. (Nature, 6/7/69, 971-2) 
June 8: NASA's Echo II comsat, launched Jan. 25, 1964, reentered atmos- 
phere at 60.3° north latitude and 148.1° east longitude, north of 
Siberian Sea of Okhotsk after orbiting earth more than 28,000 times. 
Launched as passive comsat and air-density research satellite, 532-lb, 
135-ft-dia, laminated mylar plastic and aluminum balloon had been 
used as reflector for bouncing radio transmissions between ground 
points and for geodetic studies. (NASA Release 69—90) 

• New York Times Magazine profile quoted NASA Administrator, Dr. 

Thomas O. Paine: Late President John F. Kennedy's decision to try 
to put man on moon by end of 1960s was "bold act that is standing the 
test of time damned well," Dr. Paine had said. "Our ability to function 
now in a new environment a decade after Jack Kennedy is going to be 
a very challenging test for us. Do we understand that environment? 
Can we achieve a new consensus without the 'Pearl Harbor' of a Rus- 
sian lead in space? We're not really talking about the space program 
anymore. The space program is finished. You wouldn't speak about 

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June 8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Columbus's voyage as the sail-powered water craft program. What 
Columbus's journey was all about had nothing to do with water. It 
was the extension of man's dominion, new life styles, new forms of 
government, new societies." Dr. Paine believed U.S. had no choice but 
to push ahead. "A nation that turns down a challenge like this is a 
nation that's on its way out." (Buckley, NYT Magazine, 6/8/69, 
34-63) 

• William Hines in Washington Sunday Star criticized nasa's Lunar Re- 

ceiving Laboratory and plans to protect U.S. from lunar contamina- 
tion: ". . . there is ample doubt that (1) the quarantine will really be 
air-tight and (2) it will make very much difference if the contamina- 
tion shield leaks a little." He also commented that, earlier, "great lip 
service was paid to the necessity for avoiding contamination of the 
moon and other celestial bodies by lifeforms from Earth. The rationale 
was pragmatic, not moral, and purely anthropocentric: If we contam- 
inate the surface we won't be able to say with certainty whether the 
lifeforms we eventually find are native or imported. This line is still 
being hewed to — after a fashion — in the case of Mars, but for the 
moon the game has proved too costly to be played with strict attention 
to rules." (W Star, 6/8/69, C4) 
June 9: Nike-Apache sounding rocket was launched by NASA from Wallops 
Station carrying Dudley Observatory payload to collect micrometeor- 
oids. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Proj Off) 

• faa announced there were 10,470 airports, heliports, and seaplane bases 

on its records on Dec. 31, 1968: net increase of 344 over 1967. They 
included 555 heliports, 411 seaplane bases, and 28 landing facilities 
outside U.S. Of total, 3,986 were publicly owned and 6,848, privately. 
Airlines served 183 airports with turbojets and were expected to extend 
this service to additional 215 airports by 1973. (faa Release 69—68) 
June 10: House passed by vote of 328 to 52 H.R. 11271, FY 1970 nasa 
authorization of $3,966 billion, allocating $3.26 billion for R&D, $58.2 
million for construction of facilities, and $643.8 million for research 
and program management. House had adopted amendment canceling 
$327 million authorized for FYs 1967, 1968, and 1969 for which ap- 
propriations had not been made. It also adopted amendment requiring 
emplacement of U.S. flag, exclusively, on moon or any other planet by 
U.S. astronauts during visits financed entirely by Government funds. 
Act would be symbolic gesture of national pride in achievement, not 
declaration of national appropriation by claim of sovereignty. (Text; 
CR, 6/10/69, H4615-56) 

• Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard announced cancellation by 

dod of Manned Orbiting Laboratory (mol) program because of "con- 
tinuing urgency of reducing Federal defense spending" and "advances 
in automated techniques for unmanned satellite systems." Cancellation 
would save "several hundred million" of $525 million proposed for 
mol in FY 1970 budget authorization. Remainder would be needed 
for termination costs and usaf unmanned space programs. Cancellation 
also would save $1.5 billion in FY 1970 through 1974. 

Since 1965 initiation of mol program, dod had accumulated much 
experience in unmanned satellite systems and "profited from both 
manned and unmanned space exploration of nasa" for "the many, ad- 
vanced technologies in the mol effort." Some mol technology and 

176 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 10 

hardware would be used in other dod unmanned space programs and 
dod was exploring with nasa "the usefulness of some MOL develop- 
ments to NASA programs." (dod Release 491—69) 

• In Bonn Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, and West German 

Science Minister Gerhard Stoltenberg signed Memorandum of Under- 
standing calling for NASA and West German Ministry for Scientific- 
Research cooperation on Helios. Most advanced international scientific 
space program, Helios would consist of two solar probes carrying 10 
scientific experiments 28 million mi — closer to sun than any other yet 
scheduled — in 1974—75 to provide new understanding of fundamental 
solar processes and sun-earth relations by studying solar wind, mag- 
netic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust, nasa would 
launch two German-built spacecraft on Atlas-Centaur vehicles one year 
apart. Seven experiments would be provided by German scientists and 
three by GSFC in cooperation with U.S., Australian, and Italian experi- 
menters, (nasa Releases 69-86, 69-91) 

• At Smithsonian Institution ceremony, X— 15 No. 566670, one of three 

rocket-engine aircraft built to test flight environment in upper atmos- 
phere, took its place near Wright brothers' Kitty Hmvk Flyer and 
Charles A. Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis. Aircraft had been officially 
retired with completion of joint NASA— USAF X— 15 program in De- 
cember and flown from Edwards afb, Calif., as cargo to be refurbished 
by Smithsonian. First X— 15 built, it made first captive flight March 10, 

1959, and flew first glide and power flights June 8, 1959, and Jan. 23, 

1960. It completed last flight in test program Oct. 24, 1968, to total 81 
free flights and 142 flights with B— 52 mothership. 

Of three X— 15s built by North American Rockwell Corp. and Thio- 
kol Chemical Corp., No. 3 had been destroyed in Nov. 15, 1967, crash 
which killed pilot, Maj. Michael J. Adams (usaf) ; No. 2 was being 
displayed at Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson afb, Ohio. X— 15 
program had cost $300 million and established records for 354,200-ft 
altitude and for 4,520 mph (mach 6.7) speed. 

At ceremony Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, 
said it was difficult to believe designer's dream of 15 yrs ago had al- 
ready found its way into museum. (Program; NASA Release 69—56; 
dod Release 327-69; NYT, 6/15/69, 70) 

• msfc announced award of $1,712,000 contract change to Bendix Corp. 

for construction of three additional control computers for Apollo Tele- 
scope Mount project, to be delivered from April 1970 through July 
1970. (msfc Release 69-141) 

• Space Business Daily said poll of 1,400 U.S. adults conducted after 

Apollo 10 splashdown by A. Singlinger & Co. had found 51.3% in 
favor of lunar exploration program. Of those polled, 39% disapproved 
of program and 9.7/* had no opinion. {SBD, 6/10 69, 1741 

• Rep. Lester L. Wolff (D-N.Y.) proposed in House that Apollo 11 space- 

craft be commissioned "The John F. Kennedy." (CR, 6/10/69, H4639) 

• In Washington Evening Star Crosby S. Noyes noted: "There are ... a 

number of questions about interplanetary travel that remain to be 
answered, the most obvious being why take the trouble. It is, no doubt, 
a magnificent conception. But whether it can or should be made real 
is still open to some doubt." (W Star, 6/10/69, All) 
June 11: nerva nuclear experimental engine (XE) was successfully ground- 

177 



June 11 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tested by NASA and AEC in Jackass Flats, Nev., reaching full power for 
first time under simulated altitude conditions. Reactor operated at 
50,000 lbs thrust for 3y 2 min during 13-min test, (aec/nasa Release 
M-144) 

• NASA Associate Administrator, Dr. Homer E. Newell, and Assistant Asso- 

ciate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology John L. 
Sloop presented paper "Planning Space Technology for the 1970's" to 
National Security Industrial Assn. in Washington, D.C. Technology 
readiness for manned missions beyond the moon depended "very 
heavily upon (1) carrying the technology through proof-of-concept 
or prototype phase in order to assure long-life, reliable flight equip- 
ment and operations, and (2) precursor missions, particularly an 
Earth orbiting laboratory and lunar exploration that provide an op- 
portunity to obtain the needed technology." Technology needed for 
manned Mars exploration "represents capabilities that are very useful 
in many space missions and for some non-space applications as well, 
particularly with regard to long-life equipment and man's performance 
under stress." (Text) 

• Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, MIT Dean of Engineering, received faa's 

highest honor — Extraordinary Service Award — in Washington, D.C, 
ceremony for service as technical adviser on SST program. Gold medal, 
lapel ribbon, and citation for exceptional contribution were presented 
by Under Secretary of Transportation James M. Beggs. He noted Dr. 
Bisplinghoff's extraordinary competence and knowledge of aeronautics 
had played significant role in analyzing complex technical aspects of 
SST development program. Dr. Bisplinghoff had served as technical 
adviser to faa Administrator on sst program since April 1966, had 
held key scientific posts with NASA since 1962, and was member of 
NASA Historical Advisory Committee, (faa Release 69—69) 

• Congressional sources quoted by John Finney in New York Times said 

White House had ordered cancellation of dod's mol program [see 
June 10] over dod and ijsaf objections and in response to mounting 
congressional pressure to hold down military spending. (NYT, 
6/12/69, 1) 

• Washington Post Federal Diary column noted Astronaut Neil A. Arm- 

strong would receive $2-per-day travel allowance as civil servant 
during Apollo 11 mission. As GS— 16 at NASA, Armstrong collected 
maximum per diem of $16 when traveling on duty. But for Apollo 11 
mission, it had been ruled that he would be enjoying Government 
billeting and subsistence. (Clopton, Causey, W Post, 6/11/69, Bll) 
June 12: l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf), Apollo Program Director, an- 
nounced NASA would proceed with plans for July 16 Apollo 11 launch. 
He stressed, however, that NASA would not hesitate to postpone launch 
if officials did not feel "ready in every way. Nor, once the voyage 
has begun, would we hesitate to bring the crew home immediately if 
we encounter problems." (nasa Special Release) 

• Bullpup Cajun sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 

carried GSFC payload to 45.1-mi (72.5-km) altitude to study capability 
of Bullpup Cajun as sounding rocket system and to test prototype ozone 
payload. Rocket performed satisfactorily but loss of signal at payload 
separation prevented analysis of payload performance. Parachute de- 
ployed as planned but payload was not recovered, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• nsf released Scientists, Engineers, and Physicians from Abroad, Fiscal 

178 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 12 

Years 1966 and 1967 (nsf 69-10). More than 12,500 scientists and 
engineers had been granted immigrant status in U.S. in FY 1967, 
increase of 74% from 1966 and 134% from 1956. Immigrant physi- 
cians and surgeons increased 30% from 1966 and 65% from 1965, to 
3,300. Number of immigrant scientists and engineers was estimated 
roughly at one-tenth of gross addition to domestic science and engi- 
neering manpower. (Text) 

• New York Daily News editorial said: "For some years, the U.S. Air Force 

has had an entirely feasible project for orbiting by 1972 a 30,000-lb. 
space laboratory carrying two men, at a cost of around S3 billion. About 
$1.3 billion having been spent on the program, Deputy Defense Secre- 
tary David M. Packard announced Tuesday that it has been junked, 
scrapped, scrubbed, in order to save the taxpayers some money. We're 
hot for government economy. But this looks to us like a most dubious 
move in that direction. You can bet that Soviet Russia, poverty-stricken 
though it is, is not skimping in its drive to make space serve the 
Kremlin militarily." (NY News, 6/12/69) 
June 13: In letter to NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and 
Applications, Dr. John E. Naugle, ComSatCorp President Joseph V. 
Charyk offered plan for NASA-ComSatCorp cooperation in demonstra- 
tions of TV and other satellite services between U.S. areas, including 
Alaska, using existing earth stations at Brewster, Wash., and Paumalu, 
Hawaii, plus two new small stations, and NASA ats satellite or possibly 
in-orbit commercial satellite. (ComSatCorp Release 69—33) 

• Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, 

carried Brazil-Univ. of California payload to conduct stellar x-ray 
studies. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. (NASA Proj 
Off) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket was launched by NASA from wsmr with 

VAM— 20 booster to 106.6-mi (171.5-km) altitude carrying Univ. of 
Colorado payload to measure height profile of nitric oxide, nitrogen, 
and ionized nitrogen and to test Mariner-Mars UV spectrometer. Rocket 
and instruments functioned satisfactorily, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• NASA announced addition of two lunar orbits to Apollo 11 flight plan, 

which would increase revolutions to 30 and total time in lunar orbit 
to 59 hrs 30 min. Addition of orbit before Lm/csm undocking would 
improve communications during critical maneuver by bringing LM 
within radio sight of 210-ft dish antenna at Goldstone Tracking Station 
during its descent to lunar surface. Addition of orbit after redocking 
and before LM jettison would allow astronauts two more hours for 
decontamination of equipment exposed to lunar environment. I nasa 
Release 69-83 A) 

• Catastrophic contamination of earth by returning Apollo 11 astronauts 

and lunar samples was "extremely unlikely," Philip H. Abelson ex- 
plained in Science. "One argument is that a form of life adapted to 
the absence of H2O, O2, and organic compounds could scarcely be 
expected to survive on earth, much less infect earth's creatures. The 
most compelling argument, however, is that the lunar-return experi- 
ment has been conducted many times in the past. It has been estimated 
that millions of tons of unsterilized lunar material have reached the 
earth as a consequence of meteor impact. . . . Sterile containment of 
lunar specimens during the journey to Houston is assured. . . . 

"Procedures involving the astronauts are more controversial. Careful 

179 



June 13 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

effort to keep to a minimum the amount of adventitious material re- 
turned to earth is a substantial factor in the procedures that have been 
adopted. The astronauts face a difficult and dangerous mission. Were 
their procedures to be made even more complex because of panicky, 
last-minute objections, their chances of a safe return could be need- 
lessly jeopardized." (Science, 6/13/69, 1227) 

• Discovery of approximately 621.4-mi-dia ( 1,000-km-dia) mascon — mass 

concentration of gravitational pull — on moon's far side and of fact 
that Mare Marginis at eastern edge was flooded fraction of mascon 
basin was reported in Science by Cornell Univ. radiophysicists Dr. 
Malcolm J. Campbell, Dr. Brian T. O'Leary, and Dr. Carl Sagan. Dis- 
coveries were made from study of Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 8 photos 
and gravitational data. New mascon was 2.8 times heavier than mas- 
cons associated with Mares Imbrium and Serenitatis on moon's near 
side. If mare material was confirmed in basin, discoverers proposed 
calling it Mare Occulum (Hidden Sea). Dr. Campbell said they be- 
lieved mascons explained moon's entire "out-of-balance" appearance 
as seen from spacecraft. While some Apollo mission planners believed 
moon to be pear-shaped because of its effects on spacecraft, Cornell 
team believed moon was nearly perfect sphere. Mascons explained un- 
expected variations in lunar gravity which, according to msc officials, 
had dragged Apollo 10 off course. With mascons, scientists were close 
to answering question of origin of lunar seas, Dr. Campbell said, "But 
we haven't quite gotten the whole story." (Science, 6/13/69, 1273—5; 
Cohn, W Post, 6/14/69, Al) 

• President Nixon submitted following nominations to Senate: Gen. John 

D. Ryan (USAf) to be USAF Chief of Staff, Adm. Thomas H. Moorer 
(usn) to be Chief of Naval Operations for additional two-year period, 
and Gen. Earle G. Wheeler (usa) for reappointment as Chairman, 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, for additional one-year term. ( PD, 6/16/69, 845) 

• Disruption of circadian rhythms — cycles in life processes dependent on 

biological mechanism operating like internal clock — placed stress on 
long-distance air traveler, said faa medical officials Dr. Peter V. 
Siegel, Dr. Siegfried J. Gerathewohl, and Dr. Stanley R. Mohler in 
Science. In modern aviation environment man was exposed abruptly 
to disruptions, particularly during long east-to-west and west-to-east 
flights. (Science, 6/13/69, 1249-55) 
June 14: Madrid ceremony marked takeover by Spanish crew of operations 
at U.S. Deep Space Network tracking facility. Attending were nasa 
Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine; Spanish Space Research Council 
President, Gen. Luis Azcarrago; U.S. Ambassador Robert C. Hill; and 
Gen. Antonio Perez-Marin, President of Spanish Instituto Nacional de 
Tecnica Aeroespacial. Dr. Paine sent final U.S. signal to Pioneer VIII 
(launched Dec. 13, 1967) orbiting sun. Short time later Gen. Azcarrago 
sent first signal under Spanish control. Dr. Paine said, "Spanish de- 
termination to participate in this exciting 20th Century form of ex- 
ploration reminds us that five centuries ago Columbus' great voyage 
of exploration was carried out under the flag of Spain." ( NASA Release 
69-93) 

• Washington Post published letter from John M. Raymond, Jr., of Wash- 

ington, D.C., which praised decision of Florida Legislature to ask for 
return of original name "Canaveral" to Cape Kennedy [see June 6]. 

180 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 14 

"It is for us today a thrilling thought that men will leap to the moon 
from a cape discovered by Spanish adventurers early in the 16th 
century — a cape with one of the very earliest American place names 
to be retained to the present day. Or almost to the present day. Let the 
NASA center bear the name Kennedy. It is an appropriate tribute to the 
man who set us on the course to the moon. But let us restore to the 
cape the proud name it carried for 400 years." (W Post, 6/14/69, A24) 

• Washington Post commented on DOD's cancellation of MOL program: 

"While few tears . . . will be shed for mol, the process by which it 
fell from grace deserves scrutiny. Many of the suggestions for taming 
the defense budget have posited some kind of non-Pentagon review 
mechanism, either inside or outside government. Yet mol lost its place 
not through such a review but through intense general pressure, which 
became focused inside the Pentagon upon this particular item. The 
choice of which project to save, which to sacrifice, was made by the 
military on the basis of an obscure bureaucratic struggle with high 
Darwinian overtones. Like the brontosaurus, MOL came upon the 
tougher conditions of a new environment and was found unfit to sur- 
vive. This may be an effective way to exercise a measure of occasional 
control over a swollen defense budget, but it is a crude way and one 
not at all guaranteed to leave the right elements intact. Both the spend- 
ers and the critics ought to keep looking for a more refined and selec- 
tive approach." (W Post, 6/14/69, A24) 
June 15: Cosmos CCLXXXVI was successfully launched by U.S.S.R. from 
Plesetsk. Orbital parameters: apogee, 322 km (200.1 mi) ; perigee, 
197 km ( 122.4 mi) ; period, 89.7 min; and inclination, 65.4°. Satellite 
reentered June 23. (gsfc SSR, 6/15/69; 6/30/69; SBD, 6/17/69, 
205; Reuters, W Post, 6/16/69, A16) 

• LT.S.S.R. was watching U.S. missile debate "with keen interest but with- 

out any sign of serious concern," said Bernard Gwertzman in New 
York Times. Moscow diplomats were pessimistic about chances of U.S.— 
U.S.S.R. disarmament agreement being reached within three years, 
which meant LT.S.S.R. "must go ahead with new systems." Even pos- 
sibility of eventual agreement on slowdown in arms spending was 
clouded by emergence of Communist China as possible missile threat 
to U.S. and U.S.S.R. (NYT, 6/15/69, E3) 

• London Sunday Times article by Francis James said Communist China 

would soon test nuclear missile with 6,000-mi range that could afford 
second-strike nuclear capability in 1970s. ( W Post, 6/16/69, A14) 

• Current Book-of-the-Month Club selection, The Andromeda Strain by 

Michael Crichton, would "hardly gladden the hearts" of those at NASA, 
said Walter Sullivan in New York Times. It dramatized dangers of 
back contamination that had "suddenly become a subject of sharp 
debate on the eve of the Apollo 11 mission to the moon." {NYT, 
6/15/69, E8) 

• New York Times said Dr. Carlos Varsavsky, Director of Argentine Radio 

Astronomy Institute at La Plata, and 23 team members engaged in 
international research in radioastronomy faced dismissal for joining 
general strike May 10 in defiance of Argentine government. They had 
received notifications of termination of appointment. [NYT, 6/15/69, 
24) 
June 15—16: Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong successfully completed four simu- 

181 



June 15-16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

lated lunar landings in third lunar landing training vehicle (lltv) at 
Ellington afb, Tex. Armstrong piloted lltv to 100- and 300-ft alti- 
tude and practiced touchdown maneuvers in preparation for lunar 
landing during Apollo 11 mission, to be launched July 16. Armstrong 
told newsmen lltv did "excellent job in simulating the landing charac- 
teristics of the lunar module." Flights were first for Armstrong since 
crash of second lltv Dec. 8, 1968. First lltv, piloted by Armstrong, 
had crashed May 6, 1968. (upi, NYT, 6/16/69, 1; msc Release 69-49; 
W Star, 6/17/69, A5) 

June 16: Apollo 11 preparations were proceeding well toward launch to moon 
at 9:32 am edt July 16, Apollo Mission Director George H. Hage told 
Washington, D.C., press conference. Hypergolic propellant loading 
would begin June 18, wet phase of countdown demonstration test 
(cddt) would begin July 1, and crew participation in cddt without 
propellants would begin July 2. 

After landing on moon astronauts would descend ladder to lunar 
surface. When Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong reached second rung of 
ladder, he would pull D-ring to activate camera for TV coverage of 
descent to lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., would descend 
about 15 min after Armstrong. Entire 2V2-hr period during which 
astronauts explored lunar surface, set up experiments, and collected 
lunar samples within 100 ft of landing site would be telecast live to 

V TV viewers on earth. (Transcript) 

• President Nixon sent message to Congress urging approval of 5-million, 

10-yr program for expanding planning effort and construction and 
improvement of airports. He called for increased taxes on users to fund 
major part. Levies would include increase from 5% to 8% in tax on 
domestic flight tickets; new $3 tax on tickets for international flights 
originating in U.S.; new 5% tax on air freight waybills; and increase 
from two to nine cents per gallon on fuels used by general aviation. 
(PD, 6/23/69, 861-5) 

• First stage of Saturn V (SA— 508) launch vehicle, to be used on Apollo 

13, reached KSC. Second stage, scheduled to leave mtf June 25, would 
reach KSC June 30. Third stage had arrived at KSC June 13. Instrument 
unit would be flown from mtf to KSC July 7. I msfc Release 69-148) 

• In Physical Review Letters, Univ. of Maryland physicist Dr. Joseph 

Weber described detection. of gravity waves from unknown source but 
in two places simultaneously. Coincidences were observed on gravita- 
tional-radiation detectors over 1,000-km base line at Argonne National 
Laboratory and at Univ. of Maryland. Probability that coincidences 
were accidental was "incredibly small." NSF-supported study provided 
first real evidence of existence of gravity waves postulated by Prof. 
Albert Einstein more than 50 yrs ago. (Physical Review Letters, 
6/16/69, 1320-24; Lannan, W Star, 6/15/69, A25) 
June 17: Apollo Program Director, l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf), gave 
go-ahead to Apollo 11 lunar landing mission for launch July 16. Nine- 
hour flight readiness review had revealed only one major problem — 
in guidance system. "Although this problem is not completely resolved 
at this time," Gen. Phillips said, "I am confident this will not become 
a constraint to the July launch." (AP, W Star, 6/18/69, Al) 

• Dr. Arthur Rudolph, former Saturn V Program Manager at msfc, was 

honored by W. Randolph Lovelace II Award at American Astronautical 

182 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 17 

Society banquet in Denver, Colo. Award was presented for his sus- 
tained contribution to space travel in directing Saturn V launch 
vehicle program 1963 through 1968. It was accepted for Dr. Rudolph 
by Dr. Helmut G. Krause of MSFC. (Release 69-144) 

• Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, discussed need 

for improved manned bomber at joint national meeting of American 
Astronautical Society and Operations Research Society of America, in 
Denver, Colo.: "Those who criticize the bomber as an obsolete system 
in the missile age are often the same people who refer to our alleged 
4-to-l superiority over the Soviets in individually targeted warheads." 
Ratio would be "nearly 1-to-l, with total payload running heavily 
against us, if it were not for our bomber force with its multiple 
weapons on each aircraft. If our bombers are to continue to provide 
deterrence, they must be able to survive an attack and then penetrate 
the ever-improving Soviet defenses. The B-52 is still a good aircraft, 
but the prototype was flying in 1952 and the latest models were pro- 
duced in 1962. An advanced bomber will take advantage of the many 
improvements that have been made in airframe and engine design. It 
would have short take-off and landing capability needed for dispersal 
and payload, structure, and speed necessary for penetration." 

In security terms, space age presented dangers, but also afforded 
opportunities for increasing strategic stability. "Each generation of 
space vehicles will provide additional improvements in our ability to 
monitor enemy activities. We are now working on a satellite early 
warning system that would detect missiles as they are launched from 
land or sea. With the aid of such a warning system a dispersed bomber 
force would be able to take off from its bases before the impact of 
enemy weapons, even if the time of flight of the latter were greatly 
reduced." (Text) 

• Australian marathon runner Bill Emmerton left Houston, Tex., on 

1,034-mi jog to Cape Kennedy, Fla., where he would watch Apollo 11 
launch. He would travel on foot approximately 40 mi per day, arriving 
morning of July 16. Purpose of run was to publicize benefits of physi- 
cal conditioning, pay tribute to fitness of lunar crew, and commemorate 
Apollo 11 flight. (Spaceland News, 6/69, 11; PMR Release 916-69) 

• Sen. Edward W. Brooke (R-Mass.), for 37 cosponsors, introduced on 

Senate floor S.R. 211, "sense of the Senate" resolution urging President 
Nixon to propose to U.S.S.R. immediate suspension by U.S. and 
U.S.S.R. of flight test of multiple missile warheads and strongly sup- 
porting prompt negotiations with U.S.S.R. on weapon issues. (CR, 
6/17/69, S6538) 
June 18: NASA successfully deployed and recovered 40-ft-dia parachute in 
final Project shape (Supersonic High Altitude Parachute Experiment) 
test to evaluate possible use of parachute for aerodynamic deceleration 
for soft landings on planets with thin atmospheres. Parachute was 
ejected from five-foot-long canister carried to 33-mi altitude and 1,800 
mph (mach 2.7) by three-stage rocket. Previous tests had been con- 
ducted Oct. 23 and Dec. 11, 1968. (nasa Release 69-95) 

• USAF announced that data from preliminary investigation of effect of SST 

wing shape in creating sonic boom indicated that varying shape to 
reduce pressure field beneath wing might decrease wing's flight effi- 
ciency. Tests had been completed at Arnold Engineering Development 

183 



June 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Center in Tullahoma, Tenn. Tests also had been made to determine 
lift-to-drag characteristics of wing shapes upon which aircraft range 
and efficiency were dependent, (afsc Release 100.69) 
June 19: NASA's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by NASA test pilot John 
A. Manke, successfully completed 21st flight after air-launch from B— 52 
aircraft at 45,000-ft altitude west of Rosamond, Calif. Objectives were 
to obtain stability, control, and performance data at speeds up to 
mach 1.35. (nasa Proj Off) 

• House Committee on Appropriations favorably reported H.R. 12307, 

Independent Offices and hud appropriations bill, which provided 
$3,696 billion for NASA — $63,544 million below original budget, 
$18,544 million below revised budget, $298,290 million below 1969 
appropriation, and $269,394 million below total authorizations ap- 
proved by House. Bill provided $3 billion for NASA R&D, $53,233 mil- 
lion for construction of facilities, and $643,750 million for research 
and program management. With unobligated carryover from 1969 of 
$117,473 million, total $3,117 billion would be available for obligation 
in 1970. 

H.R. 12307 also provided $418 million for nsf— $79 million below 
amount originally budgeted but $18 million above FY 1969 appro- 
priation. It provided $500,000 for nasc, $24,000 below budget estimate. 
(Text; Committee Rpt 91-316) 

• Senate confirmed nomination of Apollo 8 Astronaut William A. Anders 

as Executive Secretary of National Aeronautics and Space Council. 
(CR, 6/19/69, S6736) 

• President Nixon announced intention to nominate Dr. William D. Mc- 

Elroy, Chairman of Johns Hopkins Univ. Dept. of Biology, as Director 
of National Science Foundation. Dr. McElroy would replace Leland J. 
Haworth, whose six-year term had expired. He was director of Mc- 
Collum-Pratt Institute at Johns Hopkins, former member of President's 
Science Advisory Committee, and member of nas, aaas, American 
Chemical Society, and American Society of Biological Chemists. {PD, 
6/23/69, 877) 

• Library of Congress announced acquisition of more than 500 kinescope 

films of "Meet the Press" TV series covering 1949-65, presented by 
producer and panel moderator Lawrence E. Spivak on behalf of NBC 
News. Collection included interviews with aviation expert Maj. Alex- 
ander de Seversky; MSFC Director, Dr. Wernher von Braun; atomic 
energy expert Dr. Vannevar Bush; NASA pioneers Dr. T. Keith Glennan 
and Dr. Hugh L. Dryden; former NASA Administrator James E. Webb; 
AEC Chairman, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg; Sen. Thomas J. Dodd (D- 
Conn.) ; and members of Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences. (LC Info Bull, 6/19/69, 1; LC Motion Picture Dept) 
June 20: Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR 
with VAM-20 booster carried Princeton Univ. observatory payload to 
112.5-mi (181-km) altitude to study uv radiation of hot stars in con- 
stellation Scorpius with 1 A and 0.3 A resolution. Rocket and instru- 
ments functioned satisfactorily, but camera and stabilization were 
completely demolished because of fall after parachute failed, (nasa 
Rpt srl) 

• "There is a good chance there is some form of life on Mars," Los Angeles 

Herald-Examiner quoted Dr. William H. Pickering, J PL Director, as 

184 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 20 

saying in interview. "The planet has a thin atmosphere, the climate is 
tough but not completely unreasonable." Changes of colors on Mars 
could be vegetation. Mars' seasons were like earth's but twice as long. 
Its days were same length as earth's. (Smith, LA Her-Exam, 6/19/69) 

• S— II stage for ninth Saturn V launch vehicle was successfully test-fired 

at mtf for almost six minutes. All test objectives were met. (Marshall 
Star, 6/25/69, 2) 

• MSFC announced appointment of Saverio F. Morea, former manager of 

F— 1 and J— 2 engine projects, as manager of new lunar roving vehicle 
project. Small manned vehicle would weigh 400 lbs and would be 
carried on board LM in 1971 to provide lunar surface transportation 
for two astronauts, hand tools, lunar samples, and other equipment. 
(msfc Release 69-150) 

June 21-26: NASA successfully launched 174-lb Explorer XLl Iimp-g) 
Interplanetary Monitoring Platform from WTR by Thrust-Augmented 
Improved Thor-Delta (DSV— 3E) booster at 1:48 am pdt during major 
electric power failure. Spacecraft entered nearly polar orbit with 
110,722.5-mi 1 178,191-km) apogee, 213. 1-mi (343-km) perigee, 4,906- 
min period, and 87° inclination. Primary objectives were to place 
spacecraft into orbit with apogee of at least 92,000 mi ( 148,028 km I 
and to obtain for 90 days adequate measurements from plasma and 
energetic particle experiments for continuation and extension of studies 
of environment within and beyond earth's magnetosphere during 
period of high solar activity. Solar proton data would be transmitted 
to msc as needed to support Apollo missions. Explorer XLl carried 12 
experiments — greatest number ever carried by imp spacecraft — pro- 
vided by universities, NASA centers, and industry to measure cosmic 
rays, solar plasmas, and magnetic fields in interplanetary space. 

Explorer XLl was seventh in series of 10 IMP spacecraft planned by 
nasa. Two of six previously orbited satellites — Explorer XXXIII 
(imp-d), launched July 1, 1966, and Explorer XXXV (imp-e), 
launched July 19, 1967 — were still providing scientific data, imp pro- 
gram was managed by GSFC under OSSA direction, (nasa Proj Off; 
nasa Release 69^89) 

June 21: Cancellation of MOL program had left USAF with $1 billion in 
space hardware and 14 highly trained astronauts, Ralph Dighton of 
Associated Press wrote. Most of $1 billion already spent on program 
had been for undisclosed number of Titan IIIM boosters and satellites 
built or on order. USAF had said launch facilities would be finished on 
schedule in September because they would have to be paid for anyway. 
They could be used for unmanned spacecraft. The $1.3-million MOL 
administration building at Vandenberg afb, Calif., and $1.6-million 
medical and training structure could be adapted for office space. MOL 
astronauts had been offered to NASA but no decision had yet been 
reached. Aerospace workers in seven firms had been hit by MOL can- 
cellation, with McDonnell Douglas Corp. most affected. It had 7,200 
employees on project. (AP, W Star, 6/21/69, A5) 

• Soviet academician Anatoly A. Blagonravov said in Moscow interview: 

"Exploration of moon and planets is a most noble task and our gen- 
eration can rightly be proud it has opened the space era. Any scien- 
tific achievement accomplished in any country in the long run becomes 
an achievement of world science. Space efforts of the United States and 

185 



June 21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

the USSR sometimes complement one another." (upi, P Bull, 6/22/69) 

• NASA was combining Apollo 11 spectacular with "bit of spectacular lobby- 

ing," Washington Evening Star said. It had invited all 533 members 
of House and Senate to fly at NASA's expense to witness Apollo 11 
launch from Cape Kennedy. Total bill could come to nearly $28,000. 
(W Star, 6/21/69, A3) 
June 22: NASA had raised limit on amount of samples Apollo 11 crew could 
bring back from moon, Washington Post writer Thomas O'Toole re- 
ported in Los Angeles Times. Instead of 50 lbs of samples originally set 
as maximum, astronauts would be permitted to collect as much as they 
could carry — probably up to about 100 lbs. (LA Times, 6/22/69) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, 

with VAM— 20 booster carried Univ. of California at Berkeley payload 
to 102.3-mi (164.6-km) altitude. Objective was to search sky for 
diffuse and point x-ray sources in Yg- to 10-kev range and for possible 
existence of soft x-ray galactic corona and x-ray emission from Magel- 
lenic clouds. Rocket — first live Aerobee 150 launched from rail 
launcher — functioned satisfactorily. One source counter failed after 
one-third of flight; other counter operated perfectly, but door failed to 
open. Objective was not achieved, but some data on x-ray sources were 
obtained, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• William Hines in Washington Sunday Star said June 10 cancellation of 

usaf mol program would eliminate "wasteful, ill-conceived and costly 
project set in motion four years ago principally to still the clamoring 
of aerospace lobbyists for 'military presence in space,' whatever that 
might mean." Longer term effect would be "inevitable blurring of a 
meaningless and arbitrary — but still restrictive — line separating U.S. 
civilian and military space activities." (W Star, 6/22/69, C4) 

June 23: New York Times interview of m/g Jewell C. Maxwell (usaf), 
Director of Supersonic Transport Development, reflected optimism 
about SSt's future despite fact program had slipped "two quarters" 
while Administration deliberated allocation of funds for prototype con- 
struction. Gen. Maxwell said program currently was "marking time" 
at cost of $11 million monthly and had $90 million to $100 million left, 
but he had no doubts U.S. would push ahead with construction. Gen. 
Maxwell was leaving project to become Commander of Armament De- 
velopment and Test Center at Eglin afb, Fla. (Phelps, NYT, 6/23/69, 
62) 

June 24: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXVII from Baikonur into orbit 
with 254-km (157.8-mi) apogee, 186-km (115.6-mi) perigee, 88.9-min 
period, and 51.7° inclination. Satellite reentered July 2. (gsfc SSR, 
6/30/69; 7/15/69; SBD, 6/25/69, 244; W Star, 6/24/69, Al) 

• House passed by vote of 388 to 6 H.R. 12307, FY 1970 Independent 

Offices and hud appropriations bill which provided NASA $3 billion 
for R&D, $53,233 million for new facilities, and $643,750 million for 
research and program management — to total $3,696 billion. Bill cut 
NSF budget request by $80 million to total $418 million. (Text; CR, 
6/24/69, H5154-5; W Post, 6/27/69, A4) 

• Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences ordered favorably 

reported with amendment in form of substitute bill H.R. 11271, FY 
1970 NASA authorization of $3,716 billion. Committee recommended 
$250,851 million reduction from amount authorized by House [see 

186 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 24 

June 10], adjusting total to President's revised budget— $45 million 
less than authorization requested in his original budget. Recommended 
authorization would provide S3. 020 billion for R&D, $58.2 million for 
construction of facilities, and $637.4 million for research and program 
management. Recommendation was lowest made by Committee since 
1962— $435 million less than its FY 1969 recommendation. {CR, 
6/24/69, D543; Committee Rpt 91-282) 

• With Apollo 11 launch "minus-23 days" MSFC Director, Dr. Wernher von 

Braun, visited 3,000-yr-old temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece. After 
consultation with oracle, Dr. von Braun said, "I am convinced that we 
will succeed because no other space operation was ever so well pre- 
pared in advance." Oracle, he said, "was ambiguous, as usual." (Time, 
7/4/69, 35; AP, W Post, 6/25/69) 

• MSFC issued RFPs on eight-month study of integration of Centaur and 

Saturn S— IVB stages for possible use for future unmanned high- 
velocity missions. Proposals for study, which would include six launch 
vehicle configurations, were due July 10. (msfc Release 69—153) 

• Willy Ley, space author and rocket expert, died at age 62, apparently 

from a heart attack. Ley — also planning consultant to NASA — had been 
one of founders of German Rocket Society, fellow of British Inter- 
planetary Society, and member of American Institute of Aeronautical 
Science. Among his last published books were Rockets, Missiles and 
Men in Space and Watchers of the Skies. ( AP, W Star, 6/25/69, B5; 
NYT, 6/25/69, 41) 
June 25: NASA published Lunar Orbiter I Preliminary Results (SP— 197), 
including assessment of lunar terrain and results of secondary experi- 
ments in selenodesy, micrometeoroids, and radiation. Launched Aug. 
10, 1966, spacecraft had been first U.S. vehicle to orbit moon, first to 
obtain detailed photographic coverage of near and far sides of moon, 
and first to photograph earth from moon's vicinity. Photos showed 
fractured and faulted lunar crust with mass-wasting where large boul- 
ders had tumbled into craters. Moon appeared to have been highly 
dynamic and affected by volcanic activity, but despite overall rough- 
ness, some photos showed regions of relative smoothness. Surface of 
far side appeared much rougher than near side with higher terra-to- 
mare ratio. Meteoroid sensors registered no impacts during mission, 
indicating meteor activity near moon was no greater than that near 
earth. Radiation dose rate during transit to moon corresponded to that 
produced by galactic cosmic rays, but dose rates as high as 70 mrad 
per hr and 7 rad per hr were experienced during solar flares Aug. 26 
and Sept. 2, 1966. (Text) 

• U.S. and Spain exchanged notes in Madrid confirming 10-yr extension — 

to Jan. 29, 1984 — of 1964 agreement establishing NASA space tracking 
and acquisition facility near Madrid. Since June 1965, facility had 
supported all Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter flights to moon, four Mar- 
iner flights to Mars and Venus, four Pioneer interplanetary probes, and 
all manned Apollo flights. It would support Apollo 11 and passage of 
Mariners VI and VII near Mars during summer; 210-ft-dia parabolic 
antenna for tracking and communication in interplanetary space would 
be built during next three years. (NASA Release 69—97) 

• NASA announced appointment of Astronaut James A. McDivitt as Man- 

ager for Lunar Landing Operations in Msc's Apollo Spacecraft Program 

187 



June 25 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Office. McDivitt, who would remain in USAF, would be responsible for 
planning lunar landing missions subsequent to first landing and would 
no longer be candidate for space flight crew assignments, (nasa Re- 
lease 69-96) 

• At Salzburg news conference preceding celebration of his 75th birthday, 

German rocketry pioneer Prof. Hermann Oberth proposed that man 
extract usable raw materials from moon and store them suspended in 
gravity-free zone between moon and earth. Materials could then be 
retrieved from area and brought to earth. He suggested erection of 
giant concave "space mirrors" to gather celestial light and reflect it on 
earth as heat to melt polar caps and improve earth's climate. He pre- 
dicted development of electrically propelled spacecraft and electromag- 
netic catapults to launch spacecraft without consuming fuel. During 
celebration, sponsored by Hermann Oberth Society of Nuremberg, Dr. 
Wernher von Braun, msfc Director, said Oberth's ideas on rocketry 
published in 1923 remained valid to date. (NYT, 6/29/69, 3) 

• faa announced it had proposed rule establishing "area navigation routes" 

to relieve air congestion. Multiple flight paths had been made possible 
by increasing availability of computerized airborne navigation equip- 
ment, (faa Release 69-70) 
June 26: Javelin sounding rocket launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, 
carried Southwest Center for Advanced Studies experiment to 481.6-mi 
(775-km) altitude to study ionosphere-protonosphere transition region 
by measuring vertical profiles of ionospheric parameters. Rocket and 
instruments functioned satisfactorily. Excellent data on electron tem- 
perature, ion temperature, and ion composition were obtained. (NASA 
Rpt srl) 

• m/g Edmund F. O'Connor, Director of Program Management at msfc, 

would return to duty with USAF after Apollo 11 mission, msfc Deputy 
Director, Technical, Dr. Eberhard F. M. Rees, announced. Maj. O'Con- 
nor would be replaced by Lee B. James, Manager of Saturn Program 
Office, (msfc Release 69-155) 

• jpl Director, Dr. William H. Pickering, announced appointment of Dr. 

Clarence R. Gates as manager of JPl's newly established Mission 
Analysis Div. New division would incorporate Systems Analysis section, 
Systems Analysis Research section, and JPL Navigation Program which 
Dr. Gates had headed since 1968. (jpl Release 524) 

• Saturn V 1st stage (S-IC-11) caught on fire in test stand at Mississippi 

Test Facility during acceptance test, scheduled to last 125 sees. Test 
was terminated automatically after 96 sees when temperature on No. 3 
engine turbopump exceeded limit. Fire was extinguished by fire-control 
system built into test stand after burning for over half hour, (msfc 
Release 69-156) 

• NAS and nae formed joint committee chaired by Gen. Bernard A. 

Schriever (usaf, Ret.) to advise hud on scientific and technical aspects 
of "Operation Breakthrough" — HUD program to develop low-cost, 
mass-produced housing — and to encourage broad industrial and pro- 
fessional participation in program, (nas-nrc-nae News Rpt, 8-9/69, 
1; NAS pio) 

• Sealab III medical officer Cdr. Paul G. Linweaver said extreme cold — 

result of breathing helium gas under pressure — was major contributor 

188 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 June 26 

to Feb. 17 death of Aquanaut Berry L. Cannon in usn's Man-in-the-Sea 
project. Autopsy reports had indicated Cannon had been asphyxiated 
by carbon dioxide from faulty breathing apparatus. Linweaver said 
Cannon was so cold he did not know anything was wrong with 
apparatus. (AP, NYT, 6/27/69, 17) 
June 27: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXVIII into orbit with 270-km 
(167.7-mi) apogee, 199-km (123.7-mi) perigee, 89.2-min period, and 
51.7° inclination. Satellite reentered July 5. (gsfc SSR, 6/30/69; 
7/15/69) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from NASA Wallops Sta- 

tion carried Univ. of Colorado experiment to 65.9-mi (106-km) alti- 
tude to measure density of hydroxyl radical between 43.5- and 62.1-mi 
(70- and 100-km) altitudes, using scanning uv monochromater. Rocket 
and instruments performed satisfactorily and all experimental objec- 
tives were achieved, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• In Science, JPL scientist Dr. Leonard D. Jaffe said despite successful 

landing of seven unmanned spacecraft on moon controversy over den- 
sity of lunar surface material continued. Further analysis of data 
showed relation of density of lunar surface layer to depth was best 
determined from spacecraft measurements of bearing capacity as func- 
tion of depth. Comparison of these values with laboratory measure- 
ments of bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a 
function of percentage of solid indicated bulk density at lunar surface 
was approximately 1.1 gr per cc at depth of 5 cm. (Science, 6/27/69, 
1514-6) 

• NASA announced selection of Collins Radio Co. to provide two 210-ft 

space communications antennas and supporting concrete pedestals for 
nasa Deep Space Network stations near Canberra, Australia, and 
Madrid, Spain, (nasa Release 69-98) 

• U.S., U.S.S.R., and 26 other nations agreed during Geneva meeting of 

subcommittee of Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space that inter- 
national law, rather than national law, should determine liability for 
damage caused by spacecraft. Question of whether to fix ceiling on 
damage claims remained unanswered. (Reuters, NYT, 6/29/69, 2) 

• Philip M. Boffey in Science said nomination by President Nixon of 

William D. McElroy to head nsf [see June 19] "was particularly in- 
teresting because it seemed to carry out a pledge made by Nixon on 
28 April that politics would play no part in selection of a new NSF 
director." Choice had been "greeted with enthusiastic praise and a sign 
of relief by leaders of the scientific community," since it had been 
difficult to find scientist willing to take the $42,500-a-year post. 
(Science, 6/27/69, 1504-6) 

• aec announced it had implanted two compact, 10-w, nuclear-power gen- 

erators in Pacific Ocean off San Clemente Island, Calif., in depths of 
60 and 130 ft to subject devices to marine growth in one- to two-year 
test to determine their long-term behavior in ocean environment. Deep- 
water testing would follow in AEC program to develop second genera- 
tion of highly reliable, long-endurance, economic, radioisotope-power 
source for terrestrial and marine applications, (aec Release M— 152) 
June 28: nasa's Biosatellite III ( Biosatellite-D ) primate experiment was 
successfully launched from ETR at 11:16 pm edt by two-stage, Long- 

189 



June 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Tank, Thrust- Augmented Thor-Delta (DSV-3N) booster into orbit 
with 245.1 -mi (394.4-km) apogee, 224.4-mi (361.1 -km) perigee, 92.1- 
min period, and 33.6° inclination. 

The 1,535-lb spacecraft carried 15-lb male pigtail monkey named 
Bonny in two-gas atmosphere similar to earths (20% oxygen and 
80% nitrogen)- — being used for first time — with sea-level pressure 
(14.7 psi) and 75°F temperature. Primary objective was to provide 
suitable physiological environment for instrumented monkey and 
measure functioning of central nervous system or cardiovascular and 
metabolic systems. Secondary objective was to evaluate monkey's per- 
formance in orbit. Monkey was carefully instrumented so that scientists 
could monitor wave patterns from 10 brain areas for first detailed 
studies of brain activity in orbit ever made. Scientists would also 
record heart action and respiration, monitor circulatory and urinary 
systems, and observe performance on two behavioral tasks — short-term 
memory and eye-hand coordination. Some 80% of the experimental 
data would be radioed to earth by high-speed telemetry at rate of 
22,400 bps 18—26 times per day. Spacecraft would be retrieved in mid- 
air or off ocean surface after reentry. Monkey would be flown to 
Hawaii laboratories, where scientists would examine him for changes 
in bone density, muscle tone, blood cell mass, fluid balance, and repro- 
ductive system. [See July 7—8.] 

Biosatellite III was third and last spacecraft in Biosatellite series. 
Biosatellite I (launched Dec. 14, 1966) had failed to deorbit on com- 
mand after three days in orbit because of retrorocket system failure 
and had not been recovered. Biosatellite II, successfully launched Sept. 
7, 1967, and recovered Sept. 9, 1967, had demonstrated that plants 
required gravity to maintain orientation and showed effect of radiation 
on living organisms. Biosatellite project was managed by arc under 
ossa direction, (nasa Proj Off; NASA Release 69-79) 

• U.K.'s three-stage Black Arrow booster exploded 50 sees after launch 

from Woomera Rocket Range during first full-scale test, (upi, W Star, 
6/28/69, A3) 

• White House announced President Nixon would observe Apollo 11 

splashdown and recovery aboard U.S.S. Hornet and proceed to Philip- 
pines, Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Pakistan. He would meet with 
Asian leaders "to reemphasize his longstanding concern with peace and 
progress in Asia." Announcement was released in New York City. 
I PD, 7/7/69, 926) 
June 29: aec's SNAP— 3A nuclear generator, launched on board usn's 
Transit IV— A navigational satellite June 29, 1961, completed eight 
years in orbit — three years longer than five-year design lifetime — after 
circling earth 40,530 times and traveling more than 1 billion mi. First 
nuclear generator to operate in space, 5-in-dia, S^-in-high SNAP— 3A 
converted heat given off by plutonium directly into 2.7 w of electricity. 
Five snap (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) generators had been 
launched to date, including two on NASA's Nimbus III (launched April 
14). Atomic-fueled generator would be placed on lunar surface by 
Apollo 12 astronauts to power instrument package, (aec Release 
M-150) 

• New York Times editorial said: "The Administration's action in ordering 

production started on mirv multiple warhead missiles before opening 

190 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1%9 June 29 

negotiations for a moratorium with Moscow touches the most sensitive 
point in the projected missile-curb talks. Equally grave is the manner 
in which the Air Force quietly awarded the $88-million contract to 
General Electric, on the day President Nixon spoke favorably of propo- 
sals for a Soviet-American moratorium on mirv flight testing to head 
off production and deployment of the weapon by either side. Given this 
situation, the country is entitled to an explanation from the President 
of his intentions in the Soviet-American missile-control talks, which he 
has personally held up for more than seven months." \NYT, 6/29/69, 
10) 
June 30: At small White House dinner, Apollo 10 Astronauts Thomas P. 
Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan presented President 
Nixon and Vice President Agnew with four wrinkled flags which had 
been carried aboard spacecraft during mission. Stafford told President, 
". . . these flags have been to the moon and 31 times around it, so 
we thought you'd like to have them just the way we brought them 
back. That's why we didn't press out the wrinkles when we had them 
framed." (Dean, W Star, 7/1/69, Dl) 

• Intelsat I I Early Bird) comsat, which had been retired in orbit during 

December 1968, had been reactivated and was working with Intelsat-II 
F—3 to provide communications between North America, Europe, and 
Latin America, ComSatCorp announced. Reactivation would compen- 
sate for failure of Intelsat-Ill F—2, which malfunctioned when mechan- 
ically despun antenna locked. (ComSatCorp Release 69—37) 

• Univ. of Chicago scientist Anthony Turkevich had found by analysis of 

data from three Surveyor spacecraft that rocks on lunar surface con- 
tained sufficient oxygen to maintain life without supplemental sources, 
upi reported. In interview Turkevich had said that, with nuclear or 
solar power sources, oxygen extraction from moon might cost less than 
shipping oxygen supplies to moon from earth. Also, there was little 
danger that moon rocks and dust carried into LM by returning astro- 
nauts would create explosion hazard because of oxygen lack. He had 
been unable to determine whether moon had sufficient hydrogen to 
allow chemical creation of water by future colonists or valuable min- 
erals in commercially exploitable quantities and had found no evidence 
of fossil fuel supplies. (W Star, 6/30/69, A5) 

• usaf announced award of $718,009 increment to $1,177,125 cost-plus- 

incentive contract with Avco Corp. for design, fabrication, test, and 
support through orbital infancy of satellite for investigation of funda- 
mental processes of magnetic storms, (dod Release 554—69) 

• l/g Ira C. Eaker (usaf, Ret.) criticized mol cancellation in Detroit News: 

Although 80% of U.S. space budget had been devoted to peaceful pur- 
poses in space, "it has been recognized generally that prudence dic- 
tated that we should ultimately possess the capability of intercepting, 
inspecting and, if need be, destroying hostile weapons in space. . . . 
Cancellation of the MOL project concedes to the Russians control of 
space. After about 1972 the Russians will have the capability of over- 
hauling and destroying our reconnaissance satellites, and they will also 
be capable of placing weapons in space which we can neither intercept, 
identify nor disarm." (Detroit News, 6/30/69) 

• In Aviation Week Robert Hotz wrote: "There need be no tears shed over 

the passing of the U.S. Air Force manned orbiting laboratory ( mol I ." 

191 



Jum. 30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Program "has been so stretched out by funding cuts and low keyed 
management that its technology has become obsolete and its costs 
astronomical. It is a classic example of what happens to a major 
technical development program that is not permitted to pursue its goals 
at the maximum pace possible. In contrast, the icbm development and 
Apollo lunar landing programs have proved what can be achieved in 
a relatively short period at relatively economical funding." (Av Wk, 
G/30/69) 
During June: nasa's plans for two three-planet Grand Tours — 8- to 11-yr 
missions to outer planets — were described by JPL scientist James E. 
Long in Astronautics and Aeronautics. Envisioning 1,200-lb spacecraft 
launched by Titan-Centaur, Long described missions that had been 
identified and analyzed: four-planet missions, including Jupiter, Sat- 
urn, Uranus, and Neptune, from 1976 to 1979 (earth-launch dates), 
with 1977 and 1978 giving best combination of closest-approach alti- 
tude, flight time, and launch energy; three-planet missions to Jupiter, 
Saturn, and Pluto from 1976 to 1979, with 1977 and 1978 preferred; 
and three-planet missions to Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune from 1977 
to 1980. Long said, "The fortuitous concurrence of mission technology 
and experience suitable for the challenges of missions to the outer 
planets, with a unique outer-planet alignment in the 1976—80 period, 
should make exploration of these planets, as a class, a high-priority 
candidate for program support." {A&A, 6/69, 32—47; NASA Release 
69-84) 

• Laser range-finding equipment was installed at afcrl's Lunar Laser 

Observatory near Tucson, Ariz. Constructed largely with NASA funding, 
Observatory was built specifically for lunar laser-ranging experiments. 
I oar Research Revieiv, 3-4/70, 31) 

• President Nixon's Space Task Group had established that less expensive 

space operations in future depended on nasa and usaf development of 
lower cost boosters, J. S. Butz, Jr., said in Air Force and Space Digest. 
Joint effort on booster selection would be made within understanding 
signed by Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, and Dr. Robert C. 
Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force. Two major complicating 
factors existed: "First NASA and the Air Force must overhaul their 
bureaucracies." Second was "requirement for a compromise between 
military and civil needs." While usaf needed vehicle which could be 
launched quickly in large numbers and carry sufficient fuel for ex- 
tensive space maneuvers, NASA wanted larger vehicle to carry more 
people and large cargo volume. More difficult would be choice of re- 
entry vehicle. Both NASA and usaf wanted winged configuration for 
operational flexibility and airliner-style landings, but development costs 
would be high. (AF/SD, 6/69, 79-81) 

• Kurt Stehling reviewed Space Age Management by former nasa Admin- 

istrator James E. Webb in aiaa Astronautics & Aeronautics: "Despite 
the bumpy course of NASA's history — technically, fiscally, and mana- 
gerially; despite Webb's motherhood ways, as reflected in this book; 
and particularly despite the Johnson Administration's retrenchment of 
the space program and our sudden awareness of the backstage noises 
in our society which have moved up front so discordantly (it would 
have taken a superhuman individual to have foreseen these) — if we 
see a manned lunar landing next month we will owe it in no small 

192 



ASTRON \l TICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During June 

measure to the managerial role played by James Webb and his asso- 
ciates. And in assessing the event, the historian will be forced to try to 
make sense of this book." \A&A, 6/69, 74) 

• Commentary in West Berlin's independent Tagesspiegel: "Some people 

take off for the moon while others try to learn to operate a farm 
tractor. Our culture will depend on mastering this schizophrenic situa- 
tion." (Atlas, 7/69, 16) 

• Aerospace Industries Assn. released 1969 Aerospace Facts and Figures. 

During 1968 industry sales reached $29.5 billion, up 8.1% over 1967, 
with civil transport aircraft accounting for major share. These sales 
were expected to decline in 1969 when current models were phased out 
before third-generation jet transports were delivered in substantial 
quantities. Total industry sales were expected to decline to $28.7 billion 
in 1969 but 1968 backlog for 60 major companies was $31 billion — 
approximately 2 1 /} times that in 1960. 

Overall space program expenditures during FY 1969 were estimated 
$6.3 billion — $4.1 billion for NASA, $2.1 billion for dod, $117 million 
for AEC, and $34 million for other agencies. Space expenditures de- 
clined approximately $300 million from 1967. Aerospace R&D, includ- 
ing NASA's, reached $8 billion. (Text) 

• NSF published Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Govern- 

ment, 1967 (NSF 69-26). Professional scientific and technical per- 
sonnel in Federal Government numbered 204,200 in October 1967— 
5 r /c increase over October 1966. Engineers, numbering 81,200, were 
largest of three major groups — scientists, engineers, and health pro- 
fessionals — comprising 40% of 1967 total. DOD continued as major 
Government employer, with 76,900 scientific and technical employees, 
of which 93 r r were engineers and scientists. (Text) 



193 



July 1969 



July I: Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman and family flew from New York 
for nine-day tour of U.S.S.R. Institute for Soviet-American Relations 
in Moscow had extended invitation through Soviet Embassy in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Itinerary included Moscow, Leningrad, Novosibirsk, and 
Crimea. (W Post, 7/1/69, A15; AP, W Star, 7/1/69, A4) 

• Preliminary investigation had revealed leak in small fuel line on Saturn 

V 1st stage (S-IC-II) No. 3 engine had caused June 26 fire, msfc 
announced. Board had been convened to conduct further investigations 
and recommend preventive measures. Stage's No. 3 and No. 5 engines 
would be replaced; other three engines received minor damage and 
would be repaired in place. Accident would not affect launch prepara- 
tions for Apollo 11 mission; inspection of Apollo 11 vehicle SA— 506 
had confirmed that its high-pressure fuel lines were in good condition. 
(msfc Release 69-156) 

• North American Rockwell Corp. consolidated its Rocketdyne Div. and 

Atomics International Div. into new Power Systems Divs. headed by 
Jay D. Wethe, Vice President of Aerospace and Systems Group, (nar 
Release N-14) 

• U.K. Defence Ministry said it had transferred its nuclear strike force 

from delta-wing bombers to Polaris submarines. Seven eventually 
would be brought into service. (Reuters, B Sun, 7/2/69, A2) 
July 2: Preliminary countdown demonstration test (cddt) for July 16 
Apollo 11 launch was successfully completed at ksc. Except for 3-hr 
18-min hold during which technicians repaired leaky fuel valve, 5Vi>- 
day test had run smoothly. (AP, B Sun, 7/3/69, A4) 

• Unofficial Communist sources said U.S.S.R. would launch Luna spacecraft 

July 10, which would attempt to scoop up lunar sample and return it 
to earth, Associated Press reported. Sources said launch would be third 
attempt to conduct successful mission; first had reportedly exploded on 
launch pad at Baikonur in early April, and second had exploded in 
flight June 14, when 2nd stage ignited. One source said Soviet space 
officials were "very disturbed over the success of the American Apollo 
program. Losing the moon race will be a terrible blow to them." 
(B Sun, 7/3/69, Al) 

• Cosmonauts Gherman S. Titov, Konstantin P. Feoktistov, and Georgy T. 

Beregovy were among Soviet officials who met Astronaut Frank Bor- 
man and family on arrival at Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport at start 
of nine-day U.S.S.R. visit. Asked if Soviet cosmonaut might visit U.S., 
Borman said, "I'm sure that will be discussed. Cooperation in space 
activities is an important aspect of the space program." Bormans break- 
fasted in Moscow and returned to airport for flight to Leningrad. 
Schedule called for visit to Zvezdny Gorodok — Star City — where cos- 
monauts lived and to space communications center in Crimea; nothing 

195 



July 2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

in program indicated visit to U.S.S.R. launching center at Baikonur in 
Kazakhstan. (AP, W Star, 7/2/69, A14) 

• Time-Life, Inc., would pay minimum of $400,000 for exclusive book 

rights of lunar landing story to the combine established by NASA astro- 
nauts in 1959, Don Kirkman said in Washington Daily News. Money 
would be split equally into 60 shares for 52 active astronauts and 
widows of 8 deceased. {W News, 7/2/69, 7) 

• NASA announced award to Bendix Field Engineering Corp. of $30 million, 

one-year, cost-plus-award-fee contract extension for operation and 
maintenance of major portion of Manned Space Flight Network. Exten- 
sion was third exercised under option and brought total funding to 
$139,215,832. (nasa Release 69-100) 
July 3: European Launcher Development Organization (eldo) attempt to 
place Italian eldo F-8 spacecraft into polar orbit from Woomera 
Rocket Range failed when West German 3rd stage of Europa booster 
malfunctioned. U.K. 1st stage and French 2nd stage performed satis- 
factorily. (SBD, 7/16/69, 14; AP, W Star, 7/3/69, A3; nasa Int Aff) 

• Apollo 11 booster, spacecraft, and Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael 

Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., completed final countdown rehearsal 
test. Astronauts achieved simulated liftoff at 9:32 am EDT — exact time 
of scheduled July 16 launch. Final countdown for manned lunar land- 
ing mission would begin July 10. (AP, B Sun, 7/4/69, A10) 

• Apollo 11 astronauts would leave three items on lunar surface to com- 

memorate landing, NASA announced. Silicon disc, li/o-in-dia, would 
carry statements by Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and 
Nixon; messages of goodwill from leaders of 73 countries; list of 
leaders of Congress and members of four congressional committees 
responsible for NASA legislation; and names of NASA's top management, 
past and present. Statements, messages, and names had been etched on 
disc by process used to make microminiature electronic circuits. Each 
message had been reduced 200 times, to barely visible dot. 

Three- by five-foot nylon American flag with tubing along top edge 
would be erected on eight-foot aluminum staff on airless moon. Two 
other U.S. flags and flags from 136 nations and 50 U.S. states would 
be carried to moon and returned to earth. Plaque left on LM descent 
stage would bear images of two hemispheres of earth and inscription 
"Here men from the planet earth first set foot upon the moon July 
1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." It would bear names 
of Apollo 11 crew — Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, 
Jr., and Michael Collins — and President Nixon, (nasa Releases 69-83E, 
69-83 F, 69-83H) 

• At Leningrad news conference during U.S.S.R. tour, Astronaut Frank 

Borman said he hoped U.S. and Soviet spacemen would fly together in 
joint mission by mid-1970s. (Reuters, W Post, 7/4/69, A3) 

• Editorial in Washington Post entitled "Our Man on the Moon" criticized 

White House decision to leave on moon plaque on Apollo 11 LM de- 
scent stage with signature of President Nixon: "The proposed plaque 
would state that 'we came in peace for all mankind.' That message, to- 
gether with the names of the three brave men who made the voyage 
would seem to us to be enough." Editorial erroneously cited April 1968 
article by NASA Historian Eugene M. Emme, "Historical Perspectives 
on Apollo," saying that nowhere did Mr. Nixon's name appear. Name 

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ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 3 

did appear with reference to post-Sputnik statements in October 1957 
and to promises of lunar landing by 1971 in 1960 election campaign. 
( W Post, 7/3/69, A14; Joum of Spacecraft and Rockets, 4/68, 
369-81) 

• Apollo 11 might signal end to KSC area's economic boom, Wall Street 

Journal said. NASA had announced slack in Apollo launchings and cut 
in KSC employment from 23,500 to 18,500 persons. Brevard County 
(site of KSC) housing construction had fallen some 40%, from 3,438 
units in 1967 to 2,080 in 1968, and was currently down another 40%. 
I Prugh, WSJ, 7/3/69, 28) 

• Message from President Nixon was read at opening of summer session of 

18-nation Disarmament Committee in Geneva: ". . . draft agreements 
have been submitted by the United States and by the Soviet Union to 
prevent an arms race on the seabeds. Although differences exist, it 
should not prove beyond our ability to find common ground so that a 
realistic agreement may be achieved that enhances the security of all 
countries. . . . Our goal should be to present a sound seabed arms con- 
trol measure to the 24th General Assembly of the United Nations." 
I PD, 7/7/69, 929-30 ) 

• At Paris press conference Sud-Aviation President Henri Ziegler denied 

reports that France was dropping Concorde supersonic transport proj- 
ect for economic reasons. Milan aerodynamic system developed for 
Mirage supersonic fighter-bomber was being tested on French proto- 
type. It consisted of two small nose wings which shortened takeoff and 
landing runs and retracted in flight to reduce resistance. (NYT, 
7/5/69, 28) 
July 4: NASA officials ordered technicians to repaint Saturn V 3rd stage 
(S— IVB) after they discovered old coating had begun to peel. Thermal 
paint would help protect super-cold hydrogen fuels from sun's heat. 
Repainting of stage, scheduled to boost manned Apollo 11 spacecraft 
toward moon July 16, would not affect launch date. ( AP, W Star, 
7/5/69, A13) 

• At U.S. Embassy Independence Day Party in Moscow Apollo 8 Astronaut 

Frank Borman signed autographs with Cosmonauts Gherman S. Titov, 
Georgy T. Beregovoy, and Konstantin P. Feoktistov. Among 1,000 per- 
sons attending reception given by U.S. Ambassador Jacob D. Beam 
were Vasily V. Kuznetsov, U.S.S.R. First Deputy Foreign Minister, and 
Mikhail P. Georgadze, Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme 
Soviet. They were highest ranking Soviet officials to attend annual 
July 4 reception since 1964 attendance of Nikita S. Khrushchev as 
head of government and Communist Party. (Clarity, NYT, 7/5/69, 28; 
AP, B Sun, 7/5/69, A2) 

• Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser, addressed Independ- 

ence Day celebration at Dearborn, Mich.: "For untold millions of 
years the human animal was chained to the earth. Sixty years ago he 
found a way of soaring into its atmosphere. Ten years ago he learned 
to break the chains of gravity and to soar out into space. This month 
the first man will set foot on another world. Later this month two 
spacecraft will reach Mars and send back new information about that 
Planet. Americans will have no reason to be ashamed of their nation 
on those days. Is it worth while? Is it worth while to lift the spirits of 
millions of human beings? If not, what else is worth while?" 

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July 4 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Developing lunar landing technology was relatively easy. "The laws 
of nature which made it possible have been well known for a long 
time. The engineering skills required . . . were available and were 
brilliantly organized. Hundreds of thousands of Americans worked 
together to make this dream come true. They had faith and they had 
hope. 

"The problems of our cities and the other social problems which be- 
set us are not all that easy. In this area human beings are not working 
together but are in conflict. We find that we do not yet know the cause 
of these troubles nor do we yet have the mechanisms for curing them. 
Hence we must study, we must experiment, we must try and we will 
often fail. . . . And we shall learn from our failures." (Text; CR, 
7/29/69, E6415-7) 

• Analysis of lunar surface would provide key to earth's history by indi- 

cating whether moon's origin was catastrophic or noncatastrophic, Dr. 
H. Alfven and Dr. G. Arrhenius of Univ. of California at San Diego 
said in Science. Radiometric dating of igneous lunar rocks might pro- 
vide information on time of their solidification. If catastrophic alterna- 
tive was correct, rocks should date to less than 4.5 eons, minimum age 
of moon, and predominant age should be approximately 0.7 eon, with 
major surface and subsurface features less than 0.7 eon. If noncata- 
strophic alternative proved correct, predominant age of lunar rocks 
should exceed 4 eons, at least, since it was likely moon predated earth. 
(Science, 7/4/69, 11-7) 

• Japanese freighter had been hit by wreckage of Soviet spacecraft, Japa- 

nese diplomats reported to five Western delegations on legal subcom- 
mittee of U.N. Committee on Outer Space meeting in Geneva. June 5 
damage to Dai Chi Chinei while outside territorial waters and near 
Siberian coast had previously been attributed to unidentified object. It 
was believed to be first authenticated case of terrestrial damage caused 
by falling space objects. (Hamilton, NYT, 7/5/69, 28) 
July 5: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (commander), Edwin E. 
Aldrin, Jr. (LM pilot), and Michael Collins (cm pilot) held press con- 
ference at msc. Astronauts were seated 50 ft from nearest newsmen and 
were partially enclosed in plastic booth as part of plan to limit crew's 
contacts during 21 days immediately preceding flight and prevent de- 
velopment of illness. Collins told press that from CM viewpoint, Apollo 
11 should not be very different from previous manned Apollo missions. 
He did not feel "slightest bit frustrated" about going to moon without 
landing on it: "I'm going 99.9 . . . percent of the way there, and that 
suits me fine." 

LM flight plan would pick up where Apollo 10 left off with phasing 
maneuver, Aldrin explained. There would be number of "firsts": "the 
ultimate test," actual touchdown; 1/6 g environment; new thermal 
conditions; two-man EVA on lunar surface; sleeping in LM on moon; 
star sighting technique with alignment telescope on lunar surface; and 
powered ascent from moon with seven-minute engine burn. One of im- 
portant early activities after exiting from LM on moon would be deter- 
mining best pace for moving about: ". . . there have been several 
different techniques employed in the partial zero gravity training. And, 
it looks like you can walk conventionally one foot after another. It also 
looks as though you can do a two-footed hop — kangaroo style." In 

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ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 5 

training in aircraft flown at 1/6 g, "a fairly rapid pace" appeared 
quite easy to perform. "It looks like we shouldn't have too much diffi- 
culty in moving at something like 6, 8, or 10 miles per hour." 

Armstrong said crew would use "somewhat hybrid methods of 
manual and automatic" for descent to moon. "The predicted method at 
this point, although we have a great deal of flexibility and choice, 
based on the situation at the time, would be to maintain manual con- 
trol of attitude and automatic control of throttle through the final de- 
scent from an altitude of somewhere between 500 and 1000 feet until 
such time as the automatic throttle rated descent was unsatisfactory, at 
which time we'll go full manual on the throttle . . . flying it in a 
manner like a normal VTOL machine." 

Code names for CM and LM had been selected as "representative of 
the flight, the nation's hope," Armstrong revealed. LM would be called 
"Eagle" for U.S. national emblem, and CM would be called "Columbia" 
for U.S. symbol, statue on top of Capitol, and Jules Verne's fictional 
spacecraft, "Columbiad," which flew to moon 100 yrs ago. ( Tran- 
script; O'Toole, W Post, 7/6/69, AD 

July 5-6: In Moscow Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman placed wreaths at 
tombs of Vladimir I. Lenin, founder of Soviet state; rocket designer 
Sergey Korolev; and Cosmonauts Yuri A. Gagarin and Vladimir M. 
Komarov. Later he placed wreath at tomb of Soviet Unknown Soldier. 
Borman and family visited Star City, home of cosmonauts outside 
Moscow, where he presented color film of Apollo 8. Cosmonauts pre- 
sented Borman with model of Vostok I, first manned spacecraft. Later 
Borman toured major space tracking station at Eupatoria near Yalta 
in Crimea. (AP, W Star, 7/5/69, A13; upi, W Star, 7/7/69, A2) 

July 6: NASA's Mariner VI (launched Feb. 24) and Mariner VII (launched 
March 27) were performing well and had traveled 41 million mi and 
39 million mi from earth. Mariner VI, scheduled for July 31 flyby, was 
9 million mi from Mars; Mariner VII, scheduled for Aug. 5 flyby, was 
11 million mi from Mars. (NASA Release 69-102) 

• Dept. of Commerce announced it had successfully tracked free-drifting 

buoy in deep ocean with satellite telemetry in test off east Florida 
coast. Navigational data were relayed via satellite to GSFC for proces- 
sing. Experiment proved ocean currents could be traced accurately and 
atmospheric and oceanographic data could be obtained from sensors on 
drifting buoy and transmitted with navigational information from re- 
mote regions of world. ( NASA Release 69—41 ) 

• In Washington Sunday Star, David Van Praagh discussed President 

Nixon's planned Asian tour, to follow mid-Pacific recovery of Apollo 
11 crew: Nixon would find "the problems of this planet's most popu- 
lous continent present a striking contrast. They are not subject to 
quick, rational, scientific or dramatic solutions. Usually they can not 
even be tackled through modern communications. The vast majority 
of Indians and Pakistanis for example, can't read or write and do not 
own a tiny transistor radio or TV set to monitor the Pacific splash- 
down. They live in a rather backward age and most of them are 
hungry." (W Star, 7/6/69, D14) 
July 7: U.S. News & World Report published interview with Dr. Thomas O. 
Paine, NASA Administrator. Apollo 11 lunar landing would be "culmi- 
nation of America's satisfying everyone that it is indeed the leading 

199 



July 7 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

technological nation that it thought it was before Sputnik blazed across 
the skies." U.S.S.R. would continue to put great stress on space and 
move ahead steadily. ". . . there's always the danger that we may feel 
we can relax now — having attained the lunar goal — and perhaps slack 
off. ... if we were not to start new programs now, I think the situation 
might well reverse and the Soviets might once again develop superior 
technological capabilities in space." Space technology could affect fu- 
ture defense posture. In the past, "wherever man has flown farther and 
higher and faster, wherever he has developed new capability to observe 
from higher areas, to carry out operations in new media, this has had 
a major effect on the equations of international power. We're quite 
confident that this will probably be true again in space." Application 
of space to defense area was dod's job. "We do not consider Apollo 
applications as any kind of substitute for MOL." 

Journey of man to another solar system was "completely out of the 
realm of possibility" for next generation; "but in the more distant 
future, if it were ever possible ... to control the energy of nuclear 
fusion and adapt it in some efficient way to the propulsion of space- 
craft, it might be possible to think in terms of longer voyages to an- 
other star." Fundamental breakthrough would have to be made. 

Chance that life existed in other solar systems seemed "absolutely 
100 per cent." (US News, 7/7/69) 

• Bonny, pig-tailed monkey launched on board NASA's Biosatellite III June 

29, was showing marked decrease in interest and efficiency. Although 
he was still in satisfactory physical condition, Bonny was becoming 
much less energetic and was consuming less food and water. (AP, 
W Star, 7/5/69, A3; W Post, 7/5/69, A6) 

• Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford received Flying Tiger Pilot 

Trophy, presented every two years by Flying Tigers, group of World 
War II veterans. Trophy was presented during 27th reunion in Ojai, 
Calif. (AP, W Star, 7/7/69, A2) 

• White House announced President Nixon had canceled plans to dine with 

Apollo 11 astronauts July 15, eve of launch. MSC Director of Research 
and Medical Operations, Dr. Charles A. Berry, had expressed concern 
that crew might catch earthly illness from President, which could com- 
plicate lunar landing mission. (AP, B Sun, 7/8/69) 

• Apollo 11 lunar samples would not be first moon material to reach earth 

and to undergo scientific examination, Los Angeles Times quoted Dr. 
Dean R. Chapman, Chief of arc Thermo- and Gas-Dynamics Div., as 
saying in interview. Tektites — molten pieces of lunar surface in form 
of chunks of black glass — had fallen to earth when meteorites struck 
moon with tremendous force. Most recent tektite shower had occurred 
700,000 yrs ago. While tektites' origin was matter of scientific dispute, 
Dr. Chapman believed most commonly held theory — lunar origin. In 
working out shower's trajectory, he had determined tektites came from 
Tycho crater on moon's southern hemisphere. He believed Tycho to be 
700,000 yrs old and that crusts of earth and of moon were intimately 
related. (Getze, LA Times, 7/7/69) 

• Neivsiveek's 42nd space age cover story since October 1957 contained 

comments from "opinion makers" on Apollo 11 mission. 

Dr. Robert Jastrow, Director of nasa's Goddard Institute for Space 
Studies, said scientific basis for mission was to discover secret of 

200 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 7 

earth's past through study of lunar rocks. Resolution of "cold moon" 
versus "hot moon" theory controversy — whether moon was formed 
cold, or cooled off shortly after its birth, or whether it was like earth 
molten or partly molten inside with volcanic surface — "may ride with 
Apollo 11." 

Southern Christian Leadership Conference President, the Rev. Ralph 
D. Abernathy, said: "A society that can resolve to conquer space; to 
put man in a place where in ages past it was considered only God 
could reach; to appropriate vast billions; to systematically set about to 
discover the necessary scientific knowledge; that society deserves both 
acclaim and our contempt . . . acclaim for achievement and contempt 
for bizarre social values. For though it has the capacity to meet extraor- 
dinary challenges, it has failed to use its ability to rid itself of the 
scourges of racism, poverty and war, all of which were brutally scar- 
ring the nation even as it mobilized for the assault on the solar 
system." 

Anthropologist Dr. Margaret Mead said: "This can be a first step, 
not into space alone, but into the disciplined and courageous use of 
enhanced human powers for man, ennobled as he is today, as the first 
men step on the moon." 

Philosopher Lewis Mumford said: "Space exploration ... is strictly 
a military by-product; and without pressure from the Pentagon and 
the Kremlin it would never have found a place in any national budget." 
Best hope was "that this colossal perversion of energy, thought and 
other precious human resources may awaken a spontaneous collective 
reaction sufficient to bring us down to earth again. Any square mile of 
inhabited earth has more significance for man's future than all the 
planets in our solar system." (Newsweek, 6/7/69, 3, 60—1) 

• Original equipment of field-sequential color TV system which would be 

used by Apollo 11 to transmit pictures from moon [see April 5] was 
presented to Smithsonian Institution by inventor Dr. Peter C. Gold- 
mark, President of CBS Laboratories. Apollo 11 would carry three- 
pound miniaturization of system in Westinghouse camera. (Schaden, 
W Star, 7/8/69, Bl) 

• dod announced award of $356,713,045 fixed-price contract to McDonnell 

Douglas Corp. for F— 4 Phantom II high-performance jet fighter air- 
craft for usn and usaf use. (dod Release 568-69) 
July 7—8: NASA terminated Biosatellite III mission to determine long-term 
effects of weightlessness on living organisms when Bonny, pig-tailed 
monkey on board, registered extremely low metabolic state and refused 
to drink water after receiving 10 emergency water commands. Space- 
craft had been scheduled to remain in orbit 30 days after launch June 
29, but monkey's condition — as indicated by steadily lowering body 
temperature, reduced heart rate, shallow breathing, substantial periods 
of sleep during day, and general sluggishness — had declined steadily 
for several days. 

Spacecraft separated and parachute deployed successfully, but re- 
covery aircraft was unable to retrieve spacecraft in midair as planned 
because of clouds and rainstorms. Capsule was recovered from Pacific 
off coast of Kauai at 7:36 pm EDT, minutes after splashdown, and 
flown to Hickam afb, Hawaii, laboratories, where monkey was re- 
moved from capsule immediately and given intensive care. Without 

201 



July 7-8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

prior warning from changes in physiological parameters being re- 
corded, Bonny died suddenly at 6:04 am edt July 8. Detailed analyses 
of data would be made during next six months and formal report 
would be issued after Jan. 1, 1970. Despite curtailed mission, experi- 
menters expected significant information, (nasa Proj Off; arc Astro- 
gram, 7/17/69, 1) 
July 8: Rep. John V. Tunney (D-Calif.) introduced H.J.R. 810, "designating 
the day which man lands on the moon, and the anniversary of that day 
each year thereafter as a national holiday to be known as 'Space Ex- 
ploration Day.' " Resolution was referred to House Judiciary Commit- 
tee. (CR, 7/8/69, H5725) 

• CBS Enterprises Inc. announced first agreement for regular satellite trans- 

mission of news stories had been reached with cbs Newsfilm sub- 
scribers in Australia and Japan. It would eventually lead to daily, 
instantaneous, intercontinental transmission of TV news by satellite, 
company said, (cbs Enterprises Release, 7/8/69) 
July 9: Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman met in Moscow with Mstislav V. 
Keldysh, President of Soviet Academy of Sciences, and spent 40 min 
with U.S.S.R. President Nikolay V. Podgorny in talk which Borman 
said was "encouraging and beneficial" in efforts to achieve U.S.— 
U.S.S.R. cooperation in space. (AP, W Post, 7/10/69, A23) 

• Apollo Program Management: Staff Study was submitted to House Com- 

mittee on Science and Astronautics by Subcommittee on NASA Over- 
sight. It identified key concepts contributing to successful evolution of 
NASA-industry management team and areas where additional studies 
would be useful in application of its expertise. Key factors included 
clear definition of primary objective, monitoring and auditing systems 
that allowed vertical and horizontal information flow, refinement in 
program-control techniques using incentive contracts, correlation and 
definition of multiple-program interfaces by use of systems-oriented 
staff groups, real-time and flexible management reporting system, and 
balance between governmental in-house capability and industrial capa- 
bility. (Text) 

• Die proof of 1.05- by 1.80-in 10-cent airmail stamp commemorating 

"First Man on the Moon," attached to envelope, would be carried by 
Apollo 11 and canceled on Moon by Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and 
Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Postmaster General Winton M. Blount announced. 
On return to earth, die would be used to produce commemorative 
stamps for August issue. Hand-canceled "Moon Letter" would undergo 
21-day decontamination period at LRL and be returned to Post Office 
Dept. for display in Washington, D.C., and later throughout U.S. and 
abroad. Stamp was designed by Paul Calle, modeled by Robert J. 
Jones, and engraved by Edward R. Felver and Albert Saavedra. It de- 
picted astronaut stepping from spacecraft onto lunar surface. (PO Dept 
Releases 107, P-37; W Post, 7/10/69, A13) 

• Some observers on earth might be able to see moon-bound Apollo 11 on 

two occasions, NASA announced. At 2:44:18 GET, exhaust plumes from 
S— IVB firing in parking orbit over Gilbert Islands in South Pacific 
would be visible to naked eye for several minutes over large part of 
sky. For several hours after translunar injection burn, csm/lm, S— IVB, 
and four spacecraft-lunar-module-adapter (sla) panels would be vis- 

202 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 9 

ible through telescope to observers in U.S., Mexico, Central and South 
America, and western Africa. (NASA Special Release) 

• As NASA prepared for Apollo 11 lunar landing, space contractors, engi- 

neers, and scientists cited thousands of "space technology transfers," 
down-to-earth rewards from space program, Wall Street Journal said. 
Side benefits ranged from medical innovations and safer highways to 
new management techniques, commercial products, and industrial 
tools. They included liferaft with bucket keel to prevent capsizing in 
rough water and inner tube that inflated automatically to keep craft 
afloat if outer skin was punctured, computer system to track down 
fathers behind in child support payments, inertial navigation systems 
that were standard equipment on new 360- to 400-passenger Boeing 
747, and thermal mapper developed for satellites, being used to seek 
oil formations, diagnose cause of sinking airport runways, and find 
sources of water pollution. Other space age spinoffs were plastic resin 
marketed as commercial laminates, adhesives, and coatings; devices to 
monitor internal stress in dams during earth tremors; data-processing 
techniques to record train traffic and to match power-generating capaci- 
ties to demand; electromagnetic hammer that smoothed and shaped 
metal without weakening it; and luminous devices for aircraft exit 
signs, map reading, and gun sites. Medicine was benefiting from mini- 
aturized electronic devices in cardiac pacemakers, remote-handling and 
manipulation equipment that had improved prosthetic devices like arti- 
ficial limbs, space-helmet-like hoods to measure oxygen consumption 
while patient exercised, and computer to provide sharper x-ray photos. 
(Tanner, WSJ, 7/6/69) 

• MSFC announced it would exercise option in existing contract with Com- 

puter Sciences Corp. to allow continued support services through June 
30, 1970, at cost of $6,081,887. (msfc Release 69-157) 
July 10: Apollo 11 countdown began at ksc at 8:00 pm EDT in preparation 
for launch toward moon at 9:32 am edt July 16. (Apollo 11 Status 
Rpt) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCLXXXIX from Plesetsk into orbit with 

324-km (201.3-mi) apogee, 208-km (129.2-mi) perigee, 89.6-min 
period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered July 15. (gsfc SSR, 
7/15/69; SBD, 7/15/69, 5) 

• Four-stage Pacemaker rocket launched from NASA Wallops Station 

carried 58-lb instrumented payload to 65,000-ft altitude and reentered 
atmosphere at 7,000 mph. Primary objective was to evaluate perform- 
ance of carbon phenolic, synthetic resin, as ablative material. Second- 
ary objective was to evaluate performance of low-density ablative 
materials — pyronne foam, polymer blend, and phenolic nylon — for pos- 
sible use on manned lifting-body reentry vehicles. (WS Release 69—12; 
WS pio) 

• American Academy of Achievement presented 1969 Gold Plate "Man of 

Achievement" Awards to Dr. William H. Pickering, JPL Director, and 
to Apollo 8 Astronauts William A. Anders and Frank Borman. (LA 
Her-Exam, 6/19/69; AFJ, 6/21/69, 30) 

• Sen. Spessard L. Holland (D-Fla.), for himself and Sen. Edward J. 

Gurney (R-Fla.), introduced S.J.R. 133 "to redesignate the area in the 
state of Florida known as Cape Kennedy as Cape Canaveral." Measure 

203 



July 10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

was referred to Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. (CR, 
7/10/69, S7819) 

• National Geographic Society cartographer and "backyard stargazer" 

David Moore was one of few amateur astronomers selected by NASA to 
help nearly 200 professionals who had volunteered to attempt sightings 
of Apollo 11 spacecraft, Washington Evening Star said. Through tele- 
scope in yard of his Wheaton, Md., home he would watch for "small 
brilliant flashes when rocket engines are turned on or 'burned' or . . . 
when waste water is ejected from the spacecraft." In ejection, water 
froze instantly and resultant ice crystals flared in sunlight. NASA had 
credited Moore with one of few sightings of earthbound Apollo 10. 
(Radcliffe, W Star, 7/10/69, D2) 

• Apollo 11 and current nationwide water shortage were "two illustrations 

of man's efficiency in achieving the thrills of life and man's inefficiency 
in not achieving the necessities of life," Drew Pearson said in Wash- 
ington Post. "At Cape Kennedy, the United States is about to launch 
the most carefully rehearsed, most expensive, most unnecessary project 
of this century by which man will reach a piece of drab, radioactive, 
lava-like real estate hitherto romantic because of distance — the moon. 
The launching will succeed because a vast amount of money and the 
best scientific brains in America over a period of seven years have been 
lavished on this moon shot. Meanwhile, up the Atlantic Coast, the Capi- 
tal which voted the $20 billion to reach the moon is desperately short 
of the second essential to man's life — water — all because of lack of 
planning, lack of foresight, and lack of money — the same ingredients 
which have put the moon shot on the verge of success." (W Post, 
7/10/69, Fll) 
July 11: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Ed- 
win E. Aldrin, Jr., underwent last major preflight medical examination 
at ksc and were cleared for July 16 launch. (Apollo Status Rpt; upi, 
W Post, 7/12/69, A4) 

• At Cape Kennedy press conference, Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman 

termed "totally ridiculous" cancellation of President Nixon's dinner 
with Apollo 11 crew on eve of launch to avoid contaminating crew 
with presidential germs. He had delivered invitation to dinner to White 
House and President Nixon had accepted when MSC Medical Director, 
Dr. Charles A. Berry, criticized dinner [see July 7]. 

Borman said his talks with U.S.S.R. officials during recent tour had 
left him convinced they planned lunar landing soon but, "from the 
people on the subways to their president, all I heard was that they are 
wishing success for Apollo 11." (Greider, W Post, 1/13/69, A4) 

• nas published Plan for U.S. Participation in the Global Atmospheric Re- 

search Program. It recommended five-year effort including Pacific test 
of global weather observing system and large-scale atmospheric study 
in 1973, series of small regional studies beginning in 1969 or 1970, 
and experiments to improve numerical models of atmosphere for com- 
puter forecasting, with continued development of computer 100 times 
faster than currently available. Total effort would require 10 yrs, with 
plans for second portion to be based on information gained during 
first 5 yrs. 

Report, prepared by NRC committee, said developments in computers 

204 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 Jul) >• 

and satellites had made it possible "to advance toward the goal of ac- 
curate two-week forecasts and, eventually, toward intelligent modifica- 
tion of the weather." Use of satellites such as Nimbus III, launched 
April 14, and expansion of other observing systems made it technically 
and economically possible to provide adequate global observations for 
long-range forecasts. Recommended test of global observing system 
would require 2 satellites with advanced instrumentation, nearly 1,000 
balloons, and 135 instrumented buoys. Simultaneous cloud-cluster study 
would require 12 additional aircraft, several ground stations, and com- 
puter facility. Participating Government agencies would be responsible 
for determining program costs. (Text; NRC Release) 

• NASA and USAF announced cooperative flight test program using two USAF 

YF-12A aircraft and spares, ground equipment, maintenance per- 
sonnel, and base support at Edwards afb, Calif, nasa would budget for 
and fund $10 million for program through FY 1974. About $4 million 
had been made available by completion of X— 15 and XB— 70 flight pro- 
grams. USAF purpose in two-part program was to gather data on air- 
craft operational factors, procedures, limitations, and possible bomber 
penetration tactics. NASA would seek data on altitude-hold at supersonic 
speeds, boundary layer noise, heat transfer under high speed, airframe- 
propulsion system interactions, and other characteristics. ( DOD Release 
581-69) 

• msfc issued RFPs for design, development, test, and delivery of four flight 

models of manned lunar roving vehicle. Four-wheeled, 400-lb vehicle 
would be carried to moon on board lm in 1971, to transport astro- 
nauts, tools, lunar samples, and other equipment and experiments. 
(nasa Special Release) 

• Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia toured msc during five-day visit to 

U.S. (Reuters, W Post, 7/10/69, A23; Apollo Status Rpt; nasa pao) 
July 12: NASA program of returning man from lunar landing was based on 
conclusion there was no risk, Stanford Univ. geneticist Dr. Joshua 
Lederberg said in Washington Post. "We could not mount an effective 
quarantine against a real peril of global infection unless we were pre- 
pared to sacrifice the astronaut, which is unthinkable." Arguments for 
zero risk were "quite persuasive" — lack of atmosphere on moon, "an 
absolutely necessary condition for life to flourish," and fact that earth 
had experienced lunar material samples from secondary meteorites. 
Main purpose of quarantine was "to protect the samples from earthly 
contamination — not altogether successfully, in view of the exhalations 
from the landing rocket and from the astronauts' space suits. It was 
then reasonable to add on whatever additional precautions against 
back-contamination were possible without impeding the mission." Proj- 
ect had helped show lunar arrangements would be "quite inappropri- 
ate to a real risk, for example a sample return from Mars." For Mars 
program, "we must learn a great deal more by instrumented observa- 
tions left there, before we can begin to design the precautions needed 
for samples, or men, returned to earth." {W Post, 7/12/69, A15) 

• "Poor People's Campaign" Director, the Rev. Hosea Williams of 

Southern Christian Leadership Conference, said "hungry" people from 
five southern states would demonstrate at Cape Kennedy July 15 on 
eve of Apollo 11 launch and would try to get "as close as possible" to 

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July 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

launch site with mules and wagons. "We're not against things like the 
space shot, but there's been a miscalculation in priorities." (Reuters, 
W Post, 7/13/69, A5) 

• NASA said Soviet Ambassador Anatoly F. Dobrynin had rejected U.S. in- 

vitation to watch Apollo 11 launch. U.S.S.R. originally had accepted, 
but Soviet Embassy in Washington said Dobrynin would be out of the 
country. (AP, W Star, 7/13/69, A9) 

• usn reported eight-ship Soviet Naval fleet was heading south 25 mi east- 

southeast of Miami, Fla., on course that could provide view of Apollo 
11 launch. U.S. carrier aircraft and destroyer escort Gary shadowed 
squadron, officially en route to Havana for July 26 commemoration of 
Cuban revolution. (Homan, W Post, 7/12/69, Al; AP, W Post, 
7/13/69, A5) 
July 13: U.S.S.R. launched Luna XV unmanned spacecraft from Baikonur 
into selenocentric orbit to conduct "further scientific studies of the 
moon and near lunar space," Tass announced. Spacecraft was expected 
to reach moon late July 16 — scheduled date of launch of NASA's Apollo 
11 manned lunar landing mission. There was speculation that Luna XV 
was Soviet attempt to land spacecraft on moon and return it to earth 
with sample of lunar soil before U.S. landed. {W Post, 7/14/69, Al; 
SBD, 7/18/69, 22; B Sun, 7/14/69, Al; gsfc SSR, 7/15/69) 

• Washington Sunday Star published Associated Press interview with Dr. 

Charles A. Berry, msc Director of Medical Research and Operations: 
While 4,514 hrs of weightlessness endured by U.S. astronauts in space 
had produced no serious medical problems, on moon "we will be plac- 
ing men in an entirely new environment." After four days of weight- 
lessness, they would step onto surface where gravity field was one-sixth 
that of earth. 

At Mission Control Center in Houston, Dr. Berry would be watching 
Apollo 11 astronauts' heart rate, oxygen consumption, and temperature 
of water that cooled spacesuits. Preflight physicals had enabled doctors 
to draw metabolic profile of each astronaut, including work capacity 
on earth at various heart rates, oxygen consumption, and body heat 
generated. "We know the heat production level which the portable life 
support system can handle without being overburdened. If it reaches 
that point for five minutes, we will tell the astronauts to stop and rest." 
Because of spacesuits' bulk astronauts would start with simple tasks 
and work up to tougher ones. Excitement could affect ability to sleep 
in four-hour rest period planned before lunar walk. "We might have to 
make a real-time decision on whether to give them a sleeping pill or 
perhaps a stimulant." 

Apollo had taught one "amazing medical fact — that the loss of red- 
blood-cell mass apparently is caused by a pure oxygen atmosphere." 
Results of using mixed nitrogen-and-oxygen atmosphere in spacecraft 
since January 1967 Apollo fire had indicated nitrogen apparently pro- 
tected cells. (Benedict, AP, W Star, 7/13/69, A9) 

• From summer residence, Castel Gondolfo, Pope Paul VI asked Christians 

worldwide to pray for Apollo 11 astronauts and said mission showed 
man was a "giant." (AP, B Sun, 7/14/69, A5) 

At White House religious service the Rev. Paul H. A. Noren of 
Mount Olivet Church in Minneapolis led 300 people in prayer: "We 

206 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 13 

ask Thy divine protection for our space pioneers who will soon make 
footprints on the moon." (AP, NYT, 7/14/69, 23) 

• New York Times editorial: "This is the week of the moon. The count- 

down is on at Cape Kennedy and, if all goes well, a week from today a 
manned vehicle will for the first time alight on another celestial body. 
... all mankind will share in the exhilaration of discovery. Ever since 
man evolved he has been exploring, extending his domain over all 
parts of his planet. Now that insatiable curiosity is bursting its ter- 
restrial bounds to provide our first personal knowledge of the nearest 
neighbor in the cosmos. It is an inspiring adventure, a testimony not 
only to man's imagination in amassing knowledge of nature, but to his 
courage, his perseverance and his indomitable spirit." {NYT, 7/13/69) 

• In Washington Evening Star William Hines said: ". . . Space Adminis- 

trator Thomas 0. Paine was dead right when he acclaimed Project 
Apollo as 'a triumph of the squares.' " While word "square" was in 
disrepute, "you will find no umbrage taken by the clean-cut stars of 
this week's cosmic drama if you called them squares. They are, and 
probably proud of it. There was no fight from Neil Armstrong when 
Congress told him to plant an American flag on the surface of the 
moon. . . . The Apollo program is not only run by squares, but for 
squares, as well; its thrills and glories appeal to the vast majority of 
Americans who, at the bottom, are just as square as any Armstrong on 
Earth— Jack or Neil or any other." (W Star, 7/13/69, D2) 

• Wing of Lockheed C— 5A static test specimen cracked during stress tests 

at point below aircraft's contract specifications but above its design 
limit, usaf later said cause of crack was overloading of wing area 
where spar attached to lower rear beam cap; it would not require ex- 
tensive redesign. It was first major performance failure reported for 
C— 5A. Contractor was planning modification and retesting of static 
specimen, (usaf Memo 8/18/69; W Post, 7/15/69, A2) 
July 14: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and 
Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., appeared in nationally televised press conference. 
Interview with four newsmen was conducted over closed-circuit TV, 
with astronauts at ksc and press 15 mi away. TV cameramen allowed 
in auditorium with crew had undergone thorough medical examina- 
tions. Armstrong, mission commander, said that after decade of plan- 
ning and hard work astronauts were "willing and ready to attempt to 
achieve our national goal. This is possible because very many Ameri- 
cans across the nation have dedicated themselves to quality craftsman- 
ship and ingenuity." 

In response to question on astronauts' attitudes toward mission, 
Armstrong said fear was not unknown, but added: "Fear is charac- 
teristic particularly of a knowledge that there may be something that 
you haven't thought of and feel that you might be unable to cope with. 
I think our training and all the work that goes into the preparation for 
a flight does everything it can towards erasing those kinds of possi- 
bilities and I would say that as a crew we . . . have no fear of launch- 
ing out on this expedition." ( Wilford, NYT, 7/15/69, 1, 20) 

• Chances of U.S.S.R.'s Luna XV successfully returning to earth with lunar 

sample were small because of complexity of operations required, NASA 
Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. 

207 



July 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Mueller, told ksc Center Directors' Briefing. Landing, deploying equip- 
ment, collecting and storing samples, and then lifting off "are not 
simple things to do . . . and doing it remotely is more difficult than 
doing it with men in space. I don't think by any means impossible, but 
. . . the chances of being able to carry it out on the first mission are 
relatively low compared to the kind of probability that we would as- 
sociate with our own landings." 

If Luna XV were able to successfully retrieve lunar sample, feat 
would be "significant technological step and one that represents a con- 
siderable degree of prestige," he said, but "each country [U.S. and 
U.S.S.R.] will obtain its proper share of credit. . . . The first sample 
returned if it were possible to do so and the first man landing on the 
moon are significant events, each in their own right, and are to be 
treated as such." (Transcript) 

• iaf announced official endorsement of absolute world's records for Dec. 

21-27, 1968, Apollo 8 mission's 10 lunar orbits: altitude, 234,672.5 
mi; greatest mass lifted into earth orbit, 282,197 lbs; total time in 
space for an astronaut, James A. Lovell, Jr., 572 hrs 10 min 16 sees. 
Apollo 8 world class records: duration of lunar mission, 146 hrs 59 
min 49 sees; duration in lunar orbit, 20 hrs 14 min 13.2 sees. 

To obtain iaf certification of Apollo 11, crew would be given torn 
halves of four $1 bills for comparison with other halves on return as 
proof same men returned as took off. naa would submit claim for ab- 
solute world record for extravehicular activity (eva) for successful 
Apollo 11 mission. (AP, NYT, 7/15/69, 20) 

• New York Post published results of Louis Harris poll which showed 

American people favored manned lunar landing by 51% to 41%. In 
February poll public opinion had been opposed by 49% to 39%. Harris 
attributed change to feeling "if we have gone this far, we ought to finish 
the job." He said 56% of 1,607 adults polled from June 16 to 22 were 
opposed to annual $4-billion outlay for space program, while 37% 
favored it — little change from 55% for to 34% against in February. 
Reaction to Apollo 10 flight had been generally favorable. (NYT, 
7/15/69, 20) 

• Expectation of one million tourists to witness Apollo 11 launch had led 

to extraordinary precautions at Cocoa Beach, Fla., Washington Post 
said. Tank truck would be stationed at City Hall to fuel police cars; 
airboats would stand by to rush casualties to hospital if ambulances 
could not penetrate automobile traffic; and officials were concerned 
about scores of aircraft circling overhead to glimpse spacecraft. 
(Greider, W Post, 7/14/69, Al) 

• Washington Evening Star special supplement, "Voyage to the Moon," 

commented: "Hanging in the sky, attracting man's attention for untold 
generations, the moon has been the reputed home of gods and god- 
desses of all religions, primitive and modern. If all these deities lived 
there at any one time, the reasons for its battle-scarred appearance 
would be obvious. But assuming that none did . . . that pock-marked 
face still poses more questions than it answers." (W Star, 7/14/69) 

• Aerospace Systems Laboratory had been established at Princeton Univ. 

to investigate U.S. space program and other broad areas of applied re- 
search, including transportation systems, New York Times said. Project 

208 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 14 

was assisted by NASA and other Federal agency grants. (NYT, 
7/14/69, 23) 

• NASA announced availability of 16-in-dia globe of moon prepared by 

USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from NASA photos 
made by Lunar Orbiter series. Lovell Observatory, Ariz., prepared art 
work with exaggerated color tones showing lunar landscape bathed in 
morning sunlight and large Ring Plains, or explosive craters, on far 
side. One globe had been presented to President Nixon by Apollo 10 
astronauts. (NASA Release 69-83G) 

• Harold W. Adams, Deputy to Vice President-Chief Engineer of Douglas 

Aircraft Co., received aiaa Aircraft Design Award of citation and $500 
honorarium at aiaa Aircraft Design and Operations Meeting in Los 
Angeles. Citation read: "In recognition of your outstanding contribu- 
tions to the safety and economic practicality of commercial air trans- 
portation during the past 38 years by development of aircraft design 
principles for high reliability and ease of maintenance." Adams was 
specialist in electric and hydraulic systems, (aiaa Release, 7/9/69) 

• Oceanographer Jacques Piccard cast off in 48-ft research submarine 

from West Palm Beach, Fla., for rehearsal of 1,500-mi Gulf Stream 
Drift to study ocean depths [see April 7]. If four- to five-day trial run 
was successful, team would remain submerged for 30 days and drift to 
Boston, (upi, W Star, 7/14/69, A10) 
July 15: President Nixon sent telegram to Apollo 11 astronauts: "On the 
eve of your epic mission, I want you to know that my hopes and my 
prayers — and those of all Americans — go with you. Years of study and 
planning and experiment and hard work on the part of thousands have 
led to this unique moment in the story of mankind; it is now your 
moment and from the depths of your minds and hearts and spirits will 
come the triumph all men will share. I look forward to greeting you 
on your return. Until then, know that all that is best in the spirit of 
mankind will be with you during your mission and when you return 
to earth." 

President also telephoned astronauts: ". . . as you lift off to the 
moon, you lift the spirits of the American people as well as the world. 
. . . You carry with you a feeling of good will in this greatest adventure 
man has ever taken. . . ." (PD, 7/21/69, 997) 

• First notables to arrive at Cape Kennedy on eve of Apollo 11 launch in- 

cluded former President and Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and Southern 
Christian Leadership Conference President, the Rev. Ralph D. Aber- 
nathy. Johnsons arrived in military aircraft assigned by President 
Nixon, to attend luncheon honoring James E. Webb, former NASA 
Administrator. 

Abernathy led 25 poor southern families to protest Federal funding 
priorities. Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, met group of 150 
poor people outside ksc gate where Abernathy requested 40 vip passes 
to launch, asked Dr. Paine to join fight against poverty, and urged 
that NASA technology be converted to finding new ways to feed poor. 
Dr. Paine agreed to admit members of group to launch and pledged to 
do what he could to adapt space-developed food concentrates to aid 
undernourished. "It will be a lot harder to solve the problems of 
hunger and poverty than it is to send men to the moon." But, "if it 

209 



July 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

were possible for us not to push that button tomorrow and solve the 
problems you are talking about, we would not push the button." He 
said space program and science could be used to help solve poverty 
problems. "I want you to hitch your wagon to our rocket and tell the 
people the NASA program is an example of what this country can do." 
The poor people said they would pray for Apollo 11 astronauts. 

By evening 500,000 tourists had arrived in Brevard County, site of 
ksc, with total one million expected by early morning. Air traffic had 
quadrupled, with 10 local airfields handling over 1,200 small aircraft, 
and 200 private jets. Aircraft were to bring Vice President Spiro T. 
Agnew, over 200 Congressmen, 60 ambassadors, 19 governors, 40 
mayors, and other public figures July 16. More than 1,000 police 
struggled to control road traffic, and hordes settled to sleep on beaches 
from which they could see illuminated spacecraft on launch pad. 
(Weinraub, NYT, 7/16/69, 22; Greider, W Post, 7/16/69) 

• Proximity of probable date of lunar landing to date of arrival of Mariner 

VI and VII cameras near Mars surface would provide U.S. TV viewers 
with "double space feature," nasa said. Gerald M. Truszynski, nasa 
Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acquisition, credited 
feat to advances in electronics through which streams of signals could 
be returned from moon and from Mars into tracking centers and 
switching points on earth, thence via comsats into TV networks 
throughout globe. Apollo 11 mission would include eight color telecasts 
from spacecraft. Lunar telecasts would be black and white since LM 
would lack power for color TV. Mars telecasts from Mariner VI would 
produce 50 photos; Mariner VII would deliver 91. Best resolution 
from closeup would be 900 ft; it had been 2 mi in 1965 Mariner IV 
photos and was 100 mi by best optical means from earth, (nasa Re- 
lease 69-831) 

• Europeans were "as excited as many Americans" about Apollo 11 launch, 

New York Times reported. But "only the sharpest observer of the 
Soviet news media could guess, as he went to bed tonight, that Ameri- 
cans will try to send men to the moon tomorrow," according to Balti- 
more Sun. Last mention of Apollo 11 in Soviet press had been July 9 
meeting of President Nikolay V. Podgorny with Astronaut Frank 
Borman. 

In U.K., bbc and commercial TV were planning extensive Apollo 11 
coverage, some live via comsat. British newspapers were competing 
with special space supplements and guides. Exceptions to generally 
"adulatory" reportage was The Times of London article in which phi- 
losopher Lord Russell had said: "Men will not be content to land upon 
the moon and try to make it habitable. They will land simultaneously 
from Russia and the United States, each party, complete with H-bombs 
and each intent upon exterminating the other." 

American Embassy in Warsaw was packed every day with Poles 
viewing space films. Spain's Evening Daily Pueblo had sponsored con- 
test to send 25 readers to Apollo 11 launch. In France 22-page space 
supplement issued by France-Soir had sold 1.5 million copies at $1 
each. Bild Zeitung in Germany had noted 7 out of 57 Apollo super- 
visors were of German origin. Austrian press had lionized Dr. Wernher 
von Braun during recent visit to Salzburg. 

Volume of Western European newspaper space devoted to lunar 

210 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 15 

landing mission rivaled that in U.S., New York Times said, and "the 
whole story of the moon effort is improving the 'prestige' of the United 
States. . . . But . . . respect voiced by individuals is often for America's 
technological power, not her humanity or civilization." (Lewis, NYT, 
7/16/69, 20; B Sun, 7/16/69, A8, Mills, A9) 

• Across U.S. on eve of Apollo 11 launch, newspaper editorials commented 

on lunar landing mission : 

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner: "It is with an almost breathless sense 
of awe that we await tomorrow's blast-off from Cape Kennedy — the 
launching of three space explorers on the most ambitious and fearsome 
adventure in all human history. Mere words cannot capture the im- 
mensity of the flight of Apollo 11. Quite literally, man will be attempt- 
ing a final break of the chains which have bound him to this earth." 
(LA Her-Exam, 7/15/69) 

Newport News, Va., Times-Herald: "Now, this triumph of human 
courage and knowledge stands poised on the threshold of accomplish- 
ment. For a few fleeting moments, the attention of the world will follow 
the Eagle as it ferries its two astronauts toward a destiny until now 
only dreamed of in our history. Then, most probably, our attention 
will filter back to the pressing problems on earth." (Times-Herald, 
7/15/69 ) 

Milwaukee Journal: "Apollo 11 is providing insight into the mean- 
ing of life and the imperatives of human society. It is forcing us to 
face the grim paradox of exploiting human reason and the marvels of 
machinery to soar into the majesty of space while the world becomes 
fragmented into selfish national sovereignties — some armed, some arm- 
ing, with the hideous capacity to end life itself." (Miltvaukee Journal, 
7/15/69) 

Denver Post: "The Soviet attempt to send an unmanned spaceship to 
the moon in advance of Apollo 11 is a bold bid to draw attention to 
Soviet space prowess. But even if it succeeds ... in mechanically 
scooping up samples of the moon and returning to earth, the Soviet 
project will not overshadow the American mission. Instead, the Soviet 
flight will serve to underscore the expensive duplication of effort cre- 
ated by the space race. If the Russians and Americans had cooperated, 
rather than competed, the risks and the costs involved in landing a 
man on the moon would have been far less." (Denver Post, 7/15/69) 

Washington Evening Star: Soviet Luna XV seemed strangely timed. 
During their Moscow discussions on space cooperation, U.S.S.R. Presi- 
dent Nikolay V. Podgorny had not given Astronaut Frank Borman 
"slightest hint that the Kremlin was planning to send an unmanned 
spacecraft to the moon to coincide with the history-making Apollo 11 
American mission." Was it really possible "to work together in space 
exploration with a country that seems to be playing tricks with ours 
at a moment when we are engaged in a historic effort to land men on 
the moon?" (W Star, 7/15/69, A12) 

• San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto urged San Franciscans to fly U.S. 

flag from Apollo 11 blastoff to splashdown and to sound every bell, 
siren, and whistle in the city at splashdown. (AP, W Post, 7/17/69, 
A27) 

• Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 

carried Univ. of Wisconsin payload to 129.9-mi (209-km) altitude to 

211 



July 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

examine auroral directions and intensities of isotopic component of 
cosmic x-rays. Magnetometer and startracker functioned as planned 
but doors and covers shielding proportional counters failed to eject 
and no x-ray data were received, (nasa Rpt srl) 
• NASA awarded General Electric Co.'s Aircraft Engine Group $18.7- 
million, fixed-price contract with performance-award provision to con- 
struct and test two experimental quiet jet aircraft engines. To cut 
development costs, CF— 6 and TF— 39 engines developed for DC— 10 and 
C— 5A aircraft would be used as core of new engine. Engines would 
produce 4,900-lb thrust at cruise and 22,000-lb thrust for takeoff. 
Work was part of oart's Quiet Engine Research Program to develop 
turbofan engine with noise level 15—20 db below present engines. Con- 
tract would be managed by LeRC. (nasa Release 69—103) 
July 16—24: Apollo 11 (AS— 506) manned lunar landing mission flown by 
nasa achieved eight-year national goal set by President Kennedy May 
25, 1961. On July 20, spacecraft's LM-5, Eagle, landed on lunar sur- 
face and first man stepped out onto moon. Two astronauts performed 
assigned tasks on lunar surface before reentering LM to lift off from 
moon, redock with CSM— 107, Columbia, and return safely to earth. 

July 16—19: Mission began at 9:32 am edt July 16, when spacecraft 
was launched from ksc Launch Complex 39, Pad A, by Saturn V 506 
booster. Liftoff was relayed live on TV to 33 countries on 6 continents, 
watched by estimated 25 million TV viewers in U.S., and heard on 
radio by millions of listeners. Launch events occurred as planned and 
spacecraft carried Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (commander), 
Michael Collins (cm pilot), and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (lm pilot), into 
circular parking orbit with 118.5-mi (190.7-km) altitude. After post- 
insertion checkout csm separated from Saturn V 3rd stage (S— IVB) 
and lm Eagle. Crew successfully transposed csm and docked with lm, 
ejected csm/lm from S— IVB, and conducted first sps burn. Successful 
propellant dump provided impulse to S-IVB for slingshot maneuver to 
earth-escape velocity. Translunar injection maneuver was so accurate 
that first midcourse correction was not required. Midcourse correction 
No. 2, at 26:45 get, was so accurate that third and fourth maneuvers 
were not necessary. 

Crew conducted two unscheduled color TV broadcasts — for 16 min 
beginning at 10:32 get (taped for 11:26 get transmission) and for 50 
min beginning at 30:28 GET — and one scheduled 36-min transmission 
beginning at 33:59 GET. Broadcasts were very clear and showed earth, 
onboard computer keyboard, and crew. At 55:08 get (4:40 pm edt 
July 18) crew began 96-min color TV transmission with excellent pic- 
ture resolution, coverage, and general quality. Viewers in North 
America, South America, Japan, and Western Europe saw live pictures 
of csm and lm interiors, CSM exterior, and earth and watched crew 
removing probe and drogue, opening spacecraft tunnel hatch, prepar- 
ing food, and housekeeping LM. 

Apollo 11 passed into moon's sphere of influence at 61:40 GET, 
214,546.8 mi (345,205.8 km) from earth, traveling at 2,990 fps rela- 
tive to earth. Spacecraft entered lunar orbit with 194.3-mi (312.6-km) 
apolune and 70.5-mi (113.4-km) perilune at 75:56 get (1:28 pm 
edt July 19) after first SPS burn. During second lunar orbit, live color 
TV transmission showed spectacular views of lunar surface and ap- 

212 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



July 16-24 




July 16-24: Apollo 11 's successful manned lunar mission achieved the national goal 
set eight years earlier by President John F. Kennedy, who told Congress May 25, 
1961: "I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this 
decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth." 



proach path to Site 2. Armstrong pointed out lunar landmarks and 
described unexplained glow near crater Aristarchus which some scien- 
tists believed to be volcanic activity. Second SPS burn circularized orbit 
with 75.6-mi (121.6-km) apolune and 61.9-mi (99.6-km) perilune. 
Aldrin transferred to lm for two-hour housekeeping, voice and telem- 
etry test, and oxygen-purge-system check. 

July 20-21: Armstrong and Aldrin reentered LM at 95:20 GET and 
checked out all systems before firing SM reaction-control-system 
thrusters to separate CSM and LM on far side of moon. LM descent- 
propulsion-system engine propelled LM to within 9.8 mi (15.8 km) of 
lunar surface. Because LM-powered descent maneuver — initiated at 
perilune of descent orbit — was about 4.6 mi (7.4 km) downrange from 
planned position, landing point was also shifted downrange. During 
final approach phase, crew noted that landing point to which spacecraft 



213 



July 16-24 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




214 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



July 16-21 




July 16: Saturn V (left) thrust Apollo 11 spacecraft toward the moon, watched by 
former NASA Administrator James E. Webb (below at left), former President Lyndon 
B. Johnson, and Vice President Spiro T. Agnew at Kennedy Space Center. In KSC 
Launch Control Center (above) mission officials relaxed after launch; left to right were 
Charles W . Matthews, nasa Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; 
Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of msfc; Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Adminis- 
trator for Manned Space Flight; and l/c Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director. 



was heading was in center of large, rugged crater with 5- to 10-ft-dia 
boulders. Consequently crew flew past crater to more suitable touch- 
down point by controlling attitude manually and adjusting descent rate 
and horizontal velocity. Officials later attributed change in course to 
malfunction in onboard radar and subsequent critical overload of com- 
puter, which caused warning alarms and could have aborted mission. 

LM landed on moon at 102:46 GET (4:18 pm EDT July 20) in Sea of 
Tranquility, 20,800 ft west and 4,000-5,000 ft south of center of 
planned landing ellipse. Landing-point coordinates were approximately 
23.5°E and 0.64°N and site altitude was approximately 8,600 ft below 
moon's mean radius. 

Armstrong reported: "Houston, Tranquility Base here — the Eagle 
has landed." 

Mission Control replied: "Roger, Tranquility. We copy you on the 



215 



July 16-24 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




216 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



July 16-24 



ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We are breath- 
ing again. Thanks a lot." 

Armstrong said landing area contained numerous boulders up to 
two feet in diameter, some apparently fractured by LM engine exhaust, 
and surface color varied from very light to dark gray. Crew imme- 
diately adapted to one-sixth (earth) gravity in LM and moved with 
ease. About two hours after landing astronauts requested and were 
granted permission to perform extravehicular activities (eva) on 
moon's surface before sleep period — about 4 1 /i> hrs earlier than orig- 
inally scheduled. 

After postlanding checks, Armstrong opened LM hatch, descended 
LM ladder, and deployed modularized equipment stowage assembly 
(mesa) containing camera, which recorded his descent to lunar sur- 
face. Aldrin remained inside LM and recorded Armstrong's descent 
with 16-mm Maurer camera. 

Armstrong took man's first step on moon at 109:24 get (10:56 pm 
kdt July 20) . Some 600 million viewers on earth — one-fifth of world 
population — watched live TV transmission and heard him describe 
feat as "one small step for a man — one giant leap for mankind." 

Collins, orbiting moon alone in CSM Columbia, was unable to see 



July 20-21: "One small step for a man — one giant leap for mankind." Astronaut Neil 
A. Armstrong {top left) descended the lm ladder to set the first foot on surface 
of the moon. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (bottom left), photographed by Armstrong, 
deployed the passive seismic experiments package, with the laser ranging retrore- 
fiector and the Eagle in the background. The lunar surface TV camera was in the 
far left. Beloiv, the flag of the United States remained on the surface of the moon. 



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landing and subsequent EVA because CSM was not equipped to receive 
TV transmission. Armstrong said moon had "stark beauty all its own" 
like desert in southwestern U.S. Lunar surface was "fine and pow- 
dery" and could be kicked up loosely. "It adheres like powdered char- 
coal . . . but I only go jn a small fraction of an inch. I can see my 
footprint in the moon like fine grainy particles." Armstrong checked 
lm exterior and reported penetration of lm footpads into lunar sur- 
face was three to four inches and that strut collapse was minimal. 
Blast of descent engine had not formed crater in surface and about 
one foot of clearance remained between engine bell and lunar surface. 
He reported only problem was seeing his footing in darkness of LM 
shadow. He emplaced microdot containing messages from world lead- 
ers, collected contingency sample of lunar soil near LM ladder, and 
reported that, although surface consisted of soft loose material, mate- 
rial six or eight inches under surface was very hard and cohesive. 
Rocks were very slippery, apparently because vesicles (pores) were 
filled with powdery surface material. 

Armstrong photographed Aldrin's descent to lunar surface at 11:15 
pm EDT and astronauts unveiled plaque mounted on strut behind 
ladder and read its inscription to their worldwide TV audience: 
"Here men from the planet earth first set foot on the moon July 1969, 
A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." Armstrong then removed 



218 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



July 16-24 




TV camera from mesa, obtained panorama, and placed camera on 
tripod 40 ft from lm to view subsequent EVA. Aldrin experimented to 
assess mobility on moon by walking, running, leaping, and doing two- 
footed kangaroo hops between LM and camera. He indicated some 
difficulty in maintaining balance but said that his agility was better 
than expected and that he was able to move with great ease. Mass of 
backpack affected inertia and caused "slight tendency ... to tip back- 
wards. If I'm about to lose my balance in one direction, recovery is 
quite natural and easy. You've just got to be careful landing in 
the direction you want to go in." 

Aldrin deployed solar wind composition experiment in sunlight 
north of lm and joined Armstrong in erecting three- by five-foot 
American flag on eight-foot aluminum staff. Astronauts saluted flag 
and then talked by radiotelephone with President Nixon at White 
House in what President called "most historic telephone call ever made 
from the White House." President said: "Because of what you have 
done the heavens have become a part of man's world. As you talk to 
us from the Sea of Tranquility, it inspires us to redouble our efforts 
to bring peace and tranquility to earth. For one priceless moment in 



219 



July 16-24 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 







the whole history of man all the people on this earth are truly one — 
one in their pride in what you have done and one in our prayers that 
you will return safely to earth." Astronauts saluted President and 
expressed honor and privilege of representing U.S. and world on moon. 

Continuing EVA, Armstrong collected bulk sample of assorted sur- 
face material and selected rock chunks, inspected lm, deployed pas- 
sive seismic experiment package and laser ranging retroreflector, and 
collected two core samples and 20 lbs of discretely selected material. 
Throughout EVA continuous black-and-white coverage of crew activity 
provided live documentation, with telemetered data and voice com- 
ments. Lunar surface photography included both still and sequence 
coverage using Hasselblad, Maurer data-acquisition, and Apollo lunar 
surface close-up cameras. Astronauts completed EVA, transferred film 
and samples to lm, reentered LM and jettisoned equipment according 
to plan, closing hatch by 111:39 get (1:11 am edt July 21). Arm- 
strong and Aldrin rested inside LM seven hours and checked out 
systems. 

At 124:22 get (1:54 pm July 21) lm successfully lifted off moon, 
after 21 hrs 36 min on lunar surface. All lunar ascent and rendezvous 
maneuvers were nominal. Eagle reported to Mission Control: "Eagle 



220 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1969 



July 16-24 



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July 16-24 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



IIOIIN'ET ♦ 3 




July 24: Welcome back to earth: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael 
Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (left to right inside the mobile quarantine facility), 
were greeted by President Nixon aboard the U.S.S. Hornet after their splashdown. 

is back in orbit, having left Tranquility Base, and leaving behind a 
replica from our Apollo 11 patch with an olive branch." LM docked 
with csm at 128:03 get. Crew transferred with samples and film to 
CSM, and LM ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit. SM reaction- 
control-system separation maneuver placed CSM into orbit with 72.0 
mi (115.9-km) apolune and 63.0-mi (101.4-km) perilune, where crew 
rested and prepared for return to earth. 

July 22-24: Crew fired sps engine at 135:24 get (12:55 am edt 
July 22), injecting csm into transearth trajectory after 59 hrs 28 min 
(30 revolutions) in lunar orbit. Midcourse correction No. 5, at 150:30 
get, was so accurate that sixth and seventh corrections were not neces- 
sary. During 18-min color TV transmission, crew demonstrated weight- 
lessness of food and water and showed scenes of moon and earth. 
Aldrin showed in-space preparation of ham sandwich and Collins 
showed viewers how to drink water from teaspoon and from water 
gun. Final, 12 1 /2-min broadcast at 177:32 GET sent message of appre- 
ciation from each astronaut to all who helped make Apollo 11 mission 
possible. 

cm separated from SM on schedule at 194:49 get. Because of de- 
teriorating weather in nominal landing area, splashdown point was 



222 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 16-24 

moved 247.4 mi downrange, where weather was excellent. Parachute 
deployment and other reentry events occurred as planned. 

Apollo 11 splashed down in mid-Pacific at 12:51 pm edt July 24, 
15 mi from recovery ship U.S.S. Hornet, 195 hrs 19 min after launch. 
Swimmers attached flotation collar and seven-man raft to spacecraft 
and helicopter dropped biological isolation garments, which were 
donned by astronauts inside CM and by one swimmer. Two other 
swimmers moved upwind of CM on another large raft. Postlanding 
ventilation was turned off and cm powered down, and astronauts 
climbed out and helped swimmer close hatch. Swimmer then decon- 
taminated all garments, hatch area, flotation collar, and area around 
postlanding vent valves with Betadine disinfectant. Helicopter carried 
astronauts to recovery ship, where they entered 32-ft-long mobile 
quarantine facility (mqf) with recovery physician and technician. 
They were congratulated by President Nixon and Dr. Thomas 0. 
Paine, NASA Administrator, who were on board ship. Crew, physician, 
and technician remained inside MQF until it was delivered to Lunar 
Receiving Laboratory (lrl) in Houston July 27. 

CM was retrieved, placed in dolly on board recovery ship, moved 
to MQF, and mated to transfer tunnel. From inside mqf/cm contain- 
ment envelope, MQF engineer removed lunar samples and equipment 
through decontamination lock and CM was sealed until delivery to 
LRL. Sample return containers, film, and other data were flown to 
Johnston Island and to Houston for transport to LRL. 

Primary Apollo 11 mission objective — to perform manned landing 
on moon and return — and all detailed test objectives were achieved. 
All launch vehicle and spacecraft systems performed according to plan, 
with only minor, corrected discrepancies. Flight crew performance was 
outstanding; all three crew members remained in excellent health and 
their prevailing good spirits and proficiency were major factors in 
mission's success. Accomplishments included first manned lunar land- 
ing and return; first lunar surface EVA; first seismometer, laser re- 
flector, and solar wind experiment deployed on moon; first lunar 
soil samples returned to earth; largest U.S. payload ever placed into 
lunar orbit (72,037.6 lbs at lunar orbit insertion) ; acquisition of 
numerous visual observations, photos and TV transmissions of scien- 
tific and engineering significance; and first operational use of mqf 
and LRL. 

Apollo 11 was eighth Apollo mission to date, fifth manned Apollo 
mission, and first manned lunar landing mission. Mission acquired 
major quantities of data for subsequent Apollo flights. First manned 
Apollo mission, Apollo 7 (Oct. 11—22, 1968), had verified operation 
of spacecraft for lunar-mission duration. First manned lunar orbital 
mission, Apollo 8 (Dec. 21—27, 1968), had proved capability of 
Apollo spacecraft and hardware to operate out to lunar distance and 
return through earth's atmosphere. Apollo 9 (March 3—13, 1969) had 
proved capability of LM to operate in space under manned conditions. 
Apollo 10 (May 18—26, 1969) had successfully operated complete 
Apollo spacecraft on lunar orbital mission and had provided major 
quantities of scientific and training materials for Apollo 11. Apollo 
program was directed by nasa Office of Manned Space Flight; msc was 

223 



July 16-24 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

responsible for Apollo spacecraft development, msfc for Saturn V 
launch vehicle, and ksc for launch operations. Tracking and data 
acquisition was managed by GSFC under overall direction of NASA 
Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition. (NASA Proj Off; NASA Re- 
lease 69-83K; NYT, 7/16-25/69; W Post, 7/16-25/69; W Star, 
7/16-25/69; B Sun, 7/16-25/69; PD, 7/28/69, 1016) 
July 16: U.S.S.R.'s Luna XV (launched July 13) entered lunar orbit at 
3:00 pm Baikonur time (6:00 am edt) with all systems functioning 
normally, Tass announced. Sir Bernard Lovell, Director of U.K.'s 
Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, said spacecraft was transmitting 
telemetry data but no photographic signals. (SBD, 7/18/69, 22; AP, 
W Star, 7/17/69, Al) 
• In Cape Kennedy interview before Apollo 11 launch, Vice President 
Spiro T. Agnew said, "It is my individual feeling that we should 
articulate a simple, ambitious, optimistic goal of a manned flight to 
Mars by the end of this century. Whether we say it or not, someone's 
going to do it." 

After liftoff, Vice President told NASA launching team, ". . . all the 
time I was out there I couldn't help thinking of you, the people in 
here and all over NASA who have done such a brilliant job in putting 
together the combined effort behind those three gentlemen who are 
off on this historic mission. ... I bit the bullet for you today as far 
as Mars is concerned. But on the other hand ... I may be a voice in 
the wilderness." 

In Washington, D.C., Senate Majority Leader Michael J. Mansfield 
(D-Mont.) told press, "I think we have a lot of problems here on 
earth that we must face up to and when we settle those we ought to 
consider future space ventures." Senate Majority Whip Edward M. 
Kennedy (D-Mass.) said, "The Apollo program is for landing a man 
on the moon and exploration and should take another one to two 
years. I think after that the space program ought to fit into our other 
national priorities." (Witkin, NYT, 7/17/69, 1; Transcript, Agnew 
statement to NASA launch crew; Unna, W Post, 7/17/69, Al) 

• At White House, President Nixon proclaimed July 21 National Day of 

Participation. "Apollo 11 is on its way to the moon. . . . Never before 
has man embarked on so epic an adventure. ... As the astronauts 
go ... we on earth will want, as one people, to be with them in 
spirit . . . and to support them with prayers that all will go well." All 
Executive departments and Government agencies would be closed 
and U.S. flag would be displayed on public buildings. 

With many members at Cape Kennedy, Senate and House met briefly 
and conducted only routine business. Congressional Record was filled 
with comments on Apollo 11 and wishes for Godspeed to astronauts. 
(PD, 7/21/69, 997-8; CR, 7/16/69) 

• During cbs TV interview at Cape Kennedy following Apollo 11 launch, 

former President Lyndon B. Johnson said, "If our industrial people, 
these great managers of industry, the laboring people of the country, 
the government, the scientists, all with the help of Congress, can get 
together and do a job like this there's just nothing we can't do." To 
world's ills, "we must apply some of the great talent that we've 
applied to space." There wasn't "a single thing that our country does, 

224 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 16 

that our government does, that our people do, that has greater poten- 
tial for peace than the space effort." (upi, NYT, 7/17/69, 20) 

• Between 750,000 and 1 million persons crowded Brevard County, Fla., 

to witness launch of Apollo 11, including 5,000 dignitaries headed by 
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew and former President Lyndon B. John- 
son. The Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy and 40 representatives of Poor 
People's Campaign watched launch from bleacher seats with 10,000 
guests including families of Apollo program personnel, while other 
representatives marched outside KSC. Paris Match had brought 105 
European businessmen. Some 3,100 press members were at special 
stand. As Apollo spacecraft lifted from launch pad there was some 
applause, but most spectators stared in silence until Saturn V rocket 
disappeared overhead. Afterward many were caught in monumental 
traffic jams. Banana River, five miles south of Launch Complex 39, 
was clogged with several thousand boats registered from New England 
to Texas. (Greider, W Post, 7/17/69, Al; Weinraub, NYT, 7/17/69, 
21; Lyons, NYT, 7/17/69, 21) 

• Apollo 11 launch brought mood of reflection across Nation, Neiv York 

Times said. Dawn was breaking in western U.S. when blastoff occurred. 
Workers in San Francisco's open air fish markets stood in silence to 
hear radio report. In San Diego motorists crossing U.S. -Mexican 
border listened to countdown on car radios. 

In mid-America, classes were postponed at Air Force Academy in 
Colorado Springs, Colo., while cadets watched launch on TV. Cow- 
hands at northern Wyoming ranch, inaccessible to radio or TV, in- 
terrupted work to honor Apollo 11. Ranch owner Dr. Oakleigh Thorn 
II said, "We feel so close to the moon shot out here, because we're 
so close to the stars and sky." 

In Biloxi, Miss., harbor fishermen paused on wharf to hear count- 
down. In Tennessee, tobacco farmers listened to transistor radios in 
fields. 

Washington, D.C., schoolteacher said, "The astronauts didn't just 
go to the moon. All our minds went to the moon and intellectually 
man's horizons have jumped leaps and bounds beyond the historical 
situation they've always been confined to." (Fosburgh, NYT, 
7/17/69, 1) 

• Worldwide audience focused on Apollo 11 launch: 

At summer residence, Castel Gondolfo, Italy, Pope Paul VI asked for 
prayers for U.S. astronauts a few hours before launch toward moon. 

U.S.S.R. radio and TV gave factual accounts of Apollo 11 launch 
but maintained third day of silence on Luna XV. Major Soviet news 
program at 8:30 pm Moscow time showed tape of Apollo 11 liftoff 
taken from live comsat coverage. 

In U.K. TV viewers saw launch via transatlantic satellite. BBC 
scheduled live coverage through July 24 splashdown and would relay 
broadcasts to continent by cable. London newspapers frontpaged 
Apollo 11. Daily Express headline read, "Ho Hum — Anyone for the 
Moon Today?" over report on relaxed astronauts. 

Polish TV viewers saw launch via 45-min transmission directly from 
Cape Kennedy. Hundreds of Germans and Americans crowded Apollo 
11 exhibit in Mannheim, Germany, department store. 

225 



July 16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Swedish TV viewers were advised by state broadcasting company 
not to turn off sets Sunday night — so they could be awakened for 
scheduled moon landing Monday. 

Hippies in Iran held milk and honey pots in Teheran restaurant to 
toast astronauts. In Egypt, Moslem world's leading moon expert, 
Sheikh Ahmand Haredi said, "The Koran urges Moslems to look up 
from their earthly abode to what lies behind the moon and stars." 

Japanese department stores featured models of Apollo command 
module. In Greece, Aspis-Pronoia insurance company issued first outer- 
space life insurance policy, to cover Apollo 11 crew at $10,000 each. 
In Spain people called event most interesting since Columbus discov- 
ered America. 

Israel's state radio broadcast in Hebrew from Cape Kennedy while 
Israelis stood around TV sets and portable radios in streets. U.S. 
Embassy in Tel Aviv and U.S. Consulate in Jerusalem opened Apollo 
11 information offices. Apollo 11 reaction was "generally tepid" in 
Lagos, Nigeria. Radio Nigeria reported launch seven minutes into its 
morning broadcast. Later it became number one newscast item. 

Most of Latin America missed launch on TV because of failure of 
Intelsat-III F—2 June 29. Latin American newspapers and TV cor- 
respondents traveled to U.S. to cover launch and were reported to be 
outraged by absence of TV coverage in their countries. In Colombia, 
government asked TV manufacturers to put sets in all town squares. 
Bogota students would have July 21 off to watch lunar landing. (NYT, 
7/17/69, 21, 22; Bishop, C Trib, 7/17/69) 

• Harry F. Guggenheim said in Washington Evening Star article that 

rocket expert Dr. Robert H. Goddard "was to the moon rocket what 
the Wright brothers were to the airplane." Guggenheim, administrator 
of Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics during 
period it helped support Dr. Goddard's research, traced career of 
"Father of modern rocketry" from early experiments in 1908. Among 
Goddard's inventions were: first liquid-fuel rocket, first smokeless 
powder rocket, and first practical automatic steering device for rockets. 
It was no wonder American Rocket Society had conceded to Goddard 
"the almost single-handed development of rocketry 'from a vague 
dream to one of the most significant branches of modern engineering.' " 
He had left "testimony to the power of one solitary individual to effect 
change and to transform the future." While Dr. Goddard had died 
without fame which had accrued to Wright brothers in their lifetime, 
"he died still believing that man would one day shatter the fetters of 
Earth's gravity and stride majestically into the vast reaches of 
space. I wish he were here now to share this moment. It belongs to 
him." (AP, W Star, 7/16/69, A15) 

• As part of NASA and Washington National Gallery of Art program, Eye- 

witness to Space, group of artists attended Apollo 11 launch to paint 
facets of mission. Program originated in 1963 when artists were in- 
vited to cover Mercury 9 mission. Among those commissioned to 
record Apollo 11 were Peter Hurd, Robert Rauschenberg, Lamar Dodd, 
and James B. Wyeth. Since program started, 25 artists had produced 
more than 500 sketches and paintings. (Casey, W Post, 7/13/69, Gl; 
Hicks, NYT, 7/15/69, 33; W Star, 7/17/69, A12) 

226 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 16 

• Apollo 11 was producing noticeable effect on business and consumer 

products, Washington Post said. Snoopy the Astronaut dolls were 
selling out; sales of color TV sets had risen in some stores; and sales 
of "moon maps and globes, as well as toy rocket ships and lunar ex- 
ploration vehicles had also lifted skyward." Two Washington, D.C., 
department stores were offering Japanese telescopes ranging from 
$19.99 to $1,000.00. One toy store manager said sales of space-related 
toys had jumped 70% or 80% in two months. Rockets propelled by 
solid-fuel inserts sold for $1.50 to $5.00 complete with recovery para- 
chute. One Washington store had sold out supply of $10 spacesuits. 
Demand for rental of color TV sets in Washington area had been 
"terrific," according to area dealer. (Cushing, W Post, 7/16/69, Dll ) 

• nas announced formation of Universities Space Research Assn. (usra) 

— national consortium of 48 universities— to foster cooperation among 
universities, other research organizations, and Government for ad- 
vancement of space research [see Jan. 10]. It would acquire, plan, 
construct, and operate laboratories and other facilities for R&D and 
education in space science and technology and had submitted proposal 
to NASA for management of Lunar Science Institute in Houston, Tex. 
Existing contract between NASA and NAS would expire in autumn. 
(nas Release) 

• U.S. newspaper editorials hailed Apollo 11 launch. 

Miami News: "All America, represented by three lonely men in 
space, is on its way to the moon. In fact, this is a people's effort, 
arousing the interest and participation of all the people of this coun- 
try. This is evidenced by the more than one million persons on hand 
at Cape Kennedy . . . for the start of the moon voyage and by the 
many millions who join in the adventure by television. Today's mag- 
nificent launch, and the elan stirred in our people by it, makes this 
one of America's most splendid hours." (Miami News, 7/17/69, A16) 

Washington Evening Star: countdown which culminated in Apollo 
11 liftoff, "regardless of nasa's official records," had begun, "when 
primitive man first looked up into the night sky to gaze at the moon, 
and to feel the first stirring of wonder." (W Star, 7/16/69, A22) 

Huntsville Times: Manhattan Project had climaxed with July 16, 
1945, explosion of world's first successful atomic bomb. "Men, it 
seems, can only pray that the consequences of the quest of the planets 
may be better than those born in the irreversible explosion on a New 
Mexico desert 24 years ago." (Huntsville Times, 7/16/69) 

Chicago Sun-Times: "Man has always looked upward to the stars, 
first in fear and awe, then in need to know. Today the first great step 
to the firmament will be taken. If it is successful man will stand on 
the threshold of outer space — and standing there will reach outward." 
(C Sun-Times, 7/16/69) 

• Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm, Sweden, welcomed Apollo 11 launch: 

"One of the greatest adventures of human history begins today. . . . 
Studies of the moon will to a great degree enrich our knowledge of 
both the earth and space. Among other things it will be possible to 
make comparisons which will propel science by leaps in various 
disciplines. . . . While we can predict much that may result from 
conquest of the moon, there will in all likelihood- be many results 

227 



July 16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

which we cannot even imagine now. All great discoveries and bold 
undertakings have brought advances which no one could have fore- 
seen from the outset." 

Arbetet, Malmo, Sweden: "There is an irrational element in these 
feats of discovery which fortunately dominates the prosaic calculation 
of gains. Then one can regret that man's fantasy seems incapable of 
being fired for such a tremendous task as eliminating starvation from 
our earth, or for bringing peace to Biafra or for eliminating the U.S. 
Negro ghettos. . . . Three men will be lifted to world acclaim today 
on the crest of mankind's greatest ever coordinated effort. . . ." (Am 
Embassy, Stockholm) 
July 17: White House announced Apollo 11 crew on way to moon was 
carrying Soviet commemorative medals brought back to U.S. by 
Astronaut Frank Borman, who had received them from widows of 
Cosmonauts Yuri A. Gagarin and Vladimir M. Komarov during his 
Moscow visit. Apollo 11 also carried Apollo 204 crew patch and com- 
memorative medals struck for families of Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, 
Edward H. White, and Roger B. Chaffee before astronauts died in 
Jan. 27, 1967, fire. 

President Nixon said, "The names of Gagarin and Komarov, of 
Grissom, White, and Chaffee, share the honors we pray will come to 
Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins. In recognizing the dedication and 
sacrifice of brave men of different nations, we underscore an example 
we hope to set: that if men can reach the moon, men can reach agree- 
ment." (PD, 7/21/69, 999) 

• Aerospace industry was having its greatest week in history with Apollo 

11 launch, said New York Times, but aerospace stocks remained in 
doldrums. Wall Street was "bearish about the industry and, from an 
investment standpoint, unenthusiastic about space." Security analysts 
interviewed agreed Apollo 11 would have little effect on long-depressed 
stocks, which commenced decline in 1968; many were selling near 
lows for year. Aerospace industry was chief beneficiary of space pro- 
gram funds, but largest portion of $34 billion spent since 1960 had 
been allocated before "really spectacular shots" occurred. While 
Apollo program had been "trerriendous boon to the aerospace industry 
and to the advancement of technology," it represented small part of 
total industry revenues and outlook was for further decline. (Hammer, 
NYT, 7/17/69, 63) 

• Teletype from German ship Vegesack reported numerous pieces of Saturn 

V launch vehicle from Apollo 11 were sighted dropping into sea 
around ship. Vegesack had been at position some 375 mi east-north- 
east of Cape Kennedy when Apollo 11 lifted off toward moon July 16. 
(W News, 2/3/70) 

• Apollo 11 launch continued to draw wide editorial comment in foreign 

and national press. 

New York Times: "One could hardly watch the magnificent spectacle 
of the liftoff, let alone contemplate the feats of human ingenuity that 
made it possible, as well as the courage and skill of the flyers, without 
some reflection upon the meaning of this event. . . . The temptation is 
strong to fall back upon lyricism. The poetry of the thing has yet to 
find its expression in any of the earnest, proficient Americans who 
have ventured away from the Earth; yet, the stunning beauty of 

228 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 17 

man's most marvelous creation, as it rose in its majesty toward the 
unknown, toward the future, could be matched only by the profound 
sense of having been present at an end to something and therefore 
necessarily at a beginning." (Wicker, NYT, 7/17/69) 

Chicago Tribune: "The Apollo 11 blastoff was as beautiful a one 
as we've seen. It displayed every bit of the precision and the careful 
planning which we have come to expect from NASA." One of most 
"satisfying" things was that, "like our earlier launchings, it took place 
within the sight of anybody who wanted to go to the Florida coast 
to watch it, and was broadcast live to countless millions more in every 
corner of the world. People will not fail to contrast this with the 
secrecy of Russia's unmanned Luna 15, which may reach the moon 
today on a mysterious mission of its own." (C Trib, 7/17/69) 

Christian Science Monitor: "And although it is an American moon- 
craft, bearing American men . . . the venture is, in the best sense, a 
universal one. It is the result of American technology putting to use 
the knowledge, techniques and discoveries in which all nations and 
races have participated. ... all nations and peoples are taking part." 
iCSM, 1/17/69) 

Seattle Times: "The space program has yielded immense new re- 
sources in . . . scientific and technological advances which . . . make 
the program worth while even beyond the explorations and discoveries 
— and national pride — offered by the ventures into outer space. It 
strikes us, therefore, that the time is at hand for these so-called by- 
products of the space program, which hold such promise for utilization 
in behalf of mankind, to be put to work for that purpose." (S Times, 
7/17/69) 

Bulgarian Telegraph Agency report carried in Bulgarian newspapers 
Rabotnichesko Delo, Narodna Mladezh, Trud, and Kooperativno Celo 
commented: "In the coming days all humanity will follow this flight 
with interest and tension. And surely there is no one on our old 
planet who will not ask himself this question: 'Will it succeed?'' 
I Am Embassy, Sofia) 

• Florida Legislature had neglected to send President Nixon copy of its 

June 6 resolution asking him to restore original name "Cape Ca- 
naveral" to Cape Kennedy, Orlando Sentinel said. Fate of project 
seemed to rest with joint resolution introduced in Congress July 10 
for same purpose. (Orlando Sentinel, 7/17/69, 14A) 

• dod estimates in transcript of closed session of U.S. Senate revealed that 

by 1974 U.S.S.R. could have 420 SS-9 missiles, or total of 1,260 war- 
heads. Even if Phase I of U.S. Safeguard were deployed by that time, 
1,000 arriving Soviet warheads would be able to knock out all but 
135—150 Minuteman missiles — far below DOD estimates of what was 
needed for adequate U.S. second strike capability. (AFJ, 12/6/69) 
July 18: In response to telephone inquiry by Astronaut Frank Borman, 
Mstislav V. Keldysh, President of Soviet Academy of Sciences, sent 
telegram guaranteeing that Luna XV, orbiting moon, would not inter- 
fere with Apollo 11 mission and assuring Borman that he would be 
notified of any changes in spacecraft's course. Under 1967 U.N. Outer 
Space Treaty, U.S. and U.S.S.R. were bound to furnish each other this 
kind of information. (Wilford, NYT, 7/19/69, 1) 

• Apollo passive seismic experiment, part of extravehicular activity to be 

229 



July 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

performed by Apollo 11 astronauts on moon, was described in Science 
as "the most exciting experiment in seismology." Dr. G. Latham and 
Dr. M. Ewing of Columbia Univ.'s Lamont-Doherty Geological Ob- 
servatory, Dr. F. Press of MIT, and Dr. G. Sutton of Univ. of Hawaii 
explained objective was to detect naturally occurring seismic events 
on lunar surface through early Apollo scientific experiment package 
(easep) planted on moon. Package weighed 105 lbs and would trans- 
mit data to earth one year (or maximum two years), during lunar days 
because its solar cell panels required illumination to provide power. 
Complete Apollo lunar surface experiments package (alsep), contain- 
ing at least three additional experiments for measurements of solar 
wind and magnetic field, would be included on Apollo 12 for day and 
night operation. 

In Apollo 11 experiment astronaut would remove instrument from 
lm to smoothest area within 6.6-9.8 ft (20-30 m) of LM, unfold solar 
panels, adjust package level to within 5°, orient it with azimuth for 
maximum illumination of solar panels, and aim antenna toward earth. 
MSC would issue commands to uncage and level seismometers and select 
proper gain. Expected sources of lunar seismic activity included several 
hundred monthly moonquakes, thermal stresses produced by rapid 
temperature variations at surface; tidal stresses exerted by earth and 
sun; and meteoroid impacts. By end of Apollo program, scientists 
hoped to have achieved crude curves of travel time for body and 
surface waves and beginning of seismicity map of moon. 

During post-Apollo period, seismologists wanted to achieve wider 
distribution of detectors to map seismically active belts in greater de- 
tail; study mechanisms of energy release; lower minimum detectable 
ground motion of individual seismometer; and improve performance 
of long-period seismometer systems at ultralong-period end of spectrum 
for recording surface waves from moonquakes, free oscillations of 
moon, and lunar tides. (Science, 7/18/69, 241-50) 

• White House confirmed President Nixon would talk with Apollo 11 

astronauts over two-way TV hookup as they first set foot on moon. 
Nixon and Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
would be visible on split screen to earth TV viewers. President could 
watch on White House TV, but astronauts would have no view of him. 
President Nixon planned to spend evening of July 20 watching 
Apollo 11 progress on TV with former Astronaut Frank Borman, 
White House liaison with nasa. (Lyons, W Post, 7/19/69, A9) 

• Apollo 10 mission (May 18—26), first lunar orbital mission with com- 

plete Apollo spacecraft, was adjudged successful by nasa. Mission had 
achieved all objectives; systems had performed according to plan 
with only minor anomalies and crew had acquired major quantities 
of photographic training materials for subsequent Apollo missions. 
(NASA Proj Off) 

• lzvestia gave first U.S.S.R. report of President Nixon's July 17 announce- 

ment that medals of two dead Soviet cosmonauts would be placed on 
moon by Apollo 11 astronauts. Factual account of mission carried no 
comment. (W Post, 7/19/69, A10) 

• Pride Inc. Operations Director Marion Barry called on black community 

to work during July 21 National Day of Participation declared by 
President Nixon in honor of Apollo 11 lunar landing. During Wash- 

230 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 18 

ington press conference he said, "Why should blacks rejoice when 
two white Americans land on the moon when white America's money 
and technology have not even reached" the inner city? "Why should 
blacks celebrate Monday . . . when President Nixon didn't feel that 
Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination deserved to be observed?" 
(Paka, W Post, 7/19/69, A9) 

• Richmond, Va., News-Leader editorial approved Vice President Spiro T. 

Agnew's calling for flight to Mars by end of century [see July 16] : 
"One day, man will go beyond the planets, to other solar systems; 
right now . . . that is not within our technological reach. But Mars is, 
and so are the other planets. The moon is in earth's, and man's, own 
crib. Plans and commitments should be made — now — for man to take 
grown-up strides in the real world of space." ( R News-Leader, 
7/18/69) 

• After four years of "running at top speed," MSC had failed to turn 

Houston, Tex., into "science city," said Thomas G. Plate in Science. 
Houston area, as largest petrochemical industry area in U.S., was 
"going its own booming way" while 4,600 NASA people and 9,000 
employees of 125 private firms working on NASA business in area 
helped to shape space age community at MSC. "The injection of $140 
million a year in NASA money and the impact on the life of the area 
of NASA workers- — some 2500 of them R&D scientists and engineers — 
and of the 9000 employees of . . . high-technology firms serving MSC 
has so far had surprisingly little effect. But meanwhile the space 
community has developed its own special character with its own style 
of life and its own special goals." (Science, 7/18/69, 265-9) 

• ComSatCorp reported second quarter earnings of $1,976,000 (20 cents 

per share); earnings had been $1,506,000 (15 cents per share) in 
similar 1968 period. Earnings for first six months of 1969 totaled 
$3,501,000 (35 cents per share) and $3,405,000 (33 cents per share) 
in 1968. (ComSatCorp Release 69-43) 
July 19: Montreal, Canada, Gazette commented on Apollo 11 mission: 
"Lyndon Johnson, more than any other man, is responsible for meet- 
ing the moon-shot deadline this week. . . ." (Am Consul, Montreal) 

• Pittsfield, Mass., Berkshire Eagle editorial said: "It subtracts nothing 

from the extraordinary human and technical achievement represented 
by Apollo 11 to say that the projected lunar landing is an occasion 
not only for awe and pride but also for a thoughtful reappraisal of our 
whole approach to the new frontier of space." (B Eagle, 7/19/69) 
July 20: "We have entered a new era," Dr. Thomas O. Paine, nasa Admin- 
istrator, told press in Houston following Apollo 11 lunar landing. "The 
significance of the trip is that mankind is going to establish places 
of abode outside of his planet earth." 

In telephone call to White House, Dr. Paine had told President 
Nixon, "It is my honor on behalf of the entire NASA team to report to 
you that the Eagle has landed on the Sea of Tranquility and our astro- 
nauts are safe and looking forward to starting the exploration of the 
moon." Dr. Paine said President Nixon had spoken with "excitement 
and awe in his voice" and mood was that of "considerable tension 
relieved." nasa planned tentative six additional manned lunar missions 
over next few years. Dr. Paine praised U.S.S.R.'s cooperation in pro- 
viding Luna XV information to Astronaut Frank Borman [see July 

231 



July 20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

18]. He also said if Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong had not assumed 
manual control of LM to steer it from crater during lunar landing, 
"we might . . . have had considerable difficulty." (McGehan, B Sun, 
7/21/69, Al) 

• CBS presented interview with former President Lyndon B. Johnson 

which had been taped July 5. President Johnson credited space pro- 
gram with sparking "revolution of the 60s" and said, "We can't dis- 
card space. We're just beginning." U.S. had enough money "to do 
all the things we need to do" in space, education, and health. "What 
we must have is the determination to do it." He said his last act as 
president had been to send Apollo 8 photos of earth to 186 leaders 
of foreign governments. {W Post, 7/21/69, A7) 

• Astronaut Frank Borman repeated Apollo 8 reading from Genesis at 

White House service attended by President and family, Vice President, 
Cabinet members, Congressmen, and members of Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
and of diplomatic corps. During sermon, Dr. Paul S. Smith, President 
of Whittier College and member of Religious Society of Friends, said: 
"It was a philosopher . . . who, two thousand years ago, first recounted 
a voyage to the moon. Lucian called it The True History but confessed 
in the preface that he wrote 'of things which are not and never could 
have been.' It was a political satirist's precautionary disclaimer be- 
cause his real subject was the stupidity of human warfare. His lunar 
voyagers got caught up in internecine strife between the moonmen 
and the sunmen over the colonization of Venus! If there is something 
instructive in the thought, it may be the implication that after two 
millennia of philosophy men are still fighting over real estate and still 
dying in the name of philosophical abstractions, but that a voyage to 
the moon is just as feasible (though somewhat more expensive) as a 
trip to Timbuktu." (Wiegers, W Post, 7/21/69, Bl; CR, 7/22/69, 
H6189-90) 

• Hours before lunar landing attempt by Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. 

Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Pope Paul VI said at Castel Gon- 
dolfo, Italy: "In the ecstasy of this prophetic day, a real triumph for 
means produced by man for the domination of the universe, we must 
not forget man's need to dominate himself. Admiration, enthusiasm 
and passion for instruments, for the products of man's hand, fascinate 
us, perhaps to the point of madness. . . . This is the danger: We must 
beware of this worship." (Schmick, B Sun, 7/21/69, A4) 

• Tass announced that Luna XV was still functioning normally in lunar 

orbit with 109.4-km (68-mi) apolune, 16.1-km (10-mi) perilune, 1-hr 
54-min period, and 127° inclination. Sir Bernard Lovell, Director of 
U.K.'s Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, said Luna XV had con- 
ducted two midcourse corrections and speculated that spacecraft was 
preparing either to land or to observe Apollo 11 landing. (AP, B Sun, 
7/21/69, Al) 
July 20-21: White House was flooded with congratulatory cables and tele- 
phone calls on Apollo 11 landing, from heads of state throughout 
world. Washington Post estimated half billion persons had watched 
lunar touchdown on worldwide TV, and NBC said 123 million in U.S. 
saw it, mostly in their own homes. But 35,000 baseball fans in New 
York had learned of landing's success when words "They're on the 
moon" flashed on scoreboard at Yankee Stadium. In New York's 

232 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 20-21 

Harlem, many of 50,000 attending soul music festival booed lunar 
landing announcement. At massive "Moon In" at Central Park, 
enthusiastic crowd of young people watched landing on huge outdoor 
TV screen in steady downpour and bought "lunar dogs," "Apollo rock 
candy," and "moon picnic" boxes. 

Composer and band leader Duke Ellington made singing debut with 
"Moon Maiden," song he wrote to celebrate Apollo 11 success, taped 
for abc. New York Times sold out 950,000 copies of July 21 issue 
announcing lunar landing and announced it would reprint entire 
edition July 24 as souvenir. Special Florida Times-Union edition 
datelined "Moonday, July 21" sold out in Jacksonville within two 
hours. Estimated 8,000 Western Electric Co. employees left work or 
failed to show up in protest against being denied access to TV or 
radios on job during lunar landing. Des Moines, Iowa, TV stations 
received some complaints from viewers over absence of regular 
programs. 

Crime rate fell in Los Angeles, while in Savannah, Ga., 17 prisoners 
sawed their way out of Chatham County prison branch while guards 
watched Apollo 11 on TV. 

At msc, Houston Welfare Rights Organization members demon- 
strated around display of LM, calling on U.S. to set new goal — elimi- 
nation of poverty. (AP, B Sun, 7/22/69; W Post, 7/21/69; 7/22/69; 
Apollo 11 Mission Commentary, 7/21/69; NYT, 7/17/69, 7/27/69) 
• Millions around world hailed Apollo 11 landing: 

Soviet Premier Alexsey Kosygin complimented U.S. on lunar land- 
ing and expressed interest in widening U.S.— U.S.S.R. space coopera- 
tion during July 21 Moscow discussion with former Vice President 
Hubert H. Humphrey, who was ending Soviet visit. Soviet TV did not 
carry live coverage of Apollo 11 lunar landing July 20; Tass an- 
nouncement was read by newscaster and carried in two-paragraph item 
on Pravdas front page. Evening paper, Izvestia, accorded story more 
space and featured photo of astronauts on moon. On TV, Cosmonaut 
Konstantin P. Feoktistov described landing as "major landmark" and 
said crew had coped "brilliantly" with mission. Georgy Petrov, Di- 
rector of Soviet Institute for Cosmic Research, called Apollo 11 "out- 
standing achievement" but said more data per ruble could have been 
gathered by unmanned probes. 

Statue dedicated to Apollo 11 astronauts was unveiled July 21 in 
sports stadium at Cracow, Poland. 

In U.K., Queen Elizabeth watched lunar landing on TV, then cabled 
President Nixon "warmest congratulations." Prime Minister Harold 
Wilson expressed "heartfelt relief." At Jodrell Bank Experimental 
Station astronomers applauded and director, Sir Bernard Lovell, said 
that "the future has been revolutionized." David Threlfall collected 
$24,000 on five-year-old bet that man would land on celestial body 
before 1971. Betting shop had given him thousand-to-one odds [see 
May 29]. 

In Wollongong, Australia, local judge heard cases while watching 
Apollo 11 lunar landing on portable TV set. 

Czechoslovakia issued two postage stamps July 21 commemorating 
lunar landing, while record crowds at U.S. Embassy exhibition tapered 
off after exhausting supply of Apollo giveaway materials. 

233 



July 20-21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Five thousand Hungarians walked through American Embassy in 
Budapest July 21, picking up usia pamphlet Man on the Moon. 

In Romania, bouquets were tossed through U.S. Embassy fence to 
foot of flagpole and several Romanians reported large numbers of 
Bulgarians were crossing border to watch live TV coverage of 
Apollo 11. 

Cuban government decided not to jam Voice of America broadcast 
of Apollo 11 lunar landing. In Algiers news was ignored except for 
announcement in government-controlled newspaper that "the man is 
on the moon." In Ghana, village chief listening to voa broadcast 
feared astronauts might fall off moon if not careful. 

In Bangkok, freedom for 622 pardoned prisoners was delayed be- 
cause guards refused to leave TV sets showing Apollo 11. 

Lunar landing stole top play in Israel and Egypt, from accounts of 
their fierce fighting at Suez Canal. 

In Singapore, girl born half hour after lunar landing was named 
Luna. In Pakistan, boy baby was named Apollo. 

Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, and Indian Parliament gave 
standing ovation to Apollo 11 astronauts at opening of day's business 
in New Delhi July 21. 

In Japan, Emperor Hirohito called off customary daily stroll and 
interrupted lunch to watch Apollo 11 on TV. 

Iroquois Indians in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, feared lunar land- 
ing might plunge earth into darkness and release monsters from 
earth's core. Their medicine man and chief, Joseph Logan, Jr., had 
said moon was sacred to his people and "we are not supposed to dis- 
turb her." 

In Taipei, Formosa, Nationalist China Parliament member Hsieh 
Jen-chao invited Apollo 11 astronauts to attend Moon Festival honor- 
ing rabbit which Chinese legend said lived on moon and could provide 
eternal life. 

Some devout Moslems in Somalia refused to believe Apollo 11 
lunar landing was reality. Following radio, press, and word-of-mouth 
announcement, fist fights broke out July 21 in Mogadiscio streets 
between believers and disbelievers. Parents of baby boy born on lunar 
landing day broke with Muslim tradition and named child Armstrong 
Abdurahman Osman. 

In Brussels workers in radio and TV studios suspended strike dur- 
ing transmission of Apollo 11 mission film. 

In Brazil several thousand persons cheered as they witnessed tele- 
vised lunar landing at Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro while 
church bells rang outside. In Santiago de Chile people rushed out of 
restaurants to look at moon, forgetting it was midafternoon when 
they learned of lunar landing. 

While rest of world focused on lunar landing, one quarter of world's 
population labored through sixth moon of Chinese lunar year unaware 
of event. Approximately 800 million people in Communist China had 
heard no news of lunar landing. Only deviation from "total blackout 
on space exploration" was July 17 story of Astronaut Frank Borman's 
visit to Moscow, reported by New China News Agency. (C Trib, 
7/22/69; W Post, 7/21-22/69; W Star, 7/22/69; NYT, 7/22/69; 

234 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 20-21 

B Sun, 7/21-22/69; Am Embassy, Prague, Bucharest, Brussels, Buda- 
pest, Mogadiscio) 
• Press in U.S. and around the world underscored Apollo lFs landing on 
moon and man's first steps on another planet. 

St. Louis Post-Dispatch: "There is no doubt that the United States 
should continue to support a substantial spacefaring program. Any- 
thing else would be a denial of the scientific spirit of the century and 
the qualities that have made America what it is. But its scope should 
be measured by findings and probabilities — and one other factor. 
Future spacefaring ought to be a co-operative effort of all nations able 
to participate, with the benefits to be shared by all." (St. Louis P-D, 
7/20/69) 

Washington Sunday Star; "A creature that can stand where Arm- 
strong and Aldrin stand tonight — that can, in the future, move among 
the spheres and literally explore new worlds ... is unlikely to give up 
on the hard task of perfecting himself and his life in his natural en- 
vironment on earth. The God who brought him thus far from a blob of 
squirming protoplasm ... is unlikely ... to let man blow it all now. 
Here . . . must be the answer to the national debate as to whether we 
go ahead in space, or whether we tend to our knitting at home. We 
are bound to do both. . . . The progressive expansion of the physical 
and spiritual domain of man inevitably will intensify our determination 
and ability, in concert with other nations, to build a home world 
where hunger, fear and violence no longer have a place." ( W Star, 
7/20/69, Gl) 

William Hines in Washington Sunday Star: "One cannot question 
the majesty of conception or magnitude of effort that made Apollo 11 
possible." But one could ask, "Is this trip really necessary?" One saw 
in Apollo "that fundamental failing called hubris, which got so many 
protagonists into hot water in the old Greek mythology. Hubris in 
English is usually taken to mean prideful arrogance; in ancient 
Greek the word meant simple insolence. The Apollo enthusiast rejects 
the concept of hubris; he says we go to the moon not because we are 
arrogant, but because we are driven, and thereby implicitly rejects the 
concept of free will and substitutes sappiness for sassiness. The ma- 
jority asks, 'But if we didn't go, what?' and the minority responds, 
'If we didn't go, so what?'" (W Star, 7/20/69, G2) 

Humorist Art Buchwald in Washington Post: "Sometimes one gets 
the feeling that the right hand germs in the Government don't know 
what the left hand germs are doing. This was brought home to me . . . 
when I read about the millions of dollars that were being spent to see 
that the astronauts did not bring back a single germ from the moon. 
Unfortunately, across the page from that story was another that the 
Army was going ahead with open air testing of nerve gases and germ 
warfare." (W Post, 7/20/69, B6) 

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner: "America's moon program has bene- 
fited all mankind. It has brought better color television, water purifi- 
cation at less cost, new paints and plastics, improved weather fore- 
casting, medicine, respirators, walkers for the handicapped, laser 
surgery, world-wide communications, new transportation systems, 
earthquake prediction system and solar power. . . . The Mars goal 

235 



July 20-21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

should bring benefits to all mankind even greater than the tremendous 
contributions of the moon program." (LA Her-Exam, 7/20/69) 

Baltimore Sun: ". . . it is still almost incredible that in the afternoon 
of a Sunday on earth two humans found themselves within a vehicle 
resting on the surface of the moon. Nothing could quite prepare one's 
mind for that, or for the subsequent moment of climax, the actual 
setting of a human foot on the substance of our barren satellite. One 
of the mysteries that had engaged the infinitely inquisitive mind of 
man is now made tangible. Others remain beyond our planet and 
upon it." (B Sun, 7/21/69, A16) 

Chicago Daily News: "These have been moments to savor — moments 
in which uncounted millions have shared the immediacy of a turning 
point in history. This time there was no lapse of weeks or months, 
waiting for the event to be confirmed. We were all there, bound to- 
gether by the miracle of communication that intertwined all the other 
miracles of technology that marked man's first step on a celestial 
body." (C Daily News, 7/21/69) 

Milwaukee Journal: "Superlatives pale before the magnificence of 
the achievement. . . . but how many years before the astounding 
performance of Armstrong and Aldrin will seem as primitive as the 
pioneering work of the Wright brothers?" (MJ, 7/21/69, 14) 

Cleveland Plain Dealer: "Man's store of scientific knowledge will be 
vastly enriched by the landing on the moon. In no other single event 
in history has there been greater opportunity to unlock the mysteries 
of the universe." (Plain Dealer, 7/21/69) 

London Daily Sketch: "America's moon triumph offers this old 
world's bickering and jealous people a parable of hope." (B Sun, 
7/22/69, Al) 

Montreal Star: "The deepest hope for a world starved for some form 
of symbolism, of an attempt at harmony in place of selfishness and 
narrow nationalism, came from the astronauts," CFOX Radio, Montreal, 
broadcast. "Eliminate war? Yes! Eliminate poverty? Yes! But the 
exploration of space will help us, not impede us, in reaching these 
goals." (Am Consul, Montreal) 

Arbetet, Malmo, Sweden (principal organ of Social Democratic 
Party) : "No Soviet politician has ever before used such conciliatory 
tones toward the U.S.A. as did Foreign Minister Gromyko recently 
in his speech before the Supreme Soviet. . . . This Russian position 
seems generally to be based on fears of a confrontation with China. 
. . . One of the side effects can be increased Russian interest in broader 
scientific cooperation in space research. Nothing else could be better 
designed for global cooperation, since nothing else gives us clearer 
testimony that we live in one world." (Am Embassy, Stockholm) 
July 21: U.S.S.R.'s Luna XV (launched July 13) had landed on moon at 
6:45 pm Moscow time (11:45 am EDT) and had ended its work, Tass 
announced. Spacecraft had "reached the moon's surface in the preset 
area" after 52 revolutions around moon and 86 communications ses- 
sions during which "the work of the new systems of the station was 
checked, the parameters of the trajectory of the movement was meas- 
ured, and scientific research was conducted." Tass said Luna XV had 
demonstrated capability to land on various areas of lunar surface by 

236 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 21 

changing selenocentric orbit and that mission had yielded important 
data on spacecraft systems. 

Sir Bernard Lovell, Jodrell Bank Experimental Station Director, 
said signals from spacecraft had ended suddenly and estimated craft 
might have landed in Sea of Crises, about 500 mi from Sea of Tran- 
quility. "If we don't get any more signals, we will assume it crash- 
landed. But we don't make that assumption at the moment." (Gwertz- 
man, NYT, 7/22/69, 1, 29) 

• Univ. of Texas astronomers reported second unsuccessful attempt to 

bounce laser beam off reflector left on moon by Apollo 11 astronauts. 
McDonald Observatory Director, Dr. Harlan Smith, said he expected 
eventual success. (AP, B Sun, 7/22/69, A8) 

• Galabert International Astronautics Prize for 1969 was awarded in Paris 

to Apollo 11 astronauts. Award of $4,000 was presented annually for 
notable contributions "to human progress for the advancement of all 
sciences and techniques associated with astronautics." (AP, B Sun, 
7/22/69, A8) 

• HUD Secretary George W. Romney addressed International Platform 

Assn. in Washington, D.C.: "I do not propose that we now abandon 
our efforts to extend man's reach still further beyond our planet, any 
more than we abandoned our domestic goals while we were reaching 
for the moon. But I do believe the time has come for a revision — 
in fact, a reversal — of our national priorities. I believe that in the 
decades ahead, the public interest and indeed our national survival 
require us to assign our housing and urban goals a high priority — at 
least comparable to the priority we gave our space program in the 
decade just ending." (HUD News; Hutchens, W Star, 7/22/69, A6) 

• South Korea dedicated its first superhighway, linking Seoul with Inchon. 

It was named Apollo in honor of U.S. moon landing. (AP, W Post, 
7/23/69, C5) 
July 22: U.S.S.R. launched two unmanned satellites. Cosmos CCXC, 
launched from Plesetsk, entered orbit with 323-km (200.7-mi) apogee, 
192-km (119.3-mi) perigee, 89.6-min period, and 65.4° inclination and 
reentered July 30. Molniya 1—12 comsat, launched from Baikonur, 
entered orbit with 39,526-km (24,560.3-mi) apogee, 496-km (308.2- 
mi) perigee, 711.0-min period, and 64.9° inclination, (gsfc SSR, 
7/31/69; SBD, 7/28/69, 62; NYT, 7/23/69, 26) 

• Scientists at MSC, monitoring seismometers left on lunar surface by Apollo 

11 astronauts, recorded five-minute tremor they said could have been 
internal activity — moonquake — or meteoroid strike on surface. Scien- 
tists expressed concern that seismometer was overheating, probably be- 
cause of damage to protective cover from lm exhaust, and might not 
survive heat of lunar moon. (McGehan, B Sun, 7/23/69, Al; Cohn, 
W Post, 7/24/69, A15) 

• Scientists at Lick Observatory in California unsuccessfully tried for third 

consecutive night to bounce ruby laser beams off reflector left on lunar 
surface by Apollo 11 astronauts. They admitted difficulty in pinpointing 
reflector's exact location and speculated that it might have been 
knocked down by lm exhaust during ascent. (AP, W Star, 7/23/69, 
A7) 

• NASA announced revised plans for first orbital workshop, with 1972 

237 



July 22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

launch using first two stages of Saturn V to launch workshop and 
Apollo Telescope Mount together. Workshop would be outfitted on 
ground and would arrive in 253-mi circular orbit equipped for imme- 
diate occupancy by astronauts and with ATM attached. Program objec- 
tives remained same as when NASA intended to use Saturn IB 2nd stage 
as 1971 workshop: to provide environment in which man could live 
and work for extended periods in space and to study man's physio- 
logical and psychological responses and capabilities in space. ATM 
would permit man to operate high-resolution astronomical telescopes in 
space, free from earth's atmosphere. 

Saturn V hardware from Apollo program was available for revised 
plan, (nasa Release 69-105; Simons, W Post, 7/22/69, Al) 

• President Nixon addressed 2,000 American Field Service students from 

60 countries on White House lawn: ". . . in the year 2000 we will, on 
this earth, have visited new worlds where there will be a form of life. 
I know this will happen, and I want to tell you as I look forward and 
dream about that future . . . this is the kind of world I would like to 
see and the kind of exploration of that new world that I know all 
Americans want. I hope that when the next great venture into space 
takes place that it will be one in which Americans will be joined by 
representatives of other countries." (PD, 7/28/69, 1016—7) 

• U.K. radioastronomer Sir Bernard Lovell told press at U.K.'s Jodrell 

Bank Experimental Station that Apollo 11 and Luna ZF increased 
hopes for U.S.— U.S.S.R. space cooperation because "this is the first 
time the United States has been demonstratively superior in a vital 
part of the space program. American approaches for collaboration may 
be received with sympathy in the Soviet Union as they can no longer 
regard themselves as masters." (AP, B Sun, 7/23/69, A4) 

• Wall Street brokerage houses were watching effect of Apollo 11 success 

on stocks as market resumed trading after July 21 holiday. Some firms 
believed lunar landing would generate enthusiasm, although its impact 
would be restrained by uncertainties over surtax extension, House com- 
mittee vote to cut oil depletion allowance (major tax benefit of petro- 
leum industry), and apparent standoff at Vietnam peace conference. 
(upi, W Star, 7/22/69, C7) 

• Washington Post said it found intellectuals "deeply divided" on implica- 

tions of lunar landing. Univ. of California physicist Dr. Owen Cham- 
berlain had said achievement showed "mankind can be in charge of 
his destiny. . . . We should now come back and put our emphasis on 
the surface of the globe" to achieve peace, lessen poverty, control over- 
population, and preserve our environment. 

Univ. of California chemist Dr. Harold C. Urey said if some of space 
effort reliability rubbed off on industry, "spin-off" would be enormous 
and space program would pay for itself. Less than ^ of 1% of gnp 
was spent on space and if lessened there was no guarantee it would 
be spent on necessary domestic programs. 

Harvard Univ. biochemist Dr. George Wald had said: "What should 
have been a great flight of the human spirit comes to us heavy with 
threat. Those almost miraculous guidance systems that so uncannily 
find their targets, will they one day be guiding missiles to find us?" 
Dr. Wald wondered if Apollo 11 had opened new horizons for his 
students. "I am afraid that they see in this an exercise in great wealth 

238 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1%9 July 22 

and power, heavy with military and political overtones. I am afraid 
that they feel a little more trapped; a little more disillusioned, a little 
more desperate." 

Most overseas intellectuals tended to concur with historian Prof. 
Arnold J. Toynbee's judgment, "If we are going to go on behaving on 
earth as we have behaved here so far, then a landing on the moon will 
have to be written off as just one more shocking misuse of mankind's 
slender surplus product." 

But Oxford Univ.'s Prof. A. J. Ayer had said, "I doubt if Prof. 
Toynbee has any evidence that men are being prevented in any large 
numbers from turning their minds to meaningful pursuits by the part 
which they play, or the interest which they take, in the exploration 
of space. ... I think that these spatial explorations . . . are intellec- 
tually stimulating, especially to young people." ( W Post, 7/22/69, 
A14) 

• Australian Civil Aviation Minister Reginald Swartz said passengers on 

transpacific Qantas Airlines flight would see Apollo 11 reentry July 
24 when command module would parallel their aircraft for four min- 
utes during descent near Gilbert and Ellice Islands. (Reuters, W Post, 
7/23/69, A 12) 

• U.S. Patent Office issued patent No. 3,456,387 to Clyde A. Tolson, Asso- 

ciate Director of Federal Bureau of Investigation, for equipment to 
operate emergency windows and exits in aircraft and space vehicles. 
Without action of occupants, sensors would detect abnormal conditions 
and computer would weigh considerations before opening appropriate 
escape exits. 

Patent No. 3,456,445 was issued to Curtiss-Wright Corp. for im- 
proved version of astronaut maneuvering unit, Cap Pistol, intended to 
propel man outside space vehicle by capsules spaced along tape strip 
and fired by engine in pistol fashion. Inventors were Joseph F. Loprete, 
Max Beniele, and Richard E. Biehl. (Pat Off pio; Jones, NYT, 
7/26/69, 31) 

• Goodyear Aerospace Corp. had invented USAF Pilot Airborne Recovery 

Device (pard) to keep ejecting jet fighter pilot aloft and out of range 
of enemy ground fire until his midair retrieval by rescue aircraft. 
Ballute (balloon-parachute) attached to main parachute had burner 
suspended below and fueled from propane tank on pilot's back. At 
250°F, hot air kept parachute above ground for 30 min. System could 
be operated automatically to carry pilot 6,000 ft or manually to 
10,000-ft hovering altitude. (NYT, 7/22/69, 58) 

• National and international press continued comment on Apollo 11 lunar 

landing. 

Philadelphia Inquirer: "Will this magnificent accomplishment serve 
as inspiration, urging Americans and all mankind on to a genuine 
'giant leap' forward, not merely into the infinite reaches of space but 
into the infinite possibilities of achievement on earth where the space 
age has recorded many more failures than successes? Or will the 
inspiration be abandoned before the veiled censure of those who seem 
to suggest the solution of all human dilemmas lies in turning away 
from space to other priorities?" Cutbacks at hour of triumph would 
be only waste of investment in technology which could be helped in 
solving earth problems. "This is no time to falter, our astronauts should 

239 



July 22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

come home to a world and nation determined to fulfill the prophecy in 
Commander Armstrong's words." (P lnq, 7/22/69) 

Washington Post: It was foolish "to leap from this historic moment 
to eager expectations of the day when men will live and work in 
space, when colonies will be established, food raised and industrial 
products built on heavenly bodies other than the earth. These things 
will doubtless come in their own good time. But this is not the occasion 
on which to make a new national commitment in space that would 
keep NASA's program going at the frantic pace which fulfilled President 
Kennedy's great promise for the moon. Now is the occasion, rather, to 
establish a steady program of space development, one removed from 
the political debate over national priorities, which will ensure that we 
establish a firm base for future generations to build upon while creating 
at home ... a kind of society which will allow them to use fully the 
new opportunities opened up by the three new American heroes and 
the tens of thousands of other people who made their flight possible." 
(W Post, 7/22/69, A24) 

Handels Och Sjofartstidning, Goteborg, Sweden: "This is a small 
step for a man, but a great one for humanity. Neil Armstrong's com- 
mentary when he stepped down onto the surface of the moon has every 
prospect of becoming one of those winged expressions which genera- 
tions of school children will commit to memory. . . . Now should be 
the time to replace the extraordinarily costly space race with coopera- 
tion between the Soviet and the U.S.A." (Am Embassy, Stockholm) 

Stockholm Expressen: "The 'moonshot' . . . was imposing. But it also 
gives a horrible feeling to think that the U.S.A. can handle tremendous 
technical problems with such ease while it is considerably more diffi- 
cult to cope with those of a complicated social, political and human 
nature." (Am Embassy, Stockholm) 

Canadian Montreal Star: "The scientific information which results 
from Apollo 11 is an extra dividend from an enterprise which has 
produced its own benefits for the human spirit and, perhaps, for human 
solidarity." (Am Consul, Montreal) 
July 23: usaf launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb by 
Thor-Burner booster into orbit with 531.5-mi (855.2-km) apogee, 
488.4-mi (785.8-km) perigee, 101.3-min period, and 98.8° inclination. 
(gsfc SSR, 7/31/69; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• NASA's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloting by NASA test pilot William H. 

Dana, reached 68,000-ft altitude and mach 1.2 during 22nd flight west 
of Rosamond, Calif. Purpose was to obtain performance, stability, and 
control data, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Scientists monitoring seismometer left on lunar surface by Apollo 11 

astronauts told press at MSC five-minute event recorded July 22 was 
either meteoroid strike or moonquake similar to mild California earth- 
quake recorded on East Coast. MIT geologist, Dr. Frank Press, said 
tremor would have magnitude of four or five according to Richter 
scale, on which major earthquake registered seven or eight. Seismic 
reading was strong indication that moon was layered with outer crust 
and inner mantle like earth and supported theories that moon was 
formed near or torn from earth. Layering, he said, "would imply that 
at one time there was enough heat so that the heavier rocks went to the 

240 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 23 

interior and the lighter ones to the surface." (McGehan, B Sun, 
7/24/69, Al; Lyons, NYT, 7/24/69, 1) 

• NASA announced selection of McDonnell Douglas Corp. and North Ameri- 

can Rockwell Corp.'s Space Div. to conduct parallel $2.9-million, 11 -mo 
design and planning studies of 12-man earth orbital space station which 
could be developed by 1975 and have 10-yr lifetime. Companies would 
also include conceptual design of 50-man space base composed of spe- 
cialized modules assembled in low earth orbit in late 1970s and early 
1980s to serve as centralized scientific and technical facility in orbit. 

Aerojet-General Corp., General Electric Co., and Hughes Aircraft Co. 
had been selected for final competitive negotiation of contract to de- 
velop advanced optical communications experiment. Companies would 
compete for one $5-million contract to develop wideband laser commu- 
nications system to be placed on board Applications Technology Satel- 
lite ats— F, scheduled for launch in 1972, for communications between 
satellite and transportable ground station. (NASA Releases 69—108, 
69-109) 

• Canadian Isis I International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies ( launched 

Jan. 30) was adjudged successful by NASA. Nine of ten experiments 
were operational; ion mass spectrometer had been turned off after one 
week of operation, when it developed high-voltage problems, and since 
had been used only for short periods to collect engineering data. Low- 
frequency receiver experiment had been providing indirect ion data, 
thus compensating partially for IMS loss. Onboard tape recorder was 
providing excellent topside ionograms of Antarctic area and other 
previously inaccessible areas, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Full-color lunar photos from Apollo 11, including one of man first 

setting foot on moon, would be released by NASA to press and TV four 
days after splashdown, following two-day decontamination of film, 
NASA announced. Superintendent of Documents, GPO, was taking orders 
from public for photos to be filled in late August. Series of reproduc- 
tions of paintings by American artists recording space program, "Eye- 
witness to Space," also would be released. ( NASA Release 69— 83 J ) 

• Successful Apollo 11 mission was expected to spur reservations on first 

lunar passenger flight, Washington Evening Star said. Before launch 
Pan American World Airways held 30,000 reservations and Trans 
World Airlines, 5,000. Pan Am spokesman said rush began after film 
"2001 : a Space Odyssey" was first shown in 1968. In letters acknowl- 
edging reservations, Pan Am was saying, "Starting date of service is 
not yet known. Equipment and route will, probably, be subject to gov- 
ernment approvals." TWA was saying, "We will be in contact with you 
again, as soon as technological advances develop to the point where 
we can project departure date." (W Star, 7/23/69, A7) 

• In Pravda Soviet academician, Prof. Leonid I. Sedov, said space research 

was developing in so many different directions that realization of fu- 
ture projects would require huge material expenditure and concen- 
tration of creative efforts of "countless highly qualified workers and 
specialists." He said, "Not one individual country can afford the prac- 
tical implementation of all the technically feasible and worthwhile 
projects." While scientists had said unmanned spacecraft could not 
always be substituted for manned vehicles, "flights by automatic sta- 

241 



July 23 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tions have preceded and will continue to precede manned flights." 
Human feelings and observations, "especially when something turns 
up unexpectedly and unforeseen, cannot be completely replaced by 
automatic stations." But unmanned probes would continue as path- 
finders because they were "cheaper, more simple and less dangerous 
vehicles for research." (Reuters, W Post, 7/24/69, A15) 

• U.S. delegate to U.N. William B. Buffum, responding to Soviet tribute to 

Apollo 11 astronauts by U.S.S.R. delegate Aleksey V. Zakharov, said 
before Security Council he hoped "fraternal spirit" demonstrated by 
astronauts and cosmonauts would lead to greater cooperation on earth 
also. (NYT, 7/25/69, 31) 

• In his fourth reference to Apollo 11 within week, Pope Paul VI said at 

summer palace, Castel Gondolfo, Italy: "Catholic faith, not only does 
not fear this powerful confrontation of its humble doctrine with the 
wonderful riches of modern scientific thought, but it desires it . . . be- 
cause truth although diverse on various levels ... is one and because 
such a confrontation is of mutual advantage to faith and to study in 
every field." (AP, W Post, 7/24/69, A15) 

• Rep. Louis Frey, Jr. (R-Fla.), introduced for himself and Rep. William 

Chappell (D-Fla.) H.J.R. 834 "to redesignate the area in the State of 
Florida known as Cape Kennedy as 'Cape Canaveral.' " Measure was 
referred to House Committee on Science and Astronautics. {CR, 
7/23/69, H6238) 

• Czechoslovakian Communist Party Central Committee's weekly Tribuna 

said of Apollo 11 landing: "It would be premature today to try to at- 
tempt a detailed evaluation of the historical significance of this act. 
Surely its influence will be no smaller than that of Columbus' travels 
many centuries ago." (Am Embassy, Prague) 
July 24: President Nixon welcomed returned Apollo 11 astronauts aboard 
U.S.S. Hornet: "I think I am the luckiest man in the world . . . 
not only because I have the honor to be President of the United States, 
but particularly because I have the privilege of speaking for so many 
in welcoming you back to earth." Washington had received messages 
from more than 100 foreign governments: "Emperors, Presidents, 
Prime Ministers, and Kings, have sent the most warm messages that 
we have ever received. They represent over 2 billion people on this 
earth, all of them who had the opportunity, through television, to see 
what you have done." Week of mission had been "the greatest week 
in the history of the world since the Creation, because as a result of 
what happened in this week, the world is bigger, infinitely, and also, 
as I am going to find on this trip around the world ... as a result of 
what you have done, the world has never been closer together before." 
(PD, 8/4/69, 1032-3) 

• At msc news conference following Apollo 11 splashdown, Dr. George E. 

Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, said: 
". . . we now stand at what is undoubtedly the greatest decision point 
in the history of this planet." Apollo 11 had proved "that man is no 
longer bound to the limits of the planet on which for so long he has 
lived. We will return to the moon first in November and then at 
regular intervals in the coming year. But these trips are only the first 
step. . . . Will we press forward to explore other planets or will we 
deny the opportunity to the future? To me, the choice is clear. We 

242 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 24 

must take the next step. . . . This is the time for decision. . . . The 
knowledge possessed by men is sufficient, the resources are adequate 
for the task of carrying out this next step. . . . 

"In this moment of man's greatest achievement, it is timely for us 
to dedicate ourselves to the unfinished work so nobly begotten by three 
of us. To resolve that this nation, under God, will join with all men 
in the pursuit of the destiny of mankind will lead to the way to the 
planets." 

In answer to questions, Dr. Mueller said next major step should be 
manned landing on Mars which would be possible "sometime after 
1980." 

l/g Samuel C. Phillips (USAF), Apollo Program Director, told press 
Apollo team was "strongest team that's ever assembled in the history 
of man. It has the strength of technical and engineering confidence, 
scientific competence, and management competence that's unexcelled. It 
has the dedication that's necessary to be able to tackle an almost im- 
possible job and bring it through" and an exciting future in lunar 
exploration. 

Second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12, would be launched 
from KSC Nov. 14 toward touchdown on Site 7 in moon's Ocean of 
Storms. Primary objective would be to deploy Apollo lunar surface 
experiment package (alsep), explore and survey mare area, and re- 
turn samples to earth. Secondary objective, if lm softlanded on target, 
would be to examine Surveyor III spacecraft ( launched April 17, 
1967), which was resting on moon near planned Apollo 12 touchdown 
point. Astronauts would have two periods for extravehicular activities 
(eva), during which they would explore surface and conduct experi- 
ments for over three hours and walk farther away from spacecraft than 
had Apollo 11 crew. Maximum lunar stay time would be 28—32 hrs. 
Schedule called for planning to fly follow-on missions through Apollo 
15 at four-month intervals and missions after that at five-month inter- 
vals. (Transcript) 

• usaf launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb by Thor-Agena 

booster. Orbital parameters: apogee, 136.1 mi. (219 km); perigee, 
110.6 mi (178 km); period, 88.4 min; and inclination, 74.9°. Satel- 
lite reentered Aug. 23. (GSFC SSR, 7/31/69; 8/31/69; InteraviaAir- 
Letter, 7/25/69, 5; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• In nationwide reaction to safe return of Apollo 11 astronauts, New York 

Stock Exchange went wild though stocks continued to fall. Numbers on 
annunciator boards flapped in unison as message "New York Stock 
Exchange shares the world's joy at the safe return of Apollo from the 
moon — Astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins — So proudly we hail 
you" appeared on tape and illuminated on screen. Along Fifth Avenue 
church bells rang. Hayden Planetarium suspended usual program to 
throw "splashdown party" with champagne and live color telecast of 
Apollo 11 recovery operations flashed on blackened dome. 

San Franciscans exploded firecrackers and threw ticker tape from 
windows, and 10-story-high figure "11" was fashioned in lighted win- 
dows at mit in Boston. Des Moines, Iowa, rang Liberty Bell reproduc- 
tion for first time since its 1950 installation on State House grounds. 

In Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong's home town, Wapakoneta, Ohio, 
high school band marched playing moon songs. Monlclair, N.J., theater 

243 



July 24 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

marquee read, "Congratulations Buzz Aldrin — Montclair's Man on the 
Moon." 

In Huntsville, Ala., Dr. Wernher von Braun, msfc Director, was 
hoisted on shoulders of four local councilmen while thousands at msfc 
site cheered and waved banners saying "Huntsville is Rocket City." 

City of Houston planned "Texas size" celebration for Apollo 11 
astronauts Aug. 16, including ticker-tape parade and huge program in 
city's Astrodome coliseum. (Sloan, Weinraub, Hicks, Borders, UPI, 
NYT, 7/25/69, 67, 29, 69, 31, 30; B Sun, 7/25/69, 45) 

• Trans World Airlines filed first application with Civil Aeronautics Board 

for routes between earth and moon. Airline said it had received 1,200 
reservations during final four days of Apollo 11 mission, (twa 
Release) 

• Safe landing of Apollo 11 in Pacific made "splash applauded around the 

world," New York Times said. In U.S.S.R. TV viewers had live cover- 
age for first time during mission as Moscow TV station hooked into 
Eastern Europe's Intervision network for live transmission of astro- 
nauts being deposited on carrier Hornet. Later, station devoted first 
two-thirds of final newscast to Apollo 11 and announced that Soviet 
President Nikolay V. Podgorny had sent telegram to President Nixon 
offering "our congratulations and best wishes to the space pilots." 
Soviet Academy of Sciences president Mstislav V. Keldysh called voy- 
age "a big contribution to space exploration and further progress of 
world science." Cosmonauts sent message to Apollo 11 crew: "We . . . 
closely followed your flight. We wholeheartedly congratulate you on 
the completion of your wonderful journey to the moon and safe return 
to earth." 

In London Lloyd's of London's Lutine Bell tolled twice for good news 
of splashdown of Apollo 11. Sir Bernard Lovell, Jodrell Bank Experi- 
mental Station Director, said, "The successful conclusion of this im- 
mense project marks the beginning of a new phase when man must 
concern himself with the greatest issues of peaceful coexistence in 
extraterrestrial space." 

Thunderstorm in Paris drove many people off streets at time of 
splashdown. On Riviera, bells tolled for five minutes and ancient can- 
non boomed. 

Mayor Pascal Rossini of Ajaccio, Corsica, sent invitation to astro- 
nauts to visit Corsica during 1969 bicentennial of Napoleon's birth. 

In Warsaw crowd of 300 Poles broke into applause at U.S. Embassy. 

Over Pacific on Qantas airliner flying under Apollo reentry point, 
crew and 80 passengers saw space capsule reenter. In Canberra Prime 
Minister John Gorton invited astronauts to visit Australia. 

Pope Paul VI sent telegram to President Nixon with prayer "that 
this immense achievement may foster peace and prosperity and scien- 
tific and moral progress for all mankind." Congratulatory messages 
were sent by President Giuseppe Saragat of Italy, President Yahya 
Khan of Pakistan, Prime Minister Eisaku Sato of Japan, President 
Chung Hee Park of South Korea, U.N. Secretary General U Thant, 
President Gustav Heinemann of West Germany, and Prime Minister 
John Gorton of Australia. (Collier, NYT, 7/25/69, 31; Mills, B Sun, 
7/25/69, A6; AP, B Sun, 7/25/69, A6) 

• More TV coverage of Apollo 11 mission had been transmitted overseas 

244 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 24 

via satellites to worldwide audience than of any previous event, 
ComSatCorp announced. More than 230 hrs of satellite time for 200 
programs were transmitted during nine-day mission. Previous record 
was 225 hrs, set by Mexico Summer Olympic Games during 18 days 
in October 1968. Broadcasters estimated that 500 million persons were 
able to watch Apollo ii's TV broadcasts in more than 40 countries on 
5 continents. (ComSatCorp Release 69—46) 

• During stop at Hickam afb, en route to MSC from Apollo 11 splashdown, 

Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman said it would be "helpful and hope- 
ful for U.S. and U.S.S.R. to cooperate in space missions. He saw "in- 
dications" during his tour of U.S.S.R. that Russians would be inter- 
ested, but "talk is cheap" and U.S.S.R. "is still supplying 85 per cent 
of the munitions to North Vietnam." He said U.S. had gone "95 per 
cent of the way" toward promoting cooperation. It was up to U.S.S.R. 
to do the rest, (upi, NYT, 7/26/69, 12) 

• usaf promoted Apollo 11 Astronaut Michael Collins to full colonel. In 

congratulatory message Gen. John P. McConnell, Air Force Chief of 
Staff, said Apollo 11 mission was "indeed a momentous achievement" 
and promotion was "token of appreciation for the part you played." 
(upi, NYT, 1/25/69, 28) 

• NASA Office of Space Science and Applications announced establishment 

of Earth Resources Research Data Facility at msc, containing docu- 
mentation from NASA and user agency investigators in Earth Resources 
Survey Program over past three years. Information was available for 
examination in facility by all interested persons. (NASA Ann) 

• Rep. Louis Frey, Jr. (R-Fla.), introduced House Joint Resolution "pro- 

viding for the establishment of the Astronauts Memorial Commission 
to construct and erect with funds a memorial in the John F. Kennedy 
Space Center ... to honor and commemorate the men who serve as 
astronauts in the U.S. Space Program." Measure, cosponsored by 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, was referred to Com- 
mittee on House Administration. (CR, 7/24/69, H6293) 
July 25: NASA launch from ETR of lntelsat-lll F—5 failed to reach planned 
synchronous orbit when 3rd stage of Long-Tank Thrust-Augmented 
Thor-Delta booster malfunctioned. Satellite entered low earth orbit 
with 3,354.8-mi (5,399-km) apogee, 167.2-mi (269-km) perigee, 146.7- 
min period, and 30.3° inclination instead of elliptical orbit with 23,000- 
mi (37,0074cm) apogee and 175-mi (281.6-km) perigee. Mission, 
originally scheduled for launch in October 1969, had been resched- 
uled for July 17 to replace lntelsat-lll F—2, which had stopped operat- 
ing over Atlantic June 29. Launch had been delayed for technical 
reasons, (nasa Release 69-119; SBD, 7/29/69, 65; gsfc SSR, 
7/31/69) 

• Apollo 11 recovery physician, Dr. William R. Carpentier, reported from 

inside Mobile Quarantine Facility onboard U.S.S. Hornet that astro- 
nauts had completed preliminary medical examination and were "fine." 
Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong's slight ear infection had disappeared and 
all three astronauts were in excellent condition. ( Wooten, NYT, 
7/26/69,1) 

• Two boxes of lunar samples from Apollo 11 arrived at Lunar Receiving 

Laboratory in Houston, where they would be examined and used in 
experiments. (Wilford, NYT, 7/26/69, 1) 

245 



July 25 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, told news conference aboard 

U.S.S. Hornet he expected U.S.S.R. to land men on moon within 18 
mos. "My guess is it'll be much sooner than most people think." He 
thought U.S.S.R. had lost race "by keeping their program so secret." 
U.S. had encouraged suggestions from scientists throughout non-Com- 
munist world, while details of Soviet program were known only to 
"small elite." Apollo 11 success would eventually lead to closer coopera- 
tion with U.S.S.R. in space exploration. "I don't look for any early 
change in the attitude . . . but a steady interest on their part. I don't 
see joint efforts but cooperation from time to time." (upi, NYT, 
7/25/69, 30) 

• President Nixon arrived at Guam International Airport after flight from 

carrier Hornet. He said, "As I stand here and think of what happened 
today, the completion of that historic flight to the moon and the land- 
ing on the moon, I can say that I am sure all of us — all of the Ameri- 
can citizens around the world — are proud today of what has hap- 
pened " {PD, 8/4/69, 1033) 

• Senate unanimously adopted S.R. 224, introduced by Sen. Michael J. 

Mansfield (D-Mont.) for himself and Sen. Everett M. Dirksen (R-Ill.), 
expressing gratitude on behalf of Senate and of all American people 
for "dedication, devotion, courage and effort of all associated with the 
Apollo program and with the Apollo 11 mission." (CR, 7/25/69, 
S8575) 

• In telephone interview, evangelist and presidential religious adviser Billy 

Graham took issue with July 24 statement of President Nixon in wel- 
coming Apollo 11 astronauts back to earth. Graham told UPI, ". . . as 
a Christian, I would contend that there have been three much much 
greater days" than those of lunar landing and moon walk. They were 
first Christmas, day on which Christ died, and first Easter. While he 
did not wish to detract from "magnificent achievement," he felt "Presi- 
dent was speaking extemporaneously. And I've found from years of 
speaking extemporaneously that in the excitement and emotion of a 
moment, you don't think through every statement you make." Associ- 
ated Press later quoted Graham as saying, "I know that President 
Nixon agrees that the greatest single event in history was the coming of 
Christ"; he was sure President Nixon meant moon walk was probably 
man's greatest accomplishment. {W Post, 7/26/69, A10) 

• Plans for proposed $l-million Neil A. Armstrong Aerospace Museum at 

Apollo 11 astronaut's birthplace, Wapakoneta, Ohio, called for com- 
pletion in 1970, Ohio Historical Society Director Daniel R. Porter 
said, (upi, W Post, 7/26/69, B7) 

• National and international press commented on successful completion of 

Apollo 11 mission: 

Washington Post: "It has been eight days of triumph for America, 
eight days of triumph for mankind. Much more will undoubtedly fol- 
low as the secrets of space bow to the advances of science. But it is 
enough now — more than enough for an entire lifetime when you think 
about it — to have seen the first men walk on the moon and then, less 
than four days later, to welcome them back home safely." ( W Post, 
7/25/69) 

New York Times: "For the first time in history, men have gone from 
this earth to another celestial body, landed there and returned home, 

246 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 25 

even bringing back with them extraterrestrial matter. Not since the 
human race evolved has there been a comparable event, nor one so 
capable of lifting all mankind's horizons, dreams and aspirations. What 
was fantasy to preceding generations is now accomplished fact. The 
achievement will be remembered so long as civilization survives." 

Of President Nixon's round the world tour, Times said: "The spec- 
tacular success of Apollo 11 has vastly increased good feeling toward 
the United States throughout the world. The President obviously wants 
to capitalize on it both for foreign and domestic political purposes." 
(NYT, 7/25/69, 46) 

Cleveland, Ohio, Plain Dealer: Apollo 11 mission "closes out one 
aspect of the exploration program but opens wide the door of what 
can be an almost endless journey. . . . Although the Apollo program is 
not complete, the lure of Mars, 5 million miles away, grows in bold 
anticipation of the future. . . . the race has only just begun." ( Cleveland 
Plain Dealer, 7/25/69) 

Newport News, Va., Times Herald: "All of the money poured into 
the space program would appear justified if one of the side products 
was the kind of cooperation [with the U.S.S.R.] now possible." (New- 
port News Times Herald, 7/25/69) 

El Rai El Amm, Khartoum, Sudan: "America achieved a victory for 
the human mind by sending the first man from the earth to the moon. 
. . . But America, the great power that achieved this astonishing big 
success, must stop doing things that are far below these standards." 
( Am Embassy, Khartoum ) 

Somali News, Mogadiscio, Somali: "It is true that the responsibility 
for the Apollo-Eleven is entirely American, but the message left behind 
on the moon for posterity by the astronauts . . . acknowledges the uni- 
versal aspect of such a feat. We think ... of those courageous astro- 
nauts not ... as Americans but as worthy representatives of the human 
race on whose total achievement they relied in carrying out their 
mighty and splendid mission." (Am Embassy, Mogadiscio) 

• Motion picture footage of Apollo 11 lunar landing mission would be re- 

leased for sale to commercial producers after quarantine period, NASA 
announced. Two 600-ft rolls would be made available initially: one 
would include prelaunch, launch, and recovery operations; other would 
include all usable onboard footage. (NASA Release 69— 83L) 
July 26: Apollo 11 astronauts, enclosed in mobile quarantine facility (mqf), 
arrived at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, where they were greeted by 12,000 
cheering people and Mayor of Honolulu Frank F. Fasi. MQF was then 
transported to aircraft which would carry it to Lunar Receiving Labora- 
tory in Houston. At lrl, scientists opened first of two boxes of lunar 
samples and made preliminary examinations of samples in one box. 
(Wooten, Wilford, NYT, 7/27/69, 47, 1) 

• At lunar landing celebration dinner in Huntsville, Ala., Dr. Wernher von 

Braun, MSFC Director, said: "We worked together and together we 
accomplished our part of the mission. The moon is now accessible. 
And someday, because of the beginning that we have made here, the 
planets and the stars may belong to mankind. This reach toward the 
heavens, toward the stars, can eventually loose the human race from 
the confines of this earth and maybe even this solar system and give it 
immortality in the immense and never-ending reaches of space." For 

247 



July 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

first time, "life has left its planetary cradle and the ultimate destiny of 
mankind is no longer confined. When the Mayflower landed on Ameri- 
can shores the pilgrims did not envision the nation that would eventu- 
ally evolve. Neither can we truly say what will eventually spring from 
the footprints around Tranquility Base." (Text) 

• At state dinner in Manila, Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos 

exchanged toasts with President Nixon and commented on Apollo 11: 
". . . we participate in the celebration of this achievement as man as- 
pires for the stars, the stars outside of this world and the stars within 
himself and within his spirit. It is the hope of humanity, as it is the 
hope of the Philippines, that this vision and this genius, this courage 
and this ingenuity shall be utilized for the solution of man's problems." 
(PD, 8/4/69, 1036-7) 

• New York Times interview quoted Dr. William H. Pickering, jpl Di- 

rector: "Now that Apollo has been accomplished, rather than set an- 
other ambitious goal we should have a period of consolidation," during 
which "the balance should be increased toward unmanned effort." 
There was talk of exploring universe, "but the solar system is only a 
small part and it's going to be a long time before we venture out. We 
are making a very local exploration." He believed solar system explora- 
tion would pay off in understanding of history and evolution of solar 
system and, possibly, discovery of life on another planet and in social 
benefits. "The trouble with the social world is that we cannot agree on 
goals. We talk of weather control . . . but control for whom? The 
farmer or the sportsman or the businessman?" (Reinhold, NYT, 
7/27/69, 47) 

• Creation of U.N. Space Institute was urged by Columbia Univ. law pro- 

fessor Richard N. Gardner in New York Times. It would be "center 
for the cooperative planning of space exploration in which all U.N. 
members would be invited to take part." U.S. and U.S.S.R. could divide 
responsibilities for instrumented landings on different planets. There 
should be "United Nations Space Station" in outer space manned by 
astronauts from all U.N. nations and trained at U.N. Space Institute. It 
would gather information about solar system and universe and be used 
for practical earth applications. (NYT, 7/26/69, 24) 

• London Economist editorial: ''When Europe drew pride and status from 

its colonies, the Americans had none: the tables are turned now. While 
the United States rings July 21st red on its calendar, Europe faces the 
probability that when the planets are opened up we Europeans will 
have no part in doing it. The idea, at this late stage, of a European 
manned space programme is nonsense. The policy that would make 
more sense would be to approach the United States to see if the Ad- 
ministration will accept some foreign collaboration in the hugely ex- 
pensive next years of its space programme. If the next American 
objective is Mars, a sensible Administration may welcome help and 
participation- — especially if this excludes pressure to co-operate with 
the Russians. . . . There will be no opportunity in this generation that 
it would cost us more to miss." (CSM, 8/1/69) 

• Federal Register published rule signed by NASA Administrator, Dr. 

Thomas 0. Paine, which made unauthorized manufacture, sale, repro- 
duction, or possession of official Apollo flight insignia, "or any color- 

248 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 26 

able imitation thereof," misdemeanor punishable by $250 fine and six 
months in prison. (Federal Register, 7/26/69, 12332-4) 
July 27: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory's Dr. Gary Latham said in 
Houston his team had detected 14 "unusual seismic events" from seis- 
mometers left on moon by Apollo 11 astronauts. They believed walls of 
lunar craters had been falling in as different parts became hotter than 
others during highest lunar temperatures and felt they might be observ- 
ing "initial stages of the process by which fresh new craters are trans- 
formed to old." (W Post, 7/28/69, A6) 

• President Nixon toured Jakarta Fair during Indonesian visit. He offered 

to send Indonesian President Suharto and other world chiefs of state 
"a piece of the moon as a souvenir." In evening at state dinner in 
Jakarta, President Suharto said: "I underline Mr. Armstrong's mo- 
mentous enunciation, when he, as the first human being, put his feet 
on the moon, declaring: 'These are small human steps which form a 
great leap to mankind.' This leap has occurred in the outer space, a 
very expansive space full of mysteries, but it has not taken place in this 
world of ours, which seems to be contracting and is relatively simpler. 
... It is the task of all nations in this world to realize peace and unity." 
[NYT, 7/28/69, 18; PD, 8/4/69, 1043-6) 

• Apollo 11 flight was public relations man's and reporter's dream, James 

Clayton said in Washington Post. NASA had kept "very little, if any- 
thing" from hundreds of U.S. and foreign press. More than 3,500 sets 
of press credentials had been issued at msc and Cape Kennedy. Most 
went to Americans, but 55 foreign countries were represented, includ- 
ing Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania. There were 111 news- 
men representing Japan among 800 foreign newsmen, several of whom 
had been waiting in Houston since Apollo 10 flight May 18—26. Voice 
of America joined in transmitting news abroad. At peak, Apollo 11 
story was going out in 22 languages to every world area except some 
Communist countries. "Even those had the radio beams directed at 
them." ( W Post, 7/27/69, B6) 

• Psychological, technical, and political factors had combined to enable 

U.S. to win lunar landing race over U.S.S.R., said Harry Schwartz in 
New York Times. Moscow had shown overconfidence in underrating 
American capabilities, ignored lunar rendezvous technique adopted by 
U.S., and purged Nikita S. Khrushchev, who had been "enamored of 
space exploits and the propaganda they gave him." New Soviet leaders 
had changed priorities to concentrate on domestic problems. Since U.S. 
lunar landing, however, "two very different reactions are visible in the 
Soviet Union." Scientists, engineers, and many ordinary people were 
overcome with admiration. Ideologists and Soviet propaganda man- 
agers were deeply unhappy, "and their regret that it was not Soviet 
cosmonauts who went to the moon is scarcely hidden." (NYT, 
7/27/69) 

• Washington Sunday Star editorial said: "Apollo 11 has cast a harsh light 

on life on earth, showing man's failures in sharp contrast to his breath- 
taking technical achievements. It is a vision that should ... be ex- 
ploited as an incentive to get the vitally needed jobs done on earth." 
But, the U.S. could not withdraw from space. "The complete Apollo 
program . . . should be funded. Beyond that, serious consideration 

249 



July 27 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

should be given to the establishment of permanent manned stations on 
the moon so that we may truly explore and perhaps exploit the new 
world that we have already conquered. The manned orbiting station 
that NASA has proposed should be provided to test the ability of men 
to live and work for long periods in weightlessness. And far more em- 
phasis should be placed ... on unmanned probes of the planets." 
Minimum requirement should be enough momentum in program to 
prevent it from falling apart through disuse. Every effort should be 
made "to enlist the cooperation, the technical help, and the financial 
support of any nation that is willing to contribute to the adventure that 
must, finally, be seen as the collective achievement of all mankind." 
(W Star, 7/27/69, El) 

• In Washington Sunday Star William Hines said: "Considering how very 

little he had to do with the whole enterprise, it is remarkable how much 
political mileage President Nixon got out of the flight of Apollo 11. 
The plaque, the phone call and the trip to greet the returning heroes 
all were benefits Nixon inherited rather than earned." Official NASA 
space age history This New Ocean, published by GPO in 1966, men- 
tioned Nixon only once in 648 pages "and there hardly as an aggres- 
sive champion of manned space flight." Book said Nixon, as Vice 
President and as presidential candidate running against John F. Ken- 
nedy, had defended Eisenhower Administration's attitude toward space 
which ruled out manned flights to moon in foreseeable future. "The 
new President's belated enthusiasm blurs memories of the olden days," 
Hines said. "But 'This New Ocean' remains, proving perhaps that all 
government-sponsored history books should be armed to self-destruct 
whenever a change of administration occurs." (W Star, 7/27/69, E4) 
July 28: jpl engineers sent signals to Mariner VI to turn on TV camera 
and scientific experiments that would measure Mars surface character- 
istics and atmosphere. Spacecraft (launched Feb. 24) began tracking 
Mars and would begin taking first of 33 far-encounter pictures 771,500 
mi from Mars early July 29. Full-disc photos would be received at JPL 
July 29. (AP, B Sun, 7/29/69, A5) 

• Geologists at Lunar Receiving Laboratory held press conference on 

Apollo 11 samples and expressed surprise at discovery of tiny glass- 
like crystals in lunar dust. Analyses had revealed samples were crystal- 
line, igneous, fragmented, scoriaceous, and vesicular. They confirmed 
theory based on Surveyor V data that lunar material contained titanium 
and indicated presence of number of minerals. Columbia Univ. scien- 
tist Dr. Paul Gast said, "The most exciting discovery to date has been 
that of the glass. There is something going on on the moon far different 
than on the earth." He said scientists speculated impact of meteoroids 
on moon had vaporized lunar material and caused it to rain back on 
surface in small drops which formed tiny yellow, brown, and clear 
pieces of glass few tenths of millimeter in diameter. (Lyons, NYT, 
7/29/69, 1; Sehlstedt, B Sun, 7/29/69, Al) 

• U.S. applied to Astronautic Committee of iaf for six world records based 

on Apollo 11 achievements: duration of stay on lunar surface outside 
spacecraft, Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, 2 hrs 21 min 15 sees; dura- 
tion in lunar orbit, Astronaut Michael Collins, 59 hrs 27 min 55 sees; 
duration of stay on lunar surface, Astronauts Armstrong and Edwin 
E. Aldrin, Jr., 21 hrs 36 min 16 sees; duration of stay on lunar surface 

250 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 28 

inside spacecraft, Aldrin, 19 hrs 45 min 52 sees; greatest mass landed 
on moon, Armstrong and Aldrin, 7,211 kg (15,897 lbs) ; greatest mass 
lifted into lunar orbit from lunar surface, Armstrong and Aldrin, 
2,648 kg (5,837 lbs). Records would not be acknowledged officially 
until NASA presented confirming data and Federation officials approved. 
(NYT, 7/29/69, 16) 

• At state banquet in Bangkok, Thai King Bhumibol Adulyadej toasted 

President Nixon: "Last week's breathtaking achievement of Apollo 11 
and its brave American crew cannot be measured solely in scientific 
terms, for it also indicates man's ability to look beyond his earthbound 
problems and to set his sights on new horizons in quest of wider knowl- 
edge and deeper understanding of himself and his environment." (PD, 
8/4/69, 1049-50) 

• Gloom and embarrassment over Apollo 11 success and crash of Luna XV 

on moon had caused controversy among Soviet leaders, including Com- 
munist Party Secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev and President Nikolay V. 
Podgorny, at July 21—23 meeting of Eastern European leaders in War- 
saw, New York Times said. Reports of enthusiastic public response to 
Apollo feat across Eastern Europe had been interpreted as sign of lin- 
gering and latent sympathy for U.S. It was strongest in technologically 
advanced East Germany and Czechoslovakia, but had been noted as 
well in Poland, Hungary, and Romania. (Hofmann, NYT, 7/28/69, 7) 

• U.K.'s Royal Geographical Society awarded special gold medal — its first 

for space exploration — to Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong for leading 
Apollo 11 mission. Other gold medalists included Capt. Roald Amund- 
sen, first to reach South Pole; Adm. Robert E. Peary, first to reach 
North Pole; Sir Edmund Hillary, conqueror of Mt. Everest; and Sir 
John Hunt, leader of Everest expedition. (AP, W Star, 7/28/69, A5) 

• Senate Committee on Banking and Currency favorably reported S.J.R. 

140 with amendments, providing for striking of medals honoring U.S. 
astronauts who had flown in outer space. (CR, 7/28/69, D681 1 

• MSFC announced resignation of m/g Edmund F. O'Connor (usaf), Di- 

rector of Program Management, would be effective July 31. Gen. 
O'Connor, on loan to NASA from USAF for past five years, would become 
Vice Commander of Air Force Aeronautical Systems Div. He would 
be succeeded by Lee B. James, Saturn V Manager, msfc. ( msfc Re- 
lease 69-166) 

• USAF released Air Force Review of the C—5A Program. Total cost of 120 

Lockheed C— 5A aircraft had increased from $3,369 billion at 1965 
contract award to total $5,125 billion, overrun of $1,756 billion. At 
DOD press conference Air Force Secretary Robert C. Seamans, Jr., criti- 
cized "ambiguities and deficiencies" in original contract and hinted 
remaining 39 aircraft in 120-plane package might not be purchased 
unless revisions were made in contract. (Text; Phillips, W Post, 
7/29/69, Al) 

• // Mattino del Lunedi, Asmara, Ethiopia, said of Apollo 11 mission's 

completion: ". . . today we not only admire, but exult. Because this 
'almost superhuman' exploit has been accomplished by a society which 
is free and pluralistic, by a society which has no close and oppressive 
traditions, by a society which has founded its political and constitu- 
tional structure not on a totalitarian ideology but on the democratic 
philosophy of the Declaration of Independence. It has been accom- 

251 



July 28 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

plished by a nation, the American nation, whose characteristic ... is 
the fusion of the spirit of precision and discipline . . . with the spirit 
of freedom. . . . This is the reason why we today exult. Because we 
know that the conquest of Apollo— 11 is in the service of man and not 
to oppress him." (Am Consul, Asmara) 

• N orrlandska Social-Demokraten, Boden, Sweden, editorial commented 

that Russian press was surprisingly generous with praise of men be- 
hind Apollo 11 and American space research in general during mission, 
but now press seemed to fear landing might have increased respect for 
U.S. around the world. "It is surely disturbing for Pravda and the 
Russian Party leaders that the American conquest of the moon . . . 
witnessed by the greater part of the Communist world, crushed the 
myth of the Communist system's superiority." (Am Embassy, 
Stockholm) 

• Within 76 hrs after Apollo 11 splashdown, Bantam Books and New York 

Times published We Reach the Moon, 416-page paperback account of 
U.S. space program from 1961 through Apollo ii's success. Early pub- 
lication was effected by nearly 2^2 yrs of planning. Book went to press 
immediately after July 24 splashdown while aerospace reporter John 
Noble Wilford was completing text. Final copy was telexed to Chicago 
printer July 25. First printing comprised 375,000 copies. Hardcover 
edition would be published by W. W. Norton & Co. in September. 
(NYT, 7/29/69, 16) 
July 29: First pictures of Mars taken by NASA's Mariner VI, launched Feb. 
24 to fly by Mars equator, were received at JPL. Full-disc photos, taken 
between 771,500 and 450,000 mi from Mars, were flashed on screen 
every five minutes. They showed Mars as dull, gray, egg-shaped body 
with crack in surface and bright spot — southern polar cap — with 
ragged edge. Better pictures were expected as spacecraft traveled closer 
to Mars. (AP, B Sun, 7/30/69, Al; Lannan, W Star, 7/30/69, A3) 

• JPL radar readings which showed 8.3-mi altitude variation in Mars' 

north equatorial zone and included corrected figures for Mars' ephem- 
eris, or orbital path, were expected to ensure accuracy of TV cameras 
aboard Mariners VI and VII, NASA said. Experimenters hoped to ob- 
tain photos identifying objects 900 ft across at close approach and 
pictures were expected to be 500 times better than those taken to date 
by earth-based telescope cameras. Readings were obtained at nasa's 
Goldstone Tracking Station in California by team directed by Dr. 
Richard M. Goldstein during planet's closest approach to earth (Mars 
had been within 45 million mi of earth June 9). They would be of 
great interest to astronomers because they showed that areas which 
appeared light to telescopes might be either high or low in elevation. 
Optically dark areas appeared to be of medium elevation to radar- 
scanners, (nasa Release 69—111; jpl Release 530) 

• NASA released first photos taken by Apollo 11 astronauts on and near 

lunar surface, including four color stills and 16-mm film of LM de- 
scent. Film opened as LM swung low and curved slightly over area 
pocked with craters and rocks and showed dust being scattered by 
exhaust as LM touched down safely. It then showed Astronaut Neil A. 
Armstrong as he descended ladder to surface, took first step on moon, 
and deployed initial equipment. 

252 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 29 

Still photos showed closeup of brownish surface sprinkled with foot- 
prints, silhouettes of LM and U.S. flag, Armstrong inside LM, and earth 
with Europe, Africa, and Asia visible. (Witkin, NYT, 7/30/69, 1; 
Cohn, W Post, 7/30/69, Al, A3) 

• LRL scientists continued examining lunar samples and preparing them for 

experiments on living organisms. Experiments, scheduled to begin July 
29, would be delayed one day to repair cracked glove which permitted 
scientists outside vacuum box to handle objects inside and to allow 
more time for grinding samples to uniform size. (AP, NYT, 7/30/69, 
19) 

• NASA Wallops Station announced award of 40-mo, $936,311 contract to 

Rice Univ. to investigate relationship between field-aligned currents and 
auroral particle fluxes and document and summarize findings. Rice 
would construct and test suitable flight and ground instrumentation for 
three Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads; prepare and preflight- 
test payloads; and acquire, record, reduce, analyze, and publish result- 
ing magnetic and auroral particle data. (WS Release 69—14) 

• fcc, at White House request, decided to delay for 60 days decision on 

establishment of domestic comsat system to enable Nixon Administra- 
tion to study issues and make recommendations. (Aug, W Star, 
7/29/69) 

• Rep. William G. Bray (R-Ind.) introduced H.J.R. 844, providing for 

distribution of Apollo 11 lunar samples to Governors of 50 states. (CR, 
7/29/69, H6486) 

• New York weathermen were being deluged with calls blaming 10 days of 

rain and overcast weather in northeastern U.S. on Apollo 11, Associ- 
ated Press said. WCBS radio news meteorologist Dr. Robert Harris had 
said, "We've had an abundance of calls from all sorts of people who 
are absolutely certain, through their Bible studies, that the Lord has 
taken the sun away from us." (AP, B Sun, 7/30/69, A6) 

• National Assn. of Government Employees President Kenneth T. Lyons 

told House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee landing on 
moon would soon be safer than landing at most U.S. airports. "Do we 
have to have NASA take over from the faa in order to get a little sense 
into our airport and aircraft traffic management jumble?" ( Bentley, 
B Sun, 7/29/69, A5) 
July 30-31: NASA's Mariner VI, launched Feb. 24 on Mars equatorial flyby 
mission, approached Mars and completed 17 pictures of planet taken 
at about 111,400-mi altitude, which showed ragged edges of polar 
cap, W-shaped cloud, and seas, deserts, and craters seen by Mariner IV 
in 1965. 

As spacecraft neared and swung around Mars it took 24 close-up 
pictures from about 2,000 mi at closest point. Pictures were so sharply 
defined and detailed that they were shown live on TV instead of being 
refined and released later in photographic prints as originally planned. 
Pictures- — enhanced by computers at JPL to clear out static, highlight 
images, adjust contrast and brightness, and exaggerate features — were 
spectacular. They showed that Mars was heavily cratered and looked 
very much like moon. One photo showed 11-mi-dia crater closely re- 
sembling moon's Copernicus crater and diagonal ditch resembling 
lunar rille. During closest approach, onboard TV cameras took 12 

253 



July 30-31 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

high-resolution and 12 medium-resolution pictures, stored some on 
board for later playback, and transmitted some immediately to ground 
stations for conversion to images at JPL. Three of four onboard experi- 
ments — TV to take pictures, UV spectrometer to identify and measure 
gases in upper atmosphere, and infrared radiometer to measure planet's 
temperature — functioned satisfactorily. Only anomaly was failure in 
cooling of one channel on infrared spectrometer, designed to identify 
gases in lower Martian atmosphere, which prevented proper acquisi- 
tion of data. 

JPL controllers temporarily lost contact with second Mariner, Mar- 
iner VII, en route to Mars, at 6:00 pm EDT July 30. Engineers specu- 
lated that spacecraft had been thrown out of alignment when struck by 
micrometeoroid traveling at 40 mps and had locked on planet Jupiter 
or another bright object. Contact with Mariner VII was regained seven 
hours later by switching from one antenna to another and proper atti- 
tude was restored by rolling spacecraft around until it locked on star 
Canopus. Although some of data being transmitted appeared to be ab- 
normal, flyby mission was still expected to succeed. 

Mariner VI would continue taking pictures and play back recorded 
near-encounter data during final phase of mission. Data would be 
compared with data from Mariner VII (launched March 27), which 
would fly past Mars polar region Aug. 4. (NASA Release 69— 26 A; Sulli- 
van, NYT, 8/1/69, 1; Auerbach, W Post, 8/1/69, Al; Lannan, W 
Star, 7/31/69, A5; nasa News Release, 9/11/69) 
July 30: On arrival in Saigon, Republic of Vietnam, President Nixon said: 
"I am happy that the moon landing, which in its universality signifies 
a symbolic drawing together of all mankind, has provided an occasion 
for me to meet with President Thieu in the capital of his country." 

Later, after discussions with President Nixon, President Nguyen 
Van Thieu said, "The Vietnamese people fully concur in the message 
of peace which the three brave American astronauts deposited on the 
moon for all mankind." (PD, 8/4/69, 1051-4) 

• During Apollo 11 celebration, credit should be given to former NASA Ad- 

ministrator James E. Webb, "whose organizational skill, vision and 
drive played a major part in its success," MIT Provost, Dr. Jerome B. 
Wiesner, and MIT physicist Jerrold Zacharias said in letter to New 
York Times. "There never was any question regarding the technical 
feasibility of a manned lunar landing. The real question was whether 
or not we could organize and manage so large and complex a program 
on the time schedule laid down by President Kennedy." Webb had or- 
ganized, defended, and managed program, "and as the world celebrates 
this great technical and human achievement we should also honor the 
man who directed its accomplishment." {NYT, 8/5/69, 32) 

• LRL scientists began injecting pulverized lunar samples into sterile white 

mice in attempt to discover germs or chemicals hazardous to human 
beings. Mice, born by Caesarean section and raised in sterile environ- 
ment so that they would be extremely sensitive to infection, would also 
have samples mixed in their food and air. (upi, W Star, 7/31/69, A5; 
AP, B Sun, 7/30/69, Al) 

• World Health Organization Director General, Dr. M. G. Candau, and Dr. 

Karel Raska, Director of who's Communicable Disease Div., said in 

254 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 July 30 

Houston that Soviet scientists had "initiated" plans for lunar receiving 
laboratory. Soviet delegates to international conferences had discussed 
subject but no details were available. WHO officials were in Houston to 
observe lrl at U.S. Government invitation. {W Post, 7/31/69, A3) 

• After two-hour inspection of Tu-144 at Moscow's Sheremetyevo Inter- 

national Airport, Pan American World Airways president Najeeb E. 
Halaby said Soviet supersonic transport had left group of U.S. aviation 
experts "very, very impressed." U.S.S.R. apparently had progressed 
further in testing than U.K. or France with Concorde, and Tu-144 
had reached 900 mph, breaking sound barrier several times. Concorde 
hoped to reach mach 1 in six months and U.S. SST was at least five 
years behind. Aeroflot planned to put Tu-144 in service by 1973. Pan 
Am would review all information available before deciding whether to 
order aircraft as hedge against competition. Halaby liked Tu-144's 
design and advanced instrumentation and was impressed with amount 
of titanium used in construction. Russians had told him aircraft's noise 
level was low in landings and takeoffs. (NYT, 7/31/69, 58) 

• Senate passed S.J.R. 140, providing for striking of medals honoring 

American astronauts who had flown in outer space. I CR, 7/30/69, 
S8786) 

• Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development of House Commit- 

tee on Science and Astronautics published Science, Technology, and 
Public Policy During the Ninetieth Congress. Report covered 1967- 
1968, giving details behind 94 public laws passed that authorized, 
funded, or otherwise affected R&D in U.S. and 45 additional bills on 
which Congress took legislative action. It included reviews of U.S. 
policy for science and technology by Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development and by nsf for United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Both reviews showed 
pluralistic nature of U.S. public policy for science, built up by laws, 
executive orders, and other expressions of policy as they occurred. 
( Text) 
July 31: USAF launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb by Thor- 
Agena booster into orbit with 333.1-mi (536-km) apogee, 288.9-mi 
(464.8-km) perigee, 94.6-min period, and 75.0° inclination, (gsfc 
SSR, 7/31/69; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• At state dinner in New Delhi, India, Acting President Mohammed Hiday- 

atullah exchanged toasts with President Nixon and congratulated him: 
"The epic flight to the moon and back by three of your countrymen 
has amazed the world and marks a new stage in science and technology. 
On behalf of the Government and people of India, and myself, I con- 
gratulate you, and through you, the people of your country on this 
historic occasion. . . . We are glad to know that you are sharing the 
knowledge you have gained with the rest of the world." ( PD, 8/4/69, 
1056-9) 

• Sequence of five color photos of Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong 

and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., performing extravehicular activities on lunar 
surface were released by NASA. Vivid sequence showed Aldrin descend- 
ing ladder to surface, walking near LM, posing near U.S. flag, deploy- 
ing seismometer, and walking with Armstrong's reflection visible in his 
visor. NASA also released two-part 16— mm film which showed moon 

255 



July 31 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

fading away as lm ascended and lm's rendezvous with csm in lunar 
orbit. It also showed Astronaut Michael Collins shaving inside csm. 
(W Post, 8/1/69, A7; Witkin, NYT, 8/1/69, 16) 

• Hans H. Maus, Director of Executive Staff at msfc, and Dr. George N. 

Constan, Director of Michoud Assembly Facility, retired after com- 
bined total of 51 yrs Government service. Maus, expert in rocket de- 
velopment and production engineering, had received USA's Exceptional 
Civilian Service Award and number of citations for development of 
manufacturing methods, process automation, assembly, and tooling 
concept development. Dr. Constan had served with USA at Milan, Joliet, 
and Redstone Arsenals before his appointment to Michoud in 1961. 
(msfc Release 69-167) 

• Soviet Academician, Dr. Anatoly A. Blagonravov, conceded that compe- 

tition with U.S.S.R. might have been major factor in U.S. determina- 
tion to reach moon and said that in space there was no way to declare 
a winner, Space Business Daily reported. "I don't preclude the idea 
that such a boosted preparation of the Apollo project was in some 
measure the result of competition with us. Basically a healthy compe- 
tition is no obstacle to success. . . . Science is boundless in its develop- 
ment and it cannot be compared to a horse race — there is no finishing 
line. The interests of science are bound to win anyway. . . ." U.S.S.R. 
would continue research in "several major scientific areas," make "ex- 
tensive use of automatic devices for exploring outer space," and pay 
"due attention" to moon and to both manned and unmanned missions. 
Cosmos, Zond, and Proton spacecraft would continue to be used for 
research and Soyuz spacecraft would be converted into "modules of 
orbital space laboratories designed for research in lengthy flight." 
(SBD, 7/31/69, 79) 

• Man's knowledge of Venus, Mars, and moon had been enormously en- 

hanced by unmanned Mariner missions, New York Times editorial said. 
They were relatively inexpensive and did not risk human lives. "Never- 
theless, American political leadership has been so obsessed with send- 
ing a man to the moon that unmanned probes of the planets became 
the stepchildren of the national space program. There were times when 
even the continued existence of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory — the 
center for these unmanned flights — seemed in doubt. Now, in the new 
phase of American space exploration begun in the wake of Apollo IPs 
historic achievement, the major cost-benefit advantages of Mariner type 
unmanned flights need to be more fully appreciated by Washington 
policy makers, and even more intensively exploited than in the past, 
even as the manned exploration of the moon continues." (NYT, 
7/31/69, 32) 
During July: NASA-appointed Astronomy Missions Board recommended 
long-range program in space astronomy to NASA. Board of 19 leading 
U.S. astronomers chaired by Dr. Leo Goldberg, Harvard College Ob- 
servatory Director, had been appointed in 1967 to propose programs for 
1970s. NASA published Board's report in November [see Nov. 9]. 
(Text; nasa Release 69-149; nasa ossa) 

• Data were relayed by two Vela nuclear detection satellites launched May 

23 that led to discovery of x-ray star between constellations Centaurus 
and Lupus [see Aug. 14]. (Sullivan, NYT, 8/14/69, 7) 

• nas published Physics of the Earth in Space: The Role of Ground-Based 

256 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During July 

Research, report of study by Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research 
of Geophysics Research Board of NRC Among recommendations were 
new facility to exploit incoherent-scatter techniques for investigation of 
ionospheric and magnetospheric dynamics, program of controlled 
sounding of magnetosphere based on new vlf transmitter facility near 
60° invariant latitude in Antarctic, and relocation of Stanford Re- 
search Institute's incoherent-scatter facility at Palo Alto, Calif., to 
auroral zone at College, Alaska, to measure F-region electron density 
and temperature and ion temperature. Report advocated increased sup- 
port for specific solar radioastronomy techniques, improvements in 
balloon technology, and acquisition of ground-based geophysical data 
via satellite links, possibly using comsat channel. (Text) 

• NAS report to Congress, Technology: Processes of Assessment and Choice, 

was published by House Committee on Science and Astronautics. Panel 
headed by Harvey Brooks of Harvard Univ. strongly urged creation of 
"constellation of organizations, with components located strategically 
within both political branches, that can create a focus and a forum for 
responsible technology-assessment activities throughout government 
and the private sector." Such organizations "must be separated scrupu- 
lously from any responsibility for promoting or regulating technologi- 
cal applications." (Text) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics published A Study of 

Technology Assessment: Report of the Committee on Public Engineer- 
ing Policy, National Academy of Engineering. Report recommended 
establishment of technology assessment task force of members of public 
and private organizations with knowledge of subject under assessment, 
including behavioral and political scientists. (Text) 

• nsf published Research and Development in Industry, 1967: Funds, 

1967; Scientists and Engineers, January 1968 (nsf 69—28) : Histori- 
cally, about 70% of U.S. R&D had been performed by industrial sector. 
In 1967, industry spent $16.4 billion for R&D, four and half times 1953 
level of $3.6 billion. Federal agencies financed 51% of 1967 total, or 
$8.4 billion. Ratio was down from 1959 high of 59%. nasa and dod 
furnished 89% of Federal funds to industry in 1967 and supported 
89% of 158,000 R&D scientists and engineers working on Federal pro- 
grams in January 1968. NASA's R&D cost was $55,400 per scientist or 
engineer, while DOD spent $51,600. Industry spent $8 billion of its own 
funds for R&D in 1967, 11% more than in 1966 and 265% more than 
in 1953. 

In January 1968, 387,900 full-time-equivalent R&D scientists and en- 
gineers were in industry sector, of which 59% worked on company- 
financed R&D projects. Industrial spending for basic research reached 
$655 million in 1967, 5% higher than previous year and more than 
four times 1953 level. (Text) 

• MOL cancellation "should at most be a 'postponement,' " Dr. Edward C. 

Welsh, former nasc Executive Secretary, said in Air Force/Space Di- 
gest. "Contrary to assertions made by people who should know better, 
the MOL was not planned as a weapon system and would not have been 
a threat to any other nation." MOL observations would be "as peaceful 
as those obtained on the NASA Gemini and Apollo flight. Men on board 
the spacecraft can be justified by the contributions men make in 
matters of choice of observations, maintenance, and communication 

257 



During July ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

with earth." MOL would not duplicate NASA's Apollo Applications pro- 
gram. "To try to combine the Air Force and NASA manned programs 
would waste much of the investments already made, would delay both 
programs, would increase the total cost over the long run, and would 
violate the sound administrative principle of having the experts do 
what they have been trained to do. Failure to get a maximum return 
from this national-security system would seem to be woefully short- 
sighted and wasteful." (AF/SD, 7/69, 60-1) 
• American Embassy science attache in New Delhi reported completion of 
India-U.S. project to erect 48-in telescope at Hyderabad. Project was 
started in 1955 and completed just before U.S. lunar landing. (O'Neill, 
W Post, 8/31/69, D5) 



258 



August 1969 



i e 



August 1: Univ. of California's Lick Observatory successfully recorded first 
hits on laser reflector left on moon by Apollo 11 astronauts. Hits, which 
came after 2,000-3,000 unsuccessful attempts by Lick and Univ. of 
Texas's McDonald Observatory, were made by Lick's 120-in telescope 
— world's second largest. Scientists fired 500 pulses with pure red 
beam of ruby laser. Each pulse lasted 15-20 billionths of a second, 
reached moon in 1.3 sees, and bounced back in same time. Target — 
18-in-square panel of 100 three-faced prisms of fused silica — was hit 
about three-fourths of time, (gsfc Historian) 

• J PL engineers reported Mariner VII, en route to Mars, had suffered sud- 

den change in velocity — possibly because of gas leak from pressure 
can in infrared spectrometer — that could throw off its approach to 
Mars. Also, 20 of 92 telemetry channels, including one that aimed TV 
camera platform toward Mars, had not operated properly after con- 
trollers lost contact with spacecraft July 30. When engineers turned on 
TV cameras, however, they began taking pictures that appeared to be 
of Mars. I Auerbach, W Post, 8/2/69, A4; nasa News Release. 
9/11/69) 

• Dr. Wilmot N. Hess, Director of Science and Applications at msc, an- 

nounced he would leave NASA in September to become Director of Re- 
search Laboratories for essa in Boulder, Colo. His successor had not 
yet been selected. Dr. Hess said he was taking new position because 
job was challenging one in growing organization with important mis- 
sion. "We have passed a milestone in the manned space flight program 
by the recent lunar landing. We have put the Lunar Receiving Labora- 
tory into operation and it is performing its mission well. We have 
placed instruments on the moon successfully and have the scientific 
program for the next several lunar missions well organized." Before 
going to MSC, Dr. Hess served as Chief of Laboratory for Theoretical 
Studies at gsfc, 1961-1967. (msc Release 69-54) 

• Intelsat-III F-2 comsat (launched Dec. 18, 1968), which had stopped 

operating June 29 when mechanically despun antenna malfunctioned, 
was restored to service. Intelsat I (Early Bird), reactivated June 30, 
had worked with Intelsat-II F—3 to provide service during interruption. 
(ComSatCorp Release 69—49) 

• President Nixon arrived at Lahore, Pakistan, during round-the-world 

journey. Pakistan President Yahya Khan said at airport, "The City of 
Lahore is happy to receive you on its historic soil and to share your 
joy at the most recent and the most memorable triumph of human 
courage, determination, and scientific skill which was achieved by your 
astronauts when they were first to land on the moon." ( PD, 8/4/69, 
1060) 

• Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, outlined possible 1981-1982 

manned mission to Mars in speech before Commonwealth Club in San 

259 



August 1 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Francisco. With "window opening" on Nov. 12, 1981, expedition 
"would set forth from earth orbit [where spacecraft were assembled] 
in two six-man vehicles, each propelled by three nuclear rockets." At 
end of Mars injection burn by two outer rockets, rockets would be 
disengaged and return to earth orbit for later reuse. Third rocket 
would remain unfired as spacecraft coasted to Mars. On nine-month 
journey spacecraft could be joined and spun to provide artificial 
gravity. 

"On August 9, 1982, the craft would arrive at Mars, and the unused 
rocket fired to brake each ship into Mars orbit. About three months 
would be spent orbiting Mars while two surface landers . . . took astro- 
nauts down to surface for a month-long stay. These landers would also 
be three-man laboratories in which men could live and work produc- 
tively on the surface of Mars. At the end of their surface research the 
astronauts would rendezvous again with the spacecraft overhead, and 
then begin the return voyage by firing the nuclear engine again on 
October 28, 1982." Spacecraft would swing by Venus Feb. 28, 1983, 
using Venus' orbital motion around sun to retard it and sling it toward 
earth. "Returning to earth on August 14, 1983, the nuclear rocket 
would fire for the third time to put each space ship into earth orbit. 
The crews would return to earth via the shuttle. After refurbishing, the 
space ships would be available for the next voyage." 

To hold option open for Mars voyages in 1980s, U.S. should in 
1970s develop reusable shuttle for flight between earth and low earth 
orbit, permanent orbiting space station, and nuclear rocket propulsion. 
(Text) 

• LRL technicians Ronald J. Buffum and George E. Williams, accidentally 

exposed to lunar samples when glove used to examine samples cracked, 
were placed in quarantine with Apollo 11 astronauts, 2 doctors, and 12 
technicians, cooks, and other employees. ( W Post, 8/2/69, A4) 

• James L. Stamy, Deputy Manager of Michoud Assembly Facility since 

1962, became Acting Manager, replacing Dr. George N. Constan, who 
retired July 31. (msfc Release 69-169) 

• U.S. Army Collateral Investigation Board appointed to investigate March 

12 crash of AH— 56A Cheyenne helicopter, in which civilian pilot David 
A. Beil lost his life, issued report. It found accident was caused by di- 
vergent, low-frequency, main-rotor oscillation and pilot had been killed 
by rotor blades. Manufacturer, Lockheed-California Co., had "failed 
to exercise due care and judgment in the planning and execution of 
flight 288 and in so doing failed to adhere to an acceptable level of 
sound industrial practice." (Text) 

• m/g James T. Stewart, former Vice Director of usaf's Manned Orbiting 

Laboratory (mol) program, had been named afsc Deputy Chief of 
Staff for Systems, Gen. James Ferguson, afsc Commander, announced. 
Gen. Stewart would replace m/g John L. Zoeckler, who retired from 
usaf July 31. (afsc Release 130.69) 

• USN announced award of $461-million contract to Lockheed Aircraft 

Corp. for development of S— 3A carrier-based antisubmarine-warfare 
aircraft, formerly designated vsx. Contract, to be funded over five 
years, was for 6 R&D aircraft with option to procure 193 production 
models, contingent upon successful development phase, (dod Release 
647-69) 

260 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 2 

August 2: Press conference on Mariner VI preliminary results was held at 
j PL. Scientists reported experiments had revealed that recurring white 
blob seen in previous Mars pictures was 300-mi wide crater with peak 
in center; linear features known as canals were actually large, irregu- 
lar, low-contrast splotches without specific detail; temperature in equa- 
torial area ranged from 75°F to — 100°F; atmosphere was almost 
nonexistent; Mars had no sharply defined borders separating light and 
dark areas; and Martian surface was more heavily cratered than pre- 
viously believed. 

Dr. Charles A. Barth of Univ. of Colorado said any life on Mars 
would be very different from life on earth, perhaps form that used 
carbon dioxide. He said uv spectrometer had found atomic carbon and 
carbon monoxide, but no traces of nitrogen — essential to life on earth. 

Dr. George C. Pimentel of Univ. of California at Berkeley said infra- 
red spectrometer had detected presence of unknown compound related 
to methane, building block of life on earth. He also reported detection 
of super-thin layer of water ice hanging in atmosphere above Mars 
equator. ( Auerbach, W Post, 8/3/69, A3; Lannan, W Star, 8/3/69, 
A5) 

• NASA's Mariner VII televised two good test pictures before start of its 

first series of 34 approach shots more than 1 million mi from Mars. 
(AP, W Star, 8/2/69, A3; nasa News Release, 9/11/69) 

• Initial results of tests at msc's Lunar Receiving Laboratory in which 

mice were exposed to lunar samples showed no indication of life on 
ported. All 24 sterilized mice that had lunar dust injected into their 
stomachs July 31 and 240 mice inoculated Aug. 1 were "alive and 
kicking. . . . They have shown no untoward reaction to the sample and 
seem to be in very good health." (AP, W Star, 8/3/69, A5) 

• Lick Observatory scientists said at news conference they had measured 

distance between earth and moon to be 226,970.9 mi, based on data 
from Aug. 1 test in which laser beam successfully hit reflector on 
moon, lrl preventive medicine specialist Dr. Norman D. Jones re- 
moon. Figure was accurate to within 150 ft and eventually might be 
pinned down to inches. (AP, NYT, 8/4/69, 13) 

• Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu met President and Mrs. Nixon 

on arrival at Otopeni Airport, Bucharest. President Nixon replied to 
welcome: ". . . this significant moment in the history of relations be- 
tween our two countries coincides with a great moment in the history 
of the human race. Mankind has landed on the moon. We have estab- 
lished a foothold in outer space. But there are goals we have not 
reached here on earth. We are still building a just peace in the world. 
This is a work that requires the same cooperation and patience and 
perseverance from men of good will that it took to launch that vehicle 
to the moon." (PD, 8/4/69, 1065) 

• Washington Post editorial: "It is not often that the public has a chance 

to share in the day to day unraveling of scientific mysteries. The men 
and women who engage in basic research prefer to work quietly in 
laboratories and eventually announce their findings in the atmosphere 
of scholarly meetings or academic publications. But at Houston and 
Pasadena [MSC and JPl] these days, the public has become a silent 
observer of the plodding work that goes into basic research. Regardless 
of the drama that is involved, the study of the rocks brought back by 

261 



August 2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Apollo 11 from the moon and of the pictures being transmitted back 
by Mariners 6 and 7 as they fly past Mars is simply basic research. Al- 
though results are trickling out each day, the dimensions of each dis- 
covery are hard to measure and an understanding of their cumulative 
impact is likely to be long in coming." [W Post, 8/2/69, A12) 
August 3: At Andrews AFB, on return from world tour, President Nixon 
said: "In Bucharest I noted that so many, particularly of the young 
people, held up a newspaper picture of the astronauts landing on the 
moon, and everywhere we went it was the same. Some way, when those 
two Americans stepped on the moon, the people of this world were 
brought closer together. ... I really feel in my heart that it is . . . the 
spirit of Apollo, that America can now help to bring to all relations 
with other nations. The spirit of Apollo . . . can bring the people of 
the world together in peace." (PD, 8/4/69, 1071-2) 

• New York Times published interview in which Grumman Aircraft Engi- 

neering Corp. President Llewellyn J. Evans expressed concern over 
possibility of failure in future space missions. "It has been one big 
gamble up to this point. This country must come up with rescue hard- 
ware. It would be shocking if someone got stuck in orbit someplace." 
He saw need for four space facilities: space station in earth or lunar 
orbit, shuttle for travel between earth and space laboratory, space 
"tug" to go between nonatmospheric orbits, and rescue vehicle. 
(Kampel, NYT, 8/3/69, F7) 

• New York Times editorial commented on Apollo 11 lunar landing and 

Mariner VI Mars mission: "Future generations may well regard the 
last two weeks of July 1969 as the most revolutionary and significant 
fortnight of the entire twentieth century. Not for 300 years has any 
comparable quantum leap in man's knowledge of the cosmos taken 
place in so brief a time." (NYT, 8/2/69, 10) 

• There was no question that manned Mars mission could be "organized, 

equipped and flown, possibly by 1985 or 1986," William Hines said in 
Washington Sunday Star. "But the cost of such a flight would be tre- 
mendous." Apollo had cost $25 billion over eight years. Project Mars 
"would cost four times as much over a period twice as long." Taxpayers 
and legislators "should listen to the professional pitchmen of space 
with a dubious ear, demanding facts instead of the sort of rhetoric Dr. 
George E. Mueller delivered on Apollo 11 splashdown day." (W Star, 
8/3/69, C4) 
August 3-4: Photos of Mars taken from 65,000-mi altitude by nasa's Mar- 
iner VII were received by JPL and shown live on TV. Although pic- 
tures were clear, canals were barely visible as dark splotchy areas, 
indicating they were not sharply defined features as previously believed. 
Viewers saw 100-mi-wide, 750-mi-long dark streak identified as 
Agathadaemon canal, Cerberus canal in light Plateau Elysium area, and 
Martian south pole with craters filled with substance resembling snow 
or ice. Pictures showed white grid pattern around Nix Olympica, 
identified by Mariner VI photos as 300-mi-wide crater. Absence in 
Mariner VII photos of bright streak on Tempe desert near Mars north 
pole that had been visible in Mariner VI photos suggested meteorologi- 
cal phenomenon similar to earth's seasonal changes. South polar cap, 
which was 2,500 mi across in Mariner VII photos, shrank to 250 mi 

262 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 3-4 

across in Martian summer and increased to 3,500 mi across in winter. 
(Auerbach, W Post, 8/5/69, Al) 
August 4: Scientists at Lunar Receiving Laboratory opened last box of 
Apollo 11 lunar samples containing charcoal-gray dust and assorted 
rocks ranging from gravel to size of orange. NASA geologist Dr. Jeffrey 
L. Warner described rocks as "different from anything we have on 
earth." Some of rocks had flat faces and appeared to have been broken 
off larger chunks of material. Rocks in first box of samples had been 
rounded. Some rocks contained unidentified crystals that sparkled; 
others had "an unusual smattering of what appeared to be metallics," 
possibly ilmenite (iron-titanium mineral oxide), important source of 
titanium, (upi, W Post, 8/5/69, A6; AP, B Sun, 8/5/69, Al) 

• NAS— NRC Space Science Board issued The Outer Solar System: A Pro- 

gram for Exploration. Report detailed program for unmanned explora- 
tion from 1974 to early 1980s; reaffirmed goals set by earlier study 
emphasizing experiments contributing to understanding of origin and 
evolution of solar system, of life, and of dynamic processes in terres- 
trial environment; and agreed exploration would concentrate on 
planets but time in flight would permit study of interplanetary medium. 
Missions recommended were 1974 Jupiter deep-entry probe and flyby, 
1976 Jupiter orbit, 1977 earth-Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto probes, 1979 earth- 
Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune probes, and earth-Jupiter-Uranus entry probes 
in early 1980s. Vigorous national program could be developed for 
small fraction of total NASA program cost and increased portion of 
space budget should be devoted to planetary exploration. Report, origi- 
nating from June 1968 study chaired by Dr. James A. Van Allen of 
Univ. of Iowa and Dr. Gordon J. F. MacDonald of Univ. of California 
at Santa Barbara, recommended nasa include long-term outer solar 
system exploration plan in 1971 congressional budgetary presentation. 
(Text) 

• NASA's Pegasus HI meteoroid detection satellite, launched July 30, 1965, 

reentered earth atmosphere at 2:04 am cdt over Indian Ocean at 
3.4°N. latitude and 56.7°E. longitude. Pegasus III was last in series of 
three Pegasus satellites with 96-ft-long detector panels launched to 
determine frequency of meteoroids in near-earth environment. All three 
had been turned off in 1968 after operating for more than double de- 
sign lifetime. Few hours before reentry, controllers commanded Pega- 
sus III beacon to begin operating again and beacon functioned 
satisfactorily until satellite was destroyed by reentry heat. I msfc Re- 
lease 69-170; gsfc SSR, 8/15/69) 

• ERC announced it had developed and successfully flight-tested "Flying 

Baton," simple, low-cost device to provide eye-level artificial horizon 
for pilots. Developed by Center's William J. O'Keefe, device could con- 
tribute to more "head-up" flying, be used for precision attitude flying, 
and allow pilot more time to look outside aircraft. (ERC Release 69-19) 

• DOT and hud announced $166,734 project for studies to recommend 

short- and long-term relief from aircraft noises at John F. Kennedy 
International Airport, New York; O'Hare International Airport, Chi- 
cago; Bradley International Airport, Hartford, Conn.; and Cape Ken- 
nedy Regional Airport, Fla. Studies were to define noise problems, to 
identify activities affecting problems, to identify approaches to land 

263 



August 4 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




August 2: jpl press conference reported new information on Mars from the Mariner VI 
flyby. The far-encounter photo above, taken 463,250 miles from Mars July 29, showed 
Meridiani Sinus and Sabacus Sinus as a dark feature near the equator. The bright 
area at the top ivas Cydonia. The south polar cap showed at the bottom of the planet. 



August 4-5: Mariner VII transmitted first close-up photo of Mars' south polar cap. 
In the photo below, taken 3,300 miles from Mars Aug. 4, the south pole was believed 
to be at the lower right. Three large craters showed partly bare floors. Snoivdrift- 
like formations and an irregular cloud-like object (upper left) tvere apparent. 




264 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



August I 



IRS PLANET SENSOR 
' (COOL-DOWN START) 



INFRARED 

RADIOMETER 

(IRR) 




FAR-ENCOUNTER 
PLANET SENSOR 



IJJ 




INFRARED 

SPECTROMETER 

(IRS) 



WIDE-ANGLE TV 



ULTRAVIOLET 
SPECTROMETER 

(UVS) 



\ 



NARROW-ANGLE TV 



August 4-5: Scientific instruments on board Mariner VII collected detailed data on 
the Mars surface and atmosphere as the spacecraft made its close-encounter fly by of 
the southern hemisphere and polar regions. Mariner VI used similar instruments to 
gather information on the equatorial regions of Mars on its July 30-31 flyby. 

use compatible with airport locations, and to analyze feasibility of 
compatible land development in high-noise areas. (DOT Release 18369) 

• Apollo 8 commemorative medallions containing metal carried on mission 
were being distributed to NASA employees "as a token of appreciation 
for each individual's efforts in making the United States lunar program 
possible," nasa Hq. Weekly Bulletin said, (nasa Hq WB, 8/4/69, 1) 

August 4—5: nasa's Mariner VII transmitted first closeup photos of Mars 
south pole as it flew within 2,100 mi of planet. Dr. Robert P. Sharp, 
geologist at Cal Tech, said 31 photos might look like "baby pictures of 
Earth. This is what the Earth might have looked like some four billion 
years ago before it developed an atmosphere and oceans to weather its 
surface and nurture life." Photos taken on pass Aug. 4 were transmitted 
to J PL Aug. 5. 

Polar cap, which had appeared gleaming white in more distant 
photos, looked dull gray in closeups. Pictures showed south polar cap 
with snow-like substance — possibly frozen carbon dioxide — piled up in 
vast dunes; pocked with deep, steeply walled craters; and much darker 
than desert to north. Floor of bright circular Hellas desert area, be- 
lieved to be shallow crater or collapsed area, was strangely free of 
meteorite impact craters. 



265 



August 4-5 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Mariner VII (launched March 27) with Mariner VI (launched Feb. 
24) had provided most detailed information to date on Mars, including 
198 photos covering 20% of planet and detailed scientific data from 
onboard experiments. Data indicated: thin Martian atmosphere had no 
detectable nitrogen; south polar cap, which appeared white and 
smoothly circular in telescope pictures, was ragged with dark splotch 
in center; surface temperatures ranged from 75°F to — 100° F; some 
of narrower thin dark lines called canals might be segments of rubbled 
rims of craters up to 300 mi across; and Martian surface, though 
heavily pocked, was not as rugged as lunar surface. (AP, B Sun, 
8/6/69, Al; AP, W Star, 8/6/69, A7; Auerbach, W Post, 8/6/69, 
A3) 
August 5: Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, and other top NASA 
officials testified on future space programs before Senate Committee on 
Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 

Introducing programs, Dr. Paine said: "The decade of the 1970's 
and 1980's should have a program as bold in concept and as productive 
as we have had in the decade of the 1960's. ... we need to have clear 
objectives to focus our work and a commitment, subject ... to annual 
review, as to what these achievements will be. Our general goal area 
should be the continued exploration of the solar system while deriving 
the maximum scientific and practical benefits here on earth from the 
space program. There is no question that, at some future time, we will 
have the capability for manned planetary exploration and we need to 
face now some of the decisions that will not bear fruition for more 
than a decade. Although I do not believe that we will see manned ex- 
ploration of the planets in the 1970's in the United States ... I do 
think this could come in the 1980's. It is by no means clear that for 
the Soviet Union the decision may not be made to mount a crash pro- 
gram and bring this in before the end of the decade of the 1970's." 

Dr. Wernher von Braun, MSFC Director, described possible 1981— 
1982, 12-man, 2-ship expedition to Mars [see Aug. 1]. Each space- 
craft would weigh 1.6 million lbs at departure from earth orbit and 
would be 270 ft long, "smaller than what we are flying already to the 
moon." 

NASA was using "concept of reusability" in planning, to improve 
and reduce cost of operating in space, Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA 
Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, told Committee. 
Reusability could be achieved "through the reuse of launch and space 
vehicles and . . . through the reuse of a mission module such as a space 
station" put into orbit and used over 10-yr or even 20-yr period. 
Space shuttles would be designed to run 100 or more flights. Modules 
and vehicles would be designed for multiple applications in earth, 
lunar, and synchronous orbits. Space tug would permit travel from 
space station to other spacecraft and back again — "general purpose . . . 
equipment." In earth orbital operations, "it permits us to fly off from 
the space station over to ... an OAO, orbiting astronomical observatory, 
either to repair or check the OAO, or to bring it back to a space station 
where it can then be loaded on the space shuttle for return to earth and 
then brought back into orbit after repairs." (Transcript) 
• Four lrl technicians — Miss Heather A. Owens, Chauncey C. Park, Roy 
G. Coons, and Riley Wilson — were placed in isolated area under quar- 

266 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1%9 August 5 

antine after being exposed to lunar material when line carrying con- 
taminated material from vacuum chambers to disposal area burst, 
spraying lunar material into examining room. Mishap, second in which 
lrl technicians were exposed to lunar material [see Aug. 1], brought 
total number of persons under quarantine to 23. (AP, W Post, 8/6/69, 
A3; MSC Hist Off) 

• NASA announced resignation of Astronaut F. Curtis Michel, effective Aug. 

18. Dr. Michel, who had been on one-year leave of absence from NASA 
to do scientific research at Rice Univ. in Houston, said that — although 
he was reluctant to leave NASA and prospect of flight in space — he 
wanted to devote full time to research at Rice. Resignation reduced 
number of NASA astronauts to 48. (msc Release 69-55) 

• NASA notified Instituto Geofisico del Peru that $2-million NASA tracking 

station near Lima, Peru, would be closed because of shifting program 
requirements and economic reasons. Station, to be phased out by No- 
vember, had participated in more than 75 satellite missions since 1957. 
(NASA Release 69-117) 

• Dept. of Interior announced grant of $100,225 for research into health, 

safety, and water pollution in coal mining operations. Island Creek 
Coal Co. would determine if miners equipped with self-contained 
breathing apparatus similar to astronauts' could work efficiently in 
mines filled with nitrogen or other inert gas. (doi Release 17784—69) 
August 6: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCl from Baikonur into orbit with 
527-km (327.5-mi) apogee, 143-km (88.9-mi) perigee, 91.2-min 
period, and 62.2° inclination. Satellite reentered Sept. 8. (GSFC SSR, 
8/15/69; 9/15/69; SBD, 8/7/69, 109) 

• nasa's HL— 10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by nasa test pilot John A. 

Manke, reached 78,000-ft altitude and mach 1.55 after air launch from 
B-52 aircraft at 45,000-ft altitude west of Rosamond, Calif. Objective 
of flight, 23rd in series, was to obtain data on performance, stability, 
and control — especially roll control, (nasa Proj Off) 

• NASA named flight crews for Apollo 13 and 14 lunar landing missions. 

Prime crewmen for Apollo 13 were Astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr. 
(commander), Thomas K. Mattingly II (CM pilot), and Fred W. 
Haise, Jr. (lm pilot). Backup crew was composed of Astronauts John 
W. Young, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Charles M. Duke, Jr. Apollo 14 
prime crewmen were Astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (commander), 
Stuart A. Roosa (CM pilot), and Edgar D. Mitchell ( LM pilot). Backup 
crewmen were Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and 
Joe E. Engle. 

Both missions would include lunar exploration and deployment of 
Apollo lunar surface experiment packages (alsep). Total lunar surface 
stay time would include two EVA periods of three hours each and would 
not exceed 35 hrs. Flights would be first for Astronauts Mattingly, 
Haise, Roosa, and Mitchell. (NASA Release 69-115) 

• Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., quar- 

antined in LRL, discussed lunar surface activities with about 40 scien- 
tists and geologists over closed-circuit TV. Astronauts said lunar 
surface was rich with interesting rocks. They described small, walnut- 
size fragments which appeared translucent or transparent, with reflect- 
ing surfaces like quartz crystals; spatters of glass on rocks, especially 
on rocks on bottom of craters; and rocks shaped like automobile dis- 

267 



August 6 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

tributor caps, which appeared to be weathered or eroded and sculptured 
at top in cylindrical shape. Astronauts said they regretted not being 
able to retrieve more lunar rocks and suggested that future Apollo as- 
tronauts be equipped with extra pocket or shoulder bag so they could 
collect interesting rocks as they saw them. (W Post, 8/7/69, A4; AP, 
B Sun, 8/7/69, A8) 

• Atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair — on behalf of herself, her husband 

Richard O'Hair, and her "Society of Separationists" — filed suit in 
Austin, Tex., District Court against NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 
0. Paine, to prevent U.S. astronauts on duty from practicing religion 
on earth, in space, or "around and about the moon." She objected 
specifically to Apollo 8 Christmas Eve 1968 Bible reading by Astronaut 
Frank Borman and placing by Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong 
and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., of disc containing microfilmed prayers on 
moon July 20. (upi, W Post, 8/7/69) 

• Dissatisfaction with substandard performance in other parts of society 

was "something worthwhile that the Space Program is contributing to 
the United States," NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, said in 
speech before National Press Club in Washington, D.C. "I hope we 
have spurred our society and our people to . . . demand higher per- 
formance, to set bolder goals, and then to have the gumption to stand 
up before the whole world and demonstrate whether or not the goals 
are achieved." Space program had also taught "need for broadly en- 
listing not only American capability, but the best people from around 
the world willing to throw their competence and a portion of their 
careers into challenging endeavors." It had "unleashed in the 1960's 
the talents and energies of a technological generation." U.S. must con- 
tinue "to put together bold programs that will release the creative ener- 
gies of our people in productive channels." 

Dr. Paine thought history would record as "the great contribution 
of our generation" astronauts' blazing of "trail for all future genera- 
tions of men who want to . . . conquer new worlds. . . . Through man's 
brains, energy and resources life can — and life will — extend itself 
through the solar system. . . . The 1980's are very clearly the decade 
in which both we and the Soviet Union, with reasonable-sized space 
programs in the 1970's, will develop a technological capability for 
landing on Mars." 

In response to questions, Dr. Paine said: "It seems clear to me that 
there are increasing opportunities for all nations to work together in 
space exploration and application. Certainly we and the Russians can 
and should cooperate more closely in space science so our two pro- 
grams can produce greater results than the simple sum of their out- 
puts." (Transcript) 

• Future space program was described by Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA 

Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, before National 
Space Club in Washington, D.C. Reusable nuclear vehicle to serve as 
space shuttle between space station in earth orbit and space station 
in lunar orbit would be "final link that would permit us to reduce the 
cost of operation to something like $200 for moving a pound of mate- 
rial from the earth's surface to the lunar surface and return as com- 
pared to something like $100 thousand a pound using today's tech- 

268 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 Augn-i 6 

niques. Similar reductions in the cost of transportation to the earth 
orbital station will permit us for the first time to consider processing 
materials in space, to use space for the kind of laboratory work that 
we now associate with ground-based laboratories." By end of 1970s 
"we would find so many uses for operations in synchronous orbit both 
for observing the universe and for observing the earth that we would 
have established a space station in synchronous orbit which would be 
regularly supplied by a nuclear shuttle system and which would provide 
us with direct television broadcasting and direct radio broadcasting 
to the homes of all people in the world, as well as providing us with 
great stellar observatories and a viewing platform for air traffic control, 
navigation and for a permanent weather watch. 

". . . this approach to using space is one that is readily extended, 
once the shuttle capability has been developed, to a corresponding 
approach for planetary exploration and . . . the same nuclear shuttle 
system together with the space station modules need only to be sup- 
plemented by a Mars landing module to permit us to carry out the 
first manned planetary expedition to Mars." (Text) 
August 7: Scientists at J PL presented conflicting opinions to newsmen on 
preliminary data from Mariner VI and Mariner VII flybys of Mars. 
Dr. George C. Pimentel and Dr. Kenneth C. Herr of Univ. of California 
at Berkeley said data from infrared spectrometer indicated presence of 
gaseous ammonia and methane in Martian atmosphere. "We are con- 
fident that we have detected solid carbon dioxide that is not on the 
surface; that is, it is suspended as a cloud above the polar cap. Our 
data are consistent with and suggest that the polar cap is composed of 
water ice and probably not solid carbon dioxide near the polar cap 
edge." If life did exist on Mars, they said, it could be in region near 
edge of polar icecap where "polar ice provides a reservoir of water" 
and solid carbon dioxide cloud "provides protection from ultraviolet 
radiation." 

Dr. Gerry Neugebauer of Cal Tech said temperature of Mars was 
"strong circumstantial evidence that the polar caps are in fact pre- 
dominantly made of carbon dioxide." Infrared radiometer experiment, 
which measured temperatures on Martian surface, indicated that tem- 
perature of south polar cap was close to — 253°F, temperature at which 
carbon dioxide would solidify in thin Martian atmosphere. 

uv spectrometer experiment had found large amount of uv radiation 
reflected from south polar icecap, indicating that uv light from sun 
was penetrating thin Martian atmosphere and reaching surface. Dr. 
Charles W. Hord of Univ. of Colorado said strong uv radiation reach- 
ing surface "would destroy many of the important molecular bonds of 
organic compounds." If life did exist on Mars, he said, it "must be 
pretty strong stuff," or it must have some means of protection against 
uv rays. 

Dr. Robert B. Leighton of Cal Tech said one of most striking results 
of Mariner photos was indication of dynamic process occurring on 
Martian surface. Unlike rest of Martian surface, which was heavily 
cratered and closely resembled moon, Hellas area appeared to be 
smooth and free of craters. "Hellas is the first non-lunar-like feature" 
discovered by Mariner VII, he said. Apparently there was "activity in 

269 



August 7 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

that region . . . obliterating craters as fast as they are being formed." 
(Bishop, WSJ, 8/8/69; Sullivan, NYT, 8/8/69, 1; Lannan, W Star, 
8/8/69, A4) 

• Lunar Receiving Laboratory scientists issued first comprehensive report 

on preliminary study of lunar samples collected by Apollo 11 astro- 
nauts. Experiments indicated there was no life in sample and traces of 
organic material reported earlier were probably from astronauts' space- 
suits and containers, rubber gloves, and tools used to handle material. 
(Traces of hydrocarbons in two samples of lunar dust had been re- 
ported Aug. 6.) Autopsies performed on 48 mice injected with lunar 
dust and then killed had shown no signs of germs or illness. Detailed 
analyses of samples would begin in late September when material 
would be released from quarantine and distributed to 146 principal 
investigators in 9 countries. (AP, W Star, 8/8/69, A4; Sullivan, NYT, 
8/7/69, 1) 

• Sen. Ralph W. Yarborough (D-Tex.) offered amendment to H.R. 11271, 

FY 1970 nasa authorization bill [see June 24], to increase funds for 
NASA R&D and program management from amount reported by Senate 
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences to amount passed by 
House. Increases would total $256.50 million in r&d and $6.35 million 
in research and program management. He said: "My amendment 
authorizes the bare minimum that we, as a nation, should commit to 
space. Its adoption is vital to the proper balance in our national 
priorities; it is vital to the future of our exciting and promising space 
program; and it is vital, in my opinion, to the interests and well-being 
of our country." (CR, 8/7/69, S9383) 

• Washington Post published results of July 26—28 Gallup survey, which 

found public lukewarm about Government funding of manned Mars 
landing. While majority of young adults favored idea, majority of 
those 30 or over opposed it. Generally, 39% of those polled favored 
attempt to land man on Mars, 53% opposed, and 8% had no opinion. 
Blacks opposed by 3-to-l ratio. (W Post, 8/7/69, F4) 

• At White House dinner for West German Chancellor Kurt G. Kiesinger, 

Dr. Wernher von Braun, MSFC Director, told press putting man on 
Mars by 1982 posed less risk than putting man on moon because most 
technical problems had been solved. In time space travel would become 
commonplace, with spacecraft carrying passengers. On Martian surface 
man could move from home to car or office in completely controlled 
environment. (Shelton, W Post, 8/8/69, D2) 

• msfc announced award of two contracts. Eight-month, $400,000 contract 

had been given to General Dynamics Corp. to study experiment mod- 
ules for proposed manned space station. Study, which would comple- 
ment space station investigations being conducted by McDonnell 
Douglas Corp. and North American Rockwell Corp., would examine 
variety of experiments suitable for manned space station, analyze 
scientific and engineering community's need for experiment modules, 
and develop concepts for least number of modules needed to meet these 
requirements. 

Martin Marietta Corp. had been awarded $1,170,000 contract to 
fabricate, test, and deliver 15 Saturn V workshop rate gyro processors 
and 1 module test set and to retrofit 22 Apollo Telescope Mount rate- 

270 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 7 

gyro processors for Apollo Applications program. Work, expected to 
take 18 mos, would be done in Orlando, Fla. (msfc Releases 69—172, 
69-173) 

• With encouragement from President Nixon and Vice President Spiro T. 

Agnew, NASA had "begun drumming up pressure for the huge sums 
required to send men to Mars in the early 1980's," New York Times 
editorial said. "But the latest Mariner information makes the proba- 
bility of life on Mars much less than it seemed even a week ago, thus 
removing much of the original motivation for such a project. The shift 
of emphasis now proposed to unmanned satellites would be far 
cheaper; scientifically it would also be far more productive." \NYT, 
8/7/69, 32) 

August 8—14: Zond Vll automatic space station was launched by U.S.S.R. 
from Baikonur with "powerful carrier rocket" and placed on free- 
return lunar trajectory from parking orbit. Tass said mission objectives 
were to study moon and near-lunar space further, photograph lunar 
surface, and test improved onboard systems and design of "rocket-space 
complex." All equipment was functioning normally. 

On Aug. 11 Tass announced that spacecraft had circled moon on 
flight plan similar to that of Zond V (launched Sept. 15, 1968) and 
Zond VI I launched Nov. 10, 1968), had photographed lunar surface, 
and was returning to earth. Zond Vll reentered atmosphere by skipping 
across outer layers of atmosphere to reduce its entry speed and then 
descended and softlanded in predetermined area near Kustanay in 
northern Kazakhstan Aug. 14. (SBD, 8/11/69, 120-1; 8/18/69, 152; 
NYT, 8/9/69, 26; 8/12/69, 6; 8/15/69, 14; gsfc SSR, 8/15/69) 

August 8: NASA announced selection of Heliodyne Corp. and Wolf Research 
and Development Corp. for final negotiations leading to one-year $1- 
million, cost-plus-award-fee contract with two one-year options to 
operate National Space Science Data Center at GSFC. ( NASA Release 
69-118) 

• In Washington Daily News column Sen. Everett M. Dirksen (R-Ill.) said: 

"Unknowing voices clamor to us to give up the search into the un- 
known. They ask us to spend the money on things here on earth. They 
ask for something that already has been done. Where do you think the 
money is spent that sent Apollo 11 to the moon? It wasn't spent on the 
moon. There are no creatures there to benefit from the billions spent 
to finally land Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in the Sea of Tran- 
quility. The money was spent here on earth, where it enriched the 
laborers, the craftsmen, the technicians, the engineers, the scientists — 
and their neighborhoods. It enriched the millions and millions of 
people who always benefit from industry. . . . (W News, 8/8/69, 23) 

• Washington Post editorial: "There was a certain logic in playing down 

the purely scientific aspects of the Apollo program in the past since 
the effort was to land men on the moon before the Russians did. But 
that day is past. The scientists of space, as contrasted with its engineers 
and technicians, have been forced into the back seat of the manned 
space program. It is time now to make them the navigators. The choice 
of missions — for future flights to the moon and for future operations 
that will lead some day to a trip to Mars and eventually other planets- 
should be largely in their hands. They, far better than the men who 

271 



August 8 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

created the hardware and the knowledge necessary to make space travel 
possible, know the areas most appropriate for exploration in terms of 
gaining knowledge." {W Post, 8/8/69) 
August 9-15: nasa's Oso VI (oso-g) Orbiting Solar Observatory was suc- 
cessfully launched from etr at 3 :52 am EDT by two-stage Thor-Delta N 
booster to study sun and its influence on earth's atmosphere. Orbital 
parameters: apogee, 348.0 mi (560 km) ; perigee, 307.6 mi (495 km) ; 
period, 95.2 min; and inclination, 32.96°. Primary mission objective 
was to obtain high-resolution spectral data from pointed experiments 
in 10- to 20-kev range and 1 to 1,300 A range during one solar rota- 
tion and make raster scans of solar disc in selected wavelengths. Space- 
craft would obtain data from nonpointed and pointed experiments for 
more than one solar rotation for extended observations of single lines 
and solar flares. 

Pac (Package Attitude Control) system, carried pickaback on Delta 
2nd stage, was ejected into orbit with 340-mi (547.1-km) apogee, 300- 
mi (482.7-km) perigee, 94.2-min period, and 32.9° inclination. Pri- 
mary objective was to flight-test long-life, low-power, three-axis Pac 
earth-stabilized control system for Delta 2nd stage and to demonstrate 
feasibility of using stage as experimental platform. 

Oso VI was spin-stabilized, weighed 640 lbs, carried seven experi- 
ments, was designed with six-month lifetime, and had two main 
sections — wheel (lower), which carried nondirectional scanning ex- 
periments and basic support equipment, and sail (upper), which car- 
ried pointed experiments. It was similar to previous OSOs but had 
unique capability which enabled two sun-pointing telescopes to study 
in detail uv and x-ray spectra at any point on solar disc and would 
provide greater knowledge of solar atmosphere (chromosphere) as well 
as outermost layer (corona) visible only through special instruments 
or during total solar eclipse. Experiments, designed to continue and 
extend work of preceding oso spacecraft, were provided by Harvard 
College Observatory, Naval Research Laboratory, Rutgers Univ., Los 
Alamos Scientific Laboratories, Univ. of New Mexico, Univ. of Bo- 
logna, and University College (London). 

Both tape recorders were operating at liftoff and were still operating 
satisfactorily. Spacecraft stabilized and acquired sun as scheduled 
shortly after entering orbit. By Aug. 15 all experiments had been 
turned on and were operating satisfactorily. Two minor anomalies — 
higher than planned use of current by motor that provided fine eleva- 
tion pointing and lower than expected spacecraft operating temperature 
— were not expected to affect spacecraft operation adversely. 

Oso VI was seventh in series of eight oso spacecraft designed to 
provide direct observation of sun during most of 11-yr solar cycle. 
Oso I (launched March 7, 1962) and Oso II (launched Feb. 3, 1965) 
had surpassed their six-month design lifetimes and together provided 
more than 8,600 hrs of scientific information, oso— c (launched Aug. 
25, 1965) had failed to reach orbit when booster malfunctioned. 
Oso III (launched March 8, 1967) and Oso IV (launched Oct. 18, 
1967) continued operating satisfactorily, each providing IY2 hrs of 
real-time data daily. Oso V (launched Jan. 22, 1969) had both tape 
recorders and seven of eight experiments operating satisfactorily after 
six months in orbit, oso program was managed by GSFC under OSSA 

272 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 9-15 

direction, (nasa Proj Off; nasa Releases 69-112, 69-1 12A, 69-123; 
Pres Rpt 70 [69] ) 
August 9: "Scientists who have long felt that their role was secondary to 
that of engineers in the Apollo project" were complaining openly and 
trying to force greater emphasis on science in planning future lunar 
landing missions, John Noble Wilford reported in New York Times. 
"Their argument is that, with the success of Apollo 11, the project's 
goal should be to learn as much as possible about the moon and not 
merely to repeat the demonstration that moon landings are possible." 
Dr. Elbert A. King, curator of Lunar Receiving Laboratory, had said 
in interview that NASA administration did not have "enough sympathy 
with, or understanding of, scientific objectives." Casting science in 
"piggyback role" for first manned lunar landing was understandable, 
he said. "No one really criticizes that, because . . . getting men to the 
moon and back had to be a massive engineering effort. But now that 
we have accomplished that goal, the justification for future lunar ex- 
ploration is largely science. There has to be a shift of emphasis." 
Scientists were pressing for more active role in mission planning, return 
of larger amounts of lunar samples, selection of scientists for flight 
crews, and more time between missions in which to evaluate data for 
applications to future experiments. (NYT, 8/10/69, 44) 

• Soviet scientist Dr. Valery A. Krasheninnikev and academician Dr. Alek- 

sandr P. Lisitzin had returned to San Diego from 55 days with U.S. 
Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard drilling ship Glomar Challenger con- 
vinced their findings were "more important to man than the samples 
from the moon," Associated Press reported. 

Concentrated drilling between Honolulu and Guam had produced 
rocks and sedimentary cores showing microorganisms in perfect state 
of preservation. They might provide history of earth's creation. Project 
was cooperative venture of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution, Lamont Geological Observatory of 
Columbia Univ., Univ. of Miami Institute of Marine Science, and Univ. 
of Washington. (NYT, 8/10/69, 45) 
August 10: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
and Michael Collins and 20 other persons quarantined in Lunar Re- 
ceiving Laboratory were released shortly after 9:00 pm CDT — four 
hours earlier than planned. Dr. Charles A. Berry, Director of Medical 
Research and Operations, msc, said astronauts, who had been confined 
since July 24, showed no signs of any possible infection from exposure 
to moon. He cautioned that astronauts might become ill after release — 
not from lunar contamination, but from earth organisms to which they 
were highly susceptible after long period of isolation. Report on health 
of persons under quarantine would be presented by NASA Aug. 11 to 
Interagency Committee on Back Contamination, which had approved 
early release. (Sehlstedt, B Sun, 8/11/69, Al ; AP, W Post, 8/10/69, 
A7) 

• nasa had assured Post Office Dept. that master die for 10-cent moon 

landing commemorative stamp [see July 9] had gone all the way to 
lunar surface as planned. It had returned to earth in CM and been 
rushed to Washington, D.C., July 31 after decontamination at MSC. 
However, moon letter envelope with die proof of moon landing stamp 
had not been postmarked on lunar surface. Because of tight schedule 

273 



August 10 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS. 1969 

for lunar eva, letter had been left with Astronaut Michael Collins in 
CM Columbia while Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Al- 
drin, Jr., worked on moon. "Moon Landing" postmark had been ap- 
plied during return voyage. Letter had been decontaminated at msc 
and returned to Postmaster General Winton M. Blount Aug. 5. (Fairies, 
W Star, 8/10/69, Hll) 

• Space program spinoffs of medical benefit to mankind were described by 

Howard A. Rusk, M.D., in New York Times. NASA's Scientific Infor- 
mation Div. provided stockpile of knowledge indexed in computer tapes 
and distributed on microfiche. Collection of 250,000 documents in- 
creased by approximately 75,000 items annually. NASA Technical Utili- 
zation Div. selected inventions, ideas, and new techniques for use in 
nonaerospace activities, including medicine, and distributed them 
through eight regional centers. Under interagency agreement, NASA and 
hew Social and Rehabilitation Services Administration reported results 
of aerospace research to solve problems of 4 million physically or 
mentally disabled Americans of working age. Research had developed 
technique for sharpening x-rays, micrometeorite sensor to record Park- 
insonian tremors, and technique for applying electrodes with spray of 
conductive material. (NYT, 8/10/69, 55) 
° William Hines in Washington Sunday Star said time was "ripe" for NASA 
reorganization, "not merely the firing, promoting and transferring of 
officials, but the functional restructuring of the agency as well." There 
was some suspicion that no place existed for Dr. Thomas O. Paine, 
NASA Administrator, who was "not only a Johnson-administration hold- 
over, but a card-carrying Democrat as well." Some observers believed 
Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman, "the President's current darling and 
space confidant," might be next NASA Administrator. "The idea of 
putting astronauts in charge of the space program may seem incon- 
gruous, but it is clearly not beyond the realm of possibility in the 
image-conscious Nixon regime." 

Paine's fate would determine that of Associate Administrator for 
Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller. With lunar landing, 
Apollo had changed from developmental to operational effort. Chris- 
topher C. Kraft, Director of Flight Operations at MSC, would likely 
transfer to Washington as Apollo Program Manager — possibly "con- 
trolling all space missions for NASA." Hines saw possibility of Apollo 
Program Director, George H. Hage's moving into position being vacated 
by l/g Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, who was rejoin- 
ing usaf. "George M. Low, Apollo chief at Houston, may replace the 
Houston Center director, Robert R. Gilruth, if Gilruth can be prevailed 
upon to retire." There was talk about moving MSFC Director Dr. 
Wernher von Braun to Washington "to do what he does best: charm 
money out of Congress." Dr. Kurt H. Debus, ksc Director, "may retire 
to make way for Rocco Petrone. . . ." (W Star, 8/10/69, G4) 

• History of Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1936, "when the 'crazy scien- 

tists' under . . . Dr. Theodore von Karman lit off one of their rockets 
in the dry gulch called the Arroyo Seco," to current time, when "jpl's 
sights are set a little higher — and farther out," was traced by John 
Lannan in Washington Sunday Star, jpl controlled NASA Deep Space 
Network with jurisdiction over space efforts 10,000 mi from earth and 
beyond, though its Goldstone facility also had participated with GSFC 

274 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 Augusl 10 

in support of Apollo 11. Its space flight operation facility was "actual 
directorate" for handling cosmic penetration flights. It was currently 
gearing for Martian orbiter series in 1971 and for 1973 Viking landers. 
Future held possibilities of developing and directing missions leading 
to Grand Tour of planets. J PL was owned by Federal Government and 
staffed and operated by Cal Tech. (W Star, 8/10/69, G3) 

• George Gallup released results of first poll of President Nixon's popu- 

larity since Apollo 11 success. Poll showed 65% of U.S. public ap- 
proved his performance in office. Poll July 11-14, before Apollo 11 
mission, had shown 58% approval. {W Post, 8/11/69, A2) 

• Apollo 11 had opened vast market for medals, tokens, and pins to col- 

lectors who specialized in commemorative pieces, New York Times said. 
Medals issued by several countries after Apollo 8 were "few compared 
to the meteoric shower of commemoratives for the moon landing." 
Medal by Ralph J. Menconi portrayed Apollo 11 astronauts on face 
side; reverse showed Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. 
Aldrin, Jr., with lm on lunar surface and earth in background. Medal 
designed in U.K. by Paul Vincze depicted astronaut on lunar surface 
with names of Apollo 11 astronauts. Reverse showed figure of Hermes 
holding winged staff of flight and olive branch with Saturn V in back- 
ground. (Haney, NYT, 8/10/69) 
August 11: Lunar scientist Dr. Harold C. Urey discussed moon findings at 
San Diego, Calif., press conference after return from study of Apollo 11 
lunar samples at lrl. There was "no evidence whatever" of life on 
moon and, "at present, no age of the rocks on the surface of the moon 
is known." Fine dust on lunar surface consisted of 50% glass — 10% in 
form of small beads, 40% as broken-up beads — and "something else" 
containing minerals similar to those in lunar rocks. Dust and rocks 
evidenced shock as though produced by "rather large collisions some- 
where that dug up material considerably deeper in the moon than the 
few centimeters they have been investigating." There was no evidence 
of water. Chemical analyses had shown high concentration of titanium 
in lunar samples characteristic of area where Surveyor V and Apollo 11 
had landed. "No such . . . titanium concentration occurs anywhere 
that we know of on the surface of Earth." 

No one had "anticipated what we are finding. And I believe that no 
one has a good explanation of how it got that way." It would take 
"much more" than nine more Apollo manned landings to solve lunar 
mysteries. He saw no economic value in future lunar colonization but 
"an observatory on the moon would be a wonderful way to investigate 
the heavens, because the difficulties of the atmosphere would dis- 
appear." ( Space World, 12/69, 35-42 ) 

• Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), Chairman of House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, told House: "... I do not at this time wish 
to commit ourselves to a specific time period for setting sail for Mars. 
I believe that there are many tasks that can be accomplished that will 
ultimately provide that capability, but will be less costly and will be 
necessary in meeting short term objectives." He urged priority atten- 
tion to intermediate steps and balanced program "that fully exploits the 
great potential of unmanned spacecraft, while at the same time main- 
taining a vigorous manned flight program." 

He advocated continuation of lunar exploration to obtain "experi- 

275 



August 11 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

ence of operating a base for science and exploration on another heav- 
enly body"; manned earth-orbital operations leading to long-term space 
station supported by low-cost shuttle rocket; greater emphasis on ap- 
plications satellites that "have the greatest potential for economic 
return in the near term"; larger funding for unmanned planetary ex- 
ploration, "an area in which the U.S. may soon be overshadowed by 
the Soviet Union"; continued nerva development because "improved 
propulsion is a key to space leadership"; and "special emphasis on 
ERS satellites, "which promise to yield so much ... to agriculture and 
industry." (Text; CR, 8/11/69, H7251-4) 

• On first day out of quarantine, Apollo 11 crew visited MSC offices, then 

enjoyed official day off. NASA spokesman said astronauts had requested 
their activities be kept secret, (upi, W Post, 8/12/69, A3) 

• Approximately nine hours of satellite time had been booked for TV 

coverage abroad of Apollo 11 astronaut events during coming week, 
ComSatCorp said. They included more than two hours live coverage 
of Aug. 12 MSC news conference, to be relayed via Intelsat-Ill F—2 to 
Western and Eastern Europe and, in part, to Tokyo and Sydney via 
Pacific lntelsat-lll F—4. Nearly two hours coverage of New York 
ticker-tape parade and visit to U.N. would be transmitted to Europe 
Aug. 13. Ceremonial dinner in Los Angeles, later in day, would be 
taped for transmission to Europe Aug. 14. (ComSatCorp Release 
69-50) 

• Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) told Senate: "It would be a major 

step forward if we could now negotiate a new space treaty which would 
go beyond the disavowal of national claim of sovereignty in the exist- 
ing treaty and explicitly recognize the United Nations as the 'owner' 
or sovereign of extraterrestrial bodies and also define the functions and 
responsibilities of a United Nations space authority, particularly the 
ways in which it would regulate and coordinate national space explora- 
tion programs. The overall objective of such a treaty would be to 
regulate but not eliminate the competition in space. One benefit of such 
an arrangement is that it would allow the space powers to reduce their 
expenditures and so reallocate funds to more pressing domestic and 
international requirements." (CR, 8/11/69, S9633) 

• New York Times editorial: "On that eventful day when the first men 

walk on the surface of Mars, they will find much 'magnificent desola- 
tion' akin to that seen by Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin when they 
strolled on the moon last month. That virtual certainty emerges from 
the brilliantly successful exploration of the red planet just completed by 
Mariners 6 and 7. Their expedition lacked the human drama of 
Apollo 11, but the scientific information they returned may well 
qualify the two Mariners as the most scientifically productive enter- 
prise men have yet carried out in space." (NYT, 8/11/69) 

• Subcommittee on NASA Oversight submitted to House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics report Engineering Management of Design 
and Construction of Facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. Report concluded that closer economic scrutiny of 
design and construction management at NASA executive level could 
"yield dividends in more efficient management and lower costs at the 
field centers." Organization of Office of Facilities was "progressive 
step." Cost accounting of administrative expenditures needed to be 

276 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 11 

improved and engineering management costs should be clearly identi- 
fied for all projects at all centers. (Text) 

August 12-18: nasa's 951-lb Ats V (ats-e) Applications Technology 
Satellite was launched from etr at 7:01 am EDT by Atlas (SLV-3C)- 
Centaur booster on mission to conduct carefully instrumented gravity- 
gradient-orientation experiment for basic design information on 
stabilization and control of long-lived spacecraft in synchronous orbit 
and to obtain useful data from onboard experiments during first 30 
days in orbit. Spacecraft successfully entered elliptical transfer orbit 
with 26,737.2-mi (43,020.2-km) apogee, 5,297.0-mi (8,522.9-km) peri- 
gee, 686.5-min period, and 17.9° inclination. 

Because of anomaly which required excessive fuel to maintain stable 
spin condition, apogee-kick motor was fired on first apogee instead of 
second and spacecraft had to be biased so it would drift from position 
over India to intended station over area west of Ecuador. Maneuver 
successfully placed Ats V into near-synchronous orbit with 22,927-mi 
(36,889.5-km) apogee, 22,221-mi (35,753.6-km) perigee, 1,464.0-min 
period, 2.7° inclination, and 6.9° per day westward drift. Active nuta- 
tion control was overpowered by unidentified force that caused space- 
craft to go into flat spin, preventing ejection of motor case without 
possibility of damage to spacecraft. Controllers were investigating 
alternatives — stopping. spacecraft spin, restoring spacecraft to normal 
spin mode, or minimizing ejection hazard — which could be executed 
Aug. 25 when spacecraft became visible to Rosman, N.C., ground 
station. Spacecraft was not in danger thermally or electronically and 
was expected to become stable and operational after successful ejection 
of kick motor. 

Ats V was fifth in series of seven ats satellites designed to investigate 
and flight-test technological developments common to number of satel- 
lite applications and useful to satellites operating in stationary orbits, 
conduct carefully instrumented gravity-gradient experiments for basic 
design information, and flight-test experiments peculiar to orbits of 
various missions. Ats I (launched Dec. 6, 1966) had exceeded test 
objectives and was still operating satisfactorily. Ats 11 (launched April 
5, 1967), though judged a failure because of eccentric orbit, had 
transmitted some useful data before being turned off Oct. 23, 1967. 
Ats 111 (launched Nov. 5, 1967) had operated successfully and trans- 
mitted color photos of earth. Ats IV (launched Aug. 10, 1968) had 
remained in parking orbit when Centaur failed to complete second 
burn and had reentered Oct. 17, 1968. ATS program was managed by 
gsfc under OSSA direction. (NASA Proj Off) 

August 12: Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
and Michael Collins held first postflight press conference at MSC, nar- 
rating 45-min film of mission and answering questions. On meaning of 
lunar landing, Collins said it was "technical triumph for this country 
to have said what it was going to do a number of years ago, and then 
by golly do it. Just like we said we were going to do. Not just . . . 
purely technical, but also a triumph of the nation's overall determina- 
tion, will, economy, attention to detail, and a thousand and one other 
factors that went into it." 

To Aldrin mission meant "that many other problems perhaps can be 
solved in the same way by taking a commitment to solve them in long 

277 



August 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

time fashion. I think that we were timely in accepting this mission of 
going to the moon. It might be timely at this point to think in many 
other areas of other missions that could be accomplished." 

Armstrong said moon landing heralded "beginning of a new age." 
He said moon was "stark and strangely different place, but it looked 
friendly . . . and proved to be friendly." Astronauts had much less 
trouble than expected on lunar surface. Primary difficulty was that 
"there was just far too little time to do the variety of things that we 
would have liked to have done. . . . We had the problem of the 5 year 
old boy in a candy store. There are just too many interesting things to 
do." 

Armstrong said that during landing they "were concerned about 
running low on fuel on range extension we did to avoid the boulder 
field and craters. We used a significant percentage of our fuel margins 
and we were quite close to our legal limit." On possibility of abort 
during period they were receiving alarm signals, Aldrin said procedure 
in preparation simulations had been always to "keep going as long as 
we could. . . . The computer was continuing to issue guidance . . . and 
it was continuing to fly the vehicle down in the same way that it was 
programmed to do. The only thing that was missing ... is that we 
did not have some of the displays . . . and we had to make several 
entries ... to clear up that area." Armstrong added, "We would have 
continued the landing so long as the trajectory seemed safe. And land- 
ing is possible under these conditions, although with considerably less 
confidence than you have when you have the information from the 
ground and the computer in its normal manner available to you." 
(Transcript) 

• Leningrad astronomer Nikolay A. Kozyrev called for lunar laboratories 

over, under, and on moon's surface. Soviet and American space ex- 
ploration had made scientists "more confident that this is not a dead 
accumulation of rocks but a space body with a very interesting history 
whose life also continues today." Lunar research goals were establish- 
ment of astronomical instruments on stable platforms in lunar orbit, 
permanent scientific laboratory on moon, spacecraft launching centers 
on moon for planetary exploration, and laboratory stations under lunar 
surface or in natural caves, "to give reliable protection from dangerous 
radiation and meteorite hits." (upi, NYT, 8/13/69, 11) 

• MSFC announced award of $15,455,800 contract modification to Boeing 

Co. for continued Saturn V systems engineering and integration. Con- 
tract covered work from June 1967 through June 1970 and continued 
effort through 10 Saturn V boosters, (msfc Release 69-177) 

• New Jersey State Div. of Clean Air and Water requested order from 

Superior Court, Newark, asking seven airlines to stop polluting air with 
jet engine exhaust at Newark Airport. Suit called for modification of 
existing jet engines with air-pollution-control devices or for switching 
to new smokeless engines and asked imposition of $2,500 fine. In 
Washington, Air Transport Assn. spokesman said that "it would be 
hard to make a case for massive retrofit with the absence of a major 
health hazard." He said studies had shown that jet engine pollution 
was only one percent of total problem and was case of "visibility" and 
"esthetics" rather than health danger. United Airlines spokesman said 

278 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 12 

November 1968 engine modifications to three of airline's Boeing 727s 
had sharply decreased pollution. (Sullivan, NYT, 8/13/69, 1) 

• Philadelphia Evening Bulletin editorial: "The public ceremonies honor- 

ing the astronauts underscore identity in a larger and much more re- 
sponsible sense — a feeling of community, rooted in a family and 
expanding to embrace the nation, perhaps ultimately the world. There 
are other words for it — awareness of a common purpose, a sense of 
decency both public and private, a common standard of behavior and 
a common sense of service and loyalty to country. This is what made 
Apollo succeed, and this is what the nation is recognizing as the cele- 
bration begins today." (P Bull, 8/12/69) 
August 13: NERVA experimental engine (XE) was successfully run through 
two bootstrap startups in open-loop control and three autostart experi- 
ments in Jackass Flats, Nev. Objective was to obtain additional data 
about engine in startup phase. Engine and test facility operated nor- 
mally and all test objectives were achieved. (NASA Proj Off; SBD, 
9/2/69, 4) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried GSFC- 

Dudley Observatory payload to collect micrometeoroids during Perseid 
meteor shower and to study electric field. Rocket and instruments func- 
tioned satisfactorily and data were expected from all experiments. Data 
would be compared with data from Nike-Apache mission to be 
launched Aug. 22. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Michael 

Collins, their families, and NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, 
flew in presidential jet from Houston to New York, Chicago, and Los 
Angeles during day of cross-country celebrations. 

Three-hour New York visit included greeting at City Hall by Mayor 
John V. Lindsay, motorcade to U.N. for greeting by U.N. Secretary 
General U Thant, and ticker-tape procession to John F. Kennedy Inter- 
national Airport for departure to Chicago. New York Public Events 
Commissioner John S. Palmer estimated crowds at 4 million; other 
observers said there were fewer and blamed ahead-of-schedule ap- 
pearance and TV coverage. 

In Chicago, welcoming crowd was estimated at 3.5 million. Mayor 
Richard J. Daley greeted party at Civic Center and presented medals 
symbolic of honorary citizenship to astronauts and Dr. Paine. Illinois 
Gov. Richard B. Ogilvie said, "To these first citizens of the new epoch, 
the people of Chicago and Illinois offer their profound admiration and 
respect." Astronauts spoke to 15,000 young people in Grant Park 
before returning by helicopter to O'Hare International Airport for 
flight to Los Angeles. 

Mayor Samuel W. Yorty met party at Los Angeles International 
Airport. After brief ceremony, party sped to Century Plaza Hotel for 
reception preceding state dinner. (Lelyveld, NYT, 8/14/69, 1; Ober- 
dorfer, W Post, 8/14/69, Al; nasa pao) 

• Climaxing day of cross-country celebrations, President and Mrs. Nixon 

hosted formal state dinner at Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles to 
honor Apollo 11 astronauts, their wives, and "historic achievement of 
the first manned landing on the moon." Guests included other astro- 
nauts and wives; widows of Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and Edward 

279 



August 13 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

H. White II; Mrs. Esther Goddard, widow of rocket pioneer Dr. Robert 
H. Goddard; NASA and other space program officials; U.S. and inter- 
national aviation pioneers; Cabinet members; Chief Justice and Mrs. 
Warren E. Burger; governors of 44 states; members of Joint Chiefs of 
Staff; Diplomatic Corps members representing 83 nations; Mrs. D wight 
D. Eisenhower, widow of former President; former Vice President and 
Mrs. Hubert H. Humphrey; and Congressional leaders. 

President asked NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, to read 
citation of posthumous awards: "The National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration awards posthumously to Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. 
White, and Roger B. Chaffee the NASA Distinguished Service Medals for 
professional skill, courage, and dedication to duty in Project Apollo. 
They gave their lives in their country's historic undertaking to realize 
the goal of landing men on the moon and returning them safely to 
earth." 

President also asked Dr. Paine to read citation of NASA Group 
Achievement Award to Apollo 11 Mission Operations Team "for ex- 
ceptional service in planning and exemplary execution of mission op- 
erational responsibilities for . . . first manned lunar landing mission." 
Award was presented to Apollo Flight Control Engineer Stephen G. 
Bales, who had made decision to proceed with lunar landing when 
computers failed just before Eagle's landing on Sea of Tranquility, on 
behalf of 400,000 persons who had contributed to Apollo program 
success. 

Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, as NASC chairman, presented Medal 
of Freedom, nation's highest civilian honor, to Apollo 11 astronauts for 
participation in "a unique and profoundly important adventure. The 
accumulated scientific knowledge and technological ability of mankind 
made man's first step on the moon practicable; the courage and skill 
of men like these made it possible. Their contributions to this under- 
taking will be remembered so long as men wonder and dream and 
search for truth on this planet and among the stars." 

Replying to honors, Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., said: "What 
Apollo has begun we hope will spread out in many directions, not just 
in space, but underneath the seas and in the cities, to tell us unfor- 
gettably that we can do what we will and must and want to do." 

During evening orderly crowd of peace and antipoverty protesters 
gathered outside hotel. (PD, 8/18/69, 1141-2, 1148-51; Roberts, 
NYT, 8/15/69, 14; B Sun, 8/14/69, Al) 

• msfc announced award of three 10-mo contracts totaling $1,370,000 to 

McDonnell Douglas Corp., North American Rockwell Corp., and Lock- 
heed Aircraft Corp. to study design concepts and development require- 
ments for nuclear rocket stage that could replace Saturn V 3rd stage 
(S— IVB) for advanced missions beginning in late 1970s and serve as 
workhorse for earth orbital and planetary applications. 

McDonnell Douglas received $570,828 to develop and evaluate two 
alternative stage concepts — one with modified Saturn V hardware, 
other with new stage design and advanced design techniques, nar re- 
ceived $511,734 to study modified Saturn V hardware concept only and 
Lockheed received $287,000 to study advanced design concept only. 
(msfc Release 69-180) 

• New York Times editorial on Aug. 12 Apollo 11 news conference in 

280 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 13 

Houston: "What came through most clearly in yesterday's enthralling 
first-hand report by the Apollo astronauts was the infinitesimal margin 
by which Eagle escaped either catastrophe or a decision to abort the 
moon landing. Either of the two major problems that emerged in those 
nerve-wracking moments before touchdown — the overburdened com- 
puter and the near-exhaustion of their fuel supply before Neil Arm- 
strong and Edwin Aldrin found a suitable landing spot — might have 
forced a very different ending to the historic mission. That all turned 
out perfectly is a tribute to the astronauts' skill, courage and poise as 
well as to the ability of the back-up personnel at Mission Control in 
Houston." (NYT, 8/13/69, 40) 

• Apollo 11 commander Neil A. Armstrong stood to inherit 100,000-franc 

fortune of Mme. Anna E. Guzman, widow of French industrialist, which 
had been held in trust by Academy of Science of Institute of France 
since her 1891 death, according to article Rep. James G. Fulton 
( R-Pa. ) inserted in Congressional Record. Legacy — once worth $20,000 
but currently decreased in value to $290 exclusive of interest — was to 
be awarded to first scientist to make personal contact with heavenly 
body other than Mars. [CR, 8/13/69, E7023) 

• In Senate, Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis.) called for at least temporary 

halt in usaf plans to purchase Lockheed C— 5A cargo aircraft while 
U.S. Comptroller General studied aircraft's costs and value to be 
gained from further purchases. (CR, 8/13/69, S9972-8) 

• Rep. J. Herbert Burke (R-Fla.) introduced joint resolution calling for 

redesignation of Cape Kennedy as Cape Canaveral. (CR, 8/13/69, 
H7387) 
August 14: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCII from Plesetsk into orbit 
with 765-km (475.4-mi) apogee, 745-km (462.9-mi) perigee, 99.9-min 
period, and 74.0° inclination, (gsfc SSR, 8/15/69; SBD, 8/20/69, 
169; UN Public Registry) 

• NASA announced that 8 of 14 aerospace research pilots trained for USAF's 

Manned Orbiting Laboratory program terminated June 10 would join 
nasa. One, l/c Albert H. Crews (usaf), would be assigned to Flight 
Crew Operations Directorate at MSC Seven would be astronauts, bring- 
ing total number of active NASA astronauts to 54: Maj. Karol H. Bobko 
(usaf), l/cdr Robert L. Crippen (usn), Maj. Charles G. Fullerton 
(usaf), Maj. Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. (usaf), Maj. Robert F. Over- 
myer (usmc), Maj. Donald H. Peterson (usaf), and l/cdr Richard 
H. Truly (usn). Effective date for new assignments had not been set. 
Maj. Bobko, Maj. Hartsfield, and Maj. Peterson would complete studies 
for graduate degrees before assuming astronaut duty, (nasa Release 
69-120) 

• NASA announced appointment of eight-man failure review committee to 

determine why Intelsat-Ill F-5 comsat did not achieve planned orbit 
after launch from ksc July 25. (nasa Release 69-119) 

• Discovery of x-ray "star" between constellations Centaurus and Lupus 

from data relayed during July by two Vela nuclear detection satellites 
launched May 23 had been announced by Los Alamos Scientific Lab- 
oratory astronomers, New York Times reported. Dr. J. P. Conner, Dr. 
W. D. Evans, and R. D. Helian said object had twice the intensity of 
most brilliant x-ray sources previously known — in constellation Scor- 
pius — and had not yet been identified in wavelengths observable by 

281 



August 14 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

human eye. No obvious source of x-ray emissions had been identified, 
such as stars, stellar explosions, or pulsars. (Sullivan, NYT, 8/14/69, 
7) 

• Cross-country ceremonies for Apollo 11 astronauts constituted "probably 

the single greatest peacetime celebration in the nation's history," New 
York Times editorial said. "It was more than a tribute to three cou- 
rageous and able men ; it was also an act of homage to the hundreds of 
thousands of workers, engineers, technicians and scientists whose hard 
work over almost a decade made the moon landing possible. At the 
most fundamental level, perhaps, the outpouring of national rejoicing 
stemmed from the renewed sense of purpose the Apollo's incredible 
feat had brought to a nation long torn and depressed by military 
travail abroad and racial and generational antagonisms at home. The 
essence of that sentiment was well stated by Mr. Armstrong when he 
declared at the United Nations that 'we citizens of earth who can solve 
the problem of leaving earth can also solve the problems of staying on 
earth.' " (NYT, 8/14/69) 

• Research submarine Ben Franklin surfaced 300 mi south of Nova Scotia, 

ending 1,200-mi, month-long Gulf Stream Drift by Swiss ocean- 
ographer Jacques Piccard and team which included MSFC researcher 
Chester B. May [see July 14]. During journey team had noted Gulf 
Stream contained fewer fish, stronger current, and more turbulence 
than expected, (upi, W Star, 8/14/69, Al; Blakeslee, NYT, 8/8/69, 
38) 
August 15: Results of preliminary qualitative study of Mariner VI photos 
were summarized in Science by Dr. Robert B. Leighton, Dr. Norman 
H. Horowitz, Dr. Bruce C. Murray, and Dr. Robert P. Sharp of Cal 
Tech; Alan G. Herriman and Dr. Andrew T. Young of JPL; Bradford 
A. Smith of New Mexico State Univ.; Merton E. Davies of rand Corp.; 
and Conway B. Leovy of Univ. of Washington: Surface of Mars 
"appears similar to that of the Moon, but there are significant differ- 
ences; some features seen from Earth are characterized; the 'blue 
haze' hypothesis is disproved; and new phenomena associated with the 
polar cap are discovered." Mars resembled moon in abundance, form, 
arrangement, and size of craters, but there appeared to be break in 
size-distribution curve of craters in some parts of Mars not character- 
istic of moon — apparently because Mars had more effective weathering 
and transportation process than moon. Similarities between Martian 
and lunar surfaces included craters with slump blocks, terrace, and 
radial dry-debris avalanche chutes on steep inner surfaces; central 
peaks, polygonal outlines, blocky ejecta rims, and irregular ejecta; and 
irregularly sinuous ridges. Differences included more subdued relief of 
many Martian craters, flatter floors, fewer central peaks, more subdued 
debris blankets, absence of obvious secondary craters and rays, and 
greater abundance of "ghost" craters. Photos showed no sinuous rilles 
and no distinctive earth-like phenomena such as mountain ranges, tec- 
tonic basins, stream-cut topographs, dune fields, playa flats, or other 
arid-region features. (Science, 8/15/69, 685—90) 

• Classical astronomical data on figures of moon and terrestrial planets 

were being supplemented by new information from Lunar Orbiter 
program. Comparable future planetary probes would provide funda- 
mental data from simple experiments, Cornell Univ. radiophysicists 

282 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 15 

Dr. Brian T. O'Leary, Dr. Malcolm J. Campbell, and Dr. Carl Sagan 
said in Science. Lunar Orbiter results had revealed lunar mascons' 
nonuniform surface distribution that could explain lunar dynamical 
asymmetries "and perhaps similar asymmetries for Mars and Mercury." 
(Science, 8/15/69, 651-7) 

• Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin was uninjured when faulty landing gear on 

T-33 jet trainer forced belly landing at Ellington afb, Tex. (AP, 
W Star, 8/16/69, A2) 

• Soviet newspaper said Tu-144, Soviet supersonic transport, had been 

flying beyond sound barrier "for extended periods of time" with no 
difficulty, Associated Press reported. (W Post, 8/16/69, A2) 

• C-5 Galaxy aircraft would demonstrate its cargo and troop delivery 

capability in joint USAF— USA— Lockheed-Georgia Co. Transport Air 
Drop and Jettison Test (tadjet) program to begin in early October, 
dod announced. Approximately 150 flights from Pope afb, N.C., would 
airdrop equipment and men. During transport phase, C— 5 would be 
loaded and unloaded some 50 times and perform mating maneuvers 
with air-transportable dock that could handle cargo capacity of three 
C-5s. (dod Release 683-69) 

August 15—17: Second National Air Exposition at Dulles International Air- 
port, Va., featured large static display including first public appearance 
of Lockheed C— 5A, world's largest aircraft, and flying exhibitions by 
F-lll and other aircraft. (Program; NYT, 8/16/69, 46) 

August 16: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCIII from Plesetsk into orbit 
with 244-km (151.6-mi) apogee, 202-km (125.5-mi) perigee, 88.9-min 
period, and 51.7° inclination. Satellite reentered Aug. 28. (gsfc SSR, 
8/31/69; UN Public Registry; SBD, 8/20/69, 166) 

• Estimated 250,000 persons watched Apollo 11 astronauts parade in Hous- 

ton, Tex. Crowd threw confetti, ticker tape, and "moon certificates" — 
fake $100 and $1,000 paper money — until streets were two to three feet 
deep in litter. Later, 55,000 persons attended gala in Houston's Astro- 
dome coliseum, which was filled to capacity. Total of 31 astronauts and 
families rode through cheering throngs, (upi, W Post, 8/17/69, A12) 

• Associated Press said Austin, Tex., Judge John R. Brown had granted re- 

quest of atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair for three- judge Federal court 
to hear her suit against NASA seeking to prevent astronauts on duty 
from practicing religion [see Aug. 6]. (AP, W Post, 8/16/69, A3) 

• Agnew E. Larsen, space research consultant with Frankford Arsenal, 

Philadelphia, Pa., died at age 73. He had received 1930 Robert J. 
Collier Trophy as member of Harold F. Pitcairn's staff for developing 
and applying autogiro and demonstrating its possibilities for safe aerial 
transport. (NYT, 8/18/69, 31; Neely, Pegasus, 12/50, 10) 
August 17: Apollo 11 astronauts discussed possible manned Mars landing 
by 1982 on cbs TV program "Face the Nation." Astronaut Neil A. 
Armstrong said, "I am quite certain that goals of the Mars variety are 
within our range, should we choose . . . that investment of our national 
resources." First exploratory flights could be combined with earth- 
orbiting spacecraft to develop long-term capability with same kind of 
spacecraft. It was "well within our capability" to be prepared for 
Mars launch in 1981. 

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., said he was "not so sure . . . this is 
the time that we can accurately set a date like 1981." Setting goal was 

283 



August 17 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

worthwhile but as intermediate goals were reached "I believe we will 
be able to better define exactly what our longer term goals are in terms 
of ten years from now." 

Astronaut Michael Collins said, "I don't think 1981 is too soon. I 
think it is well within our capabality to do so." Long-duration trip 
"requires careful design and testing of the equipment, which could 
easily be done in Earth orbit with a number of ancillary benefits." He 
defended Bible reading in space and announced he would not fly in 
space again, because he found it increasingly difficult "to keep up year 
after year" with rigorous training required. {SBD, 8/19/69, 159; 
W Post, 8/18/69, A2; NYT, 8/18/69, 33) 

• Japan successfully launched her largest rocket to date — four-stage, 75-ft- 

long, 4.5-ft-dia, 43.8-ton MU3D — Kyodo News Service reported. 
Rocket reached 100-mi (160.9-km) altitude in 4V-» min, with last 
stage reaching 1.8 mps — about half speed thought needed to orbit satel- 
lite — and splashing down in Western Pacific after 7 min 35 sees of 
flight. (B Sun, 8/18/69, A4) 

• President Nixon's post- Apollo 11 tour of Asia and Romania July 25— 

Aug. 3, plus his remarks and reactions aboard U.S.S. Hornet at splash- 
down and during welcoming ceremony for astronauts, were recorded 
in New York Times Magazine article by Max Frankel and Robert B. 
Semple, Jr. Authors were among press accompanying President and 
Mrs. Nixon on tour. President and party had basked "in reflected 
moonglow." When President walked toward reviewing stand in Guam, 
spectator had remarked, "that's his moon walk." Apollo 11 had given 
President "new exuberance." (NYT Magazine, 8/17/69, 26-9, 76-80) 

• Rep. George P. Miller (D-Calif.), as Chairman of House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, had forced NASA to pay $5,522 for usaf jet to 
transport 32 committee members and wives to Aug. 13 Apollo 11 state 
dinner in Los Angeles, Rowland Evans and Robert Novak said in 
Washington Post. NASA also had to pay $19,342 for chartered com- 
mercial jet for space officials and $2,800 for Aug. 12 Houston luncheon, 
and White House was charging agency with most of estimated $75,000 
cost of state dinner. (W Post, 8/17/69, B7) 

• Controversy was building up over astronauts' future, Apollo program, 

and manned space flight generally, Harry Schwartz said in New York 
Times. Three major debates were over whether engineer-astronauts or 
scientist-astronauts should be sent on future Apollo missions; who 
should control mission schedules and astronaut activities, "nasa hier- 
archy" or ground-based scientists in nasa; and whether U.S. should 
emphasize unmanned probes or crash program to put men on Mars in 
early 1980s. "The fact that it is the scientists who have been resigning 
while astronauts with test pilot backgrounds have been receiving un- 
precedented public acclaim makes it evident where the balance of 
power lies for the moment within nasa. But the issue is far from 
settled, since NASA itself must and does use the prospect of scientific 
advances as a key argument in seeking appropriations for space ac- 
tivities. Hence the dissident scientists could have substantial leverage 
if they teamed up with Congressmen and others who oppose the space 
appropriations for other reasons. It would not be surprising ... if 
nasa sought to ease the scientists' irritation by satisfying some of their 
demands." (NYT, 8/17/69, D2) 

284 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 18 

August 18: Swiss physicist Dr. Johannes Geiss, originator of Apollo 11 ex- 
periment to trap atomic particles from solar wind on lunar surface, 
would use "deliberate speed" in assaying results, New York Times re- 
ported. NASA courier had delivered square foot of aluminum foil ex- 
posed on moon for an hour to catch particles emitted by sun. Dr. Geiss 
and associates in Berne Univ.'s Physics Institute had devised plan for 
dual study of foil in Berne and at Federal Polytechnic at Zurich. Analy- 
ses, determining components by spectrometer, would require several 
weeks. NASA would not release remaining three square feet of foil to 
him until 1970. (NYT, 8/18/69, 34) 

• British Aircraft Corp. and Sud-Aviation announced completion of second 

phase of Anglo-French Concorde supersonic transport flight develop- 
ment program. Two prototypes were being readied for transonic phase 
to push aircraft's speed beyond mach 1 in early September. Two proto- 
types had logged 104 flying hrs in 39 and 24 flights and had achieved 
speeds to mach 0.95 and altitudes to 40,000 ft. Concorde 002 was being 
prepared for supersonic flights to mach 2, or 1,400-mph cruising speed, 
in tests expected to begin at year's end. ( BAc/Sud-Aviation Release 
IOC/69) 
August 19: McDonald Observatory in Texas successfully recorded its first 
hits on laser reflector left on moon by Apollo 11 astronauts at 9:30 pm 
cdt. Scientists said distance at that moment was 232,271.406 mi and 
moon was 131.2 ft farther from earth than previously believed. Lick 
Observatory in California had recorded first hits Aug. 1 and had esti- 
mated earth-moon distance to be 226,970.9 mi at that time. (AP, W 
Star, 8/21/69, A3) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXC1V from Plesetsk into orbit with 

343-km (213.1-mi) apogee, 205-km (127.4-mi) perigee, 89.7-mi 
period, and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered Aug. 27. (gsfc SSR, 
8/31/69; SBD, 8/20/69, 166; UN Public Registry) 

• NASA announced selection of Chester M. Lee as Apollo Mission Director, 

succeeding George H. Hage, who had been elected vice president for 
product development with Boeing Co. Lee, retired USN captain who had 
served in Polaris missile program and in Directorate of Research and 
Engineering in Office of Secretary of Defense, had been Assistant 
Apollo Mission Director since August 1966. (nasa Release 69-122) 
August 20: Study of possible Space Technology Applications and Research 
Laboratory (starlab), sponsored by NASA and American Society for 
Engineering Education, was completed at MSFC Eleven-week design 
project focused space-developed technology on earth resources use, 
crop-maturity prediction, soil analysis, vegetation vigor, sea farming, 
and other earth problems. Final presentation in project, which had 
participation of 21 faculty members from 18 colleges and universities, 
was report on orbiting space laboratory illustrating systems approach 
that could be valuable in solving major earth problems, (msfc Release 
69-179) 

• Washington Post published letter from former Secretary of State Dean 

Rusk. He recommended U.S. abandon idea of space race with U.S.S.R.; 
"throw wide open the doors on international cooperation"; proceed 
with development of near-earth space capabilities and activities con- 
tributing to understanding of earth; and "take advantage of NASA's ex- 
traordinary ability to mobilize scientific, technical, industrial and other 

285 



August 20 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

talents" for other tasks, like air travel and air pollution problem- 
solving. "Manned flights to the planets might better be a decision for 
the next generation." (W Post, 8/20/69, A28) 
August 21: nasa's X-24A lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld R. 
Gentry, successfully completed third flight after air-launch from B— 52 
aircraft over South Rogers Lake Bed, Calif. Objectives of unpowered 
flight were to obtain handling qualities, stability and control deriva- 
tives, flow visualization over aft portion of vehicle, and longitudinal 
trim curves and lift-to-drag ratio at 15° upper-flap setting. Procedural 
error caused X— 24A to be launched 35 sees early and some planned 
data were not obtained, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Intelsat I (Early Bird) had been put back into orbital retirement and full 

communications service via Intelsat-III F—2 had been restored, Com- 
SatCorp announced. Intelsat I, reactivated June 30 after six-month re- 
tirement to compensate for failure of Intelsat-III F—2 until service was 
restored Aug. 1, would remain in orbit and would be capable of opera- 
tional service if needed. Restored Intelsat-III F—2 was handling 620 
full-time commercial circuits serving countries in Atlantic area and 
transatlantic TV programming when ordered. ( Intelsat Release 
69-53) 

• nasa launched series of three sounding rockets from Wallops Station. 

Nike-Tomahawk carried gsfc payload to 141.1-mi (227.0-km) alti- 
tude to test neutral-mass spectrometer system with unique sample-flow 
and test-leak subsystem necessary for making high-pressure neutral- 
constituent measurements on planned Mars and Venus missions and 
to demonstrate capability of sterilized-mass-spectrometer electronics in 
flight environment for first time. Rocket and instruments functioned 
satisfactorily and complete data were obtained. 

Nike-Tomahawk carried GSFC and Univ. of Michigan payload to 
197.6-mi (318.0-km) altitude to measure nitrogen density and tem- 
perature. Secondary objectives were to evaluate Omegatron system de- 
signed for San Marco-C satellite, measure density and temperature of 
nitrogen simultaneously, compare Pitot-static-probe and thermosphere- 
probe density in 74.6-mi (120.0-km) region, and validate mass spec- 
trometer nitrogen measurement and electrostatic-probe electron 
temperature data. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily and 
complete data were obtained. 

Nike-Apache carried Univ. of Michigan payload to 124.3-mi 
(200.0-km) altitude to measure neutral atmospheric density by Pitot 
technique in 18.4- to 74.6-mi (30.0- to 120.0-km) region. Rocket and 
instruments functioned satisfactorily and all atmospheric measurements 
made by Pitot probe were excellent, (nasa Rpts srl) 

• Every scientist-astronaut except one — geologist Harrison Schmitt — had 

been removed from NASA's lunar landing training list, Victor Cohn re- 
ported in Washington Post. Report was later denied by nasa. Cohn 
said remaining scientists had been assigned to train for long-duration, 
earth-orbiting Apollo Applications missions beginning in 1972. (W 
Post, 8/21/69, Al; 8/22/69, A18) 

• Washington Post published letter from Irene S. Rubin in Lampang, Thai- 

land. Real impact of Apollo 11 success in Thailand had been "on the 
group of educated men who have some effect on government. Their 
primary reaction was not one of shared accomplishment but of shame 

286 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 21 

in the gap thus dramatized between themselves and the developed 
countries." Though U.S. could not hide technological capacity, "I think 
we should be more aware of the context into which news of the Apollo 
mission is received. Far from bringing the world closer together with 
such performances, we may be arousing bitterness and obstinacy in the 
misallocation of development funds." (W Post, 8/21/69, A18) 
August 22: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCV into orbit with 473-km 
(293.9-mi) apogee, 270-km (167.8-mi) perigee, 91.9-min period, and 
71.0° inclination. Satellite reentered Dec. 1 (gsfc SSR, 8/31/69; 
12/15/69) 

• Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried GSFC 

and Dudley Observatory payload to 98.2-mi (158.0-km) altitude to 
provide background particle collection for comparison with data from 
Nike-Apache launched Aug. 13 during Perseid meteor shower. Rocket 
and instruments functioned satisfactorily. Data were expected from all 
experiments. (NASA Rpt SRL) 

• NASA named Rocco A. Petrone, Director of Launch Operations at KSC 

since 1966, to succeed l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf) as Director of 
Apollo Program, effective Sept. 1. He would be succeeded by Deputy 
Director of Launch Operations Walter J. Kapryan. Petrone had been 
Saturn Project Officer and Apollo Program Manager. His awards in- 
cluded NASA Exceptional Service Award for direction of Apollo 7 
checkout and launch and NASA Distinguished Service Medal, NASA's 
highest award, for direction of Apollo 8 checkout and launch, (nasa 
Release 69-124) 

• IAA announced selection of Dr. Charles A. Berry, Director of Medical Re- 

search and Operations at MSC, to receive Daniel and Florence Guggen- 
heim International Astronautics Award for 1969. Award and SI, 000 
prize would be presented during 20th International Astronautical Con- 
gress in Argentina in October. ( upi, W Post, 8/23/69, B3 I 

• NASA's alleged neglect of pure science research goals in favor of engineer- 

ing pursuits and "glamor" had caused undercurrent of dissatisfaction 
among scientists, Science noted. When interviewed by Science Dr. F. 
Curtis Michel, Dr. Donald U. Wise, and Dr. Elbert A. King, who had 
resigned from NASA recently, declined to attribute their resignations 
directly to major dissatisfactions with NASA and denied that they had 
resigned to protest emphasis on engineering rather than scientific re- 
search. They did, however, express some dissatisfaction with role of 
basic science in space exploration and impatience with nasa's manage- 
ment of scientific projects and admitted they were lured from NASA 
by prospects of new positions that offered more time for scientific re- 
search. (Science, 8/22/69, 776-8) 

• AIAA announced election of Honorary Fellows: Secretary of the Air 

Force, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr.; German rocket pioneer Hermann 
Oberth; and Northrop Corp. founder John K. Northrop. Dr. Seamans, 
former NASA Deputy Administrator, was honored for "organizing the 
research, development and operational base which produced the Apollo 
program." Honors would be presented at Oct. 23 banquet in Anaheim, 
Calif, (aiaa Release) 

• In letter advocating postponement of decision on manned Mars landing 

[see Aug. 20] former Secretary of State Dean Rusk had "gone to the 
heart of what is bound to become a critical national decision," Richard 

287 



August 22 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Wilson said in Washington Evening Star. "Now that we know we can 
and will do this thing does it make any difference in the eons of time 
yet to come when we do it? Fifty years from now might we not have 
developed far cheaper and more efficient ways to do it? Mars will still 
be there. . . . The space men have shown us not only the moon, but 
what a beautiful planet we have in what may otherwise be a wholly 
desolate solar system — a beautiful planet that needs loving care to pre- 
serve it." (W Star, 8/22/69, A15) 

• In telephone interview, ucla astronomer Dr. Samuel Herrick, Jr., said 

planetoid Geographos, due to pass earth at 5.6-million-mi distance Aug. 
27, would be best site of all asteroids for eventual space station beyond 
moon and good spot for manned or unmanned spacecraft landing. Its 
farthest point from sun in given orbit was least distant from sun and 
from earth of all minor planets. But astronauts landing on it would 
have to "dig in and tie themselves down" since its estimated g was so 
slight "even a sneeze directed at the surface would propel a man off 
into space." (AP, B Sara, 8/23/69, A3) 

• In Science, MIT Lincoln Laboratory scientists Alan E. E. Rogers and 

Richard P. Ingalls reported mapping Venus surface reflectivity by 
radar interferometry at 3.8-cm wavelength for region from — 80° to 0° 
longitude and from — 50° to +40° latitude. Map was free from two- 
fold range-Doppler ambiguity, presented new features, and clearly de- 
lineated features previously observed. It showed large circular regions 
of significantly lower reflectivity than their surroundings, with size and 
appearance of lunar maria. (Science, 8/22/69, 797—9) 

• At National Amateur Astronomers convention in Denver, Colo., six- 

member panel including Northwestern Univ. astronomer Dr. J. Allen 
Hynek and Univ. of Arizona physicist Dr. James E. McDonald sug- 
gested UFO investigation be taken from usaf and placed with scientific 
body. Panelists said since UFOs apparently presented no danger to 
national defense, they were unimportant to usaf. Panel disagreed with 
1968 Condon Report on ufos [see Jan. 9]. Hynek said ufo research 
should continue. (AP, W Star, 8/24/69, A17) 
August 23: usaf launched unidentified satellite from Vandenberg afb by 
Titan IIIB-Agena booster. Satellite entered orbit with 234.3-mi 
(377.0-km) apogee, 85.8-mi (138.1-km) perigee, 89.6-min period, 
and 108.1° inclination and reentered Sept. 7. (gsfc SSR, 8/31/69; 
9/15/69; SBD, 8/26/69, 190) 

• Chemical analysis of moon rocks at Lunar Receiving Laboratory had dis- 

closed their age might range from 2 billion to 4.5 billion yrs — far 
greater than most scientists expected — lunar scientists in touch with 
lrl colleagues said. It was "almost conclusive evidence that it has been 
billions of years since these rocks crystallized." Finding might settle 
difference between geologists who had viewed lunar surface as having 
had continuous history and those like Dr. Harold C. Urey who be- 
lieved moon was ancient, undisturbed place made of material which 
would help unfold history of early planets. Later, msc Director of 
Science and Applications, Dr. Wilmot N. Hess, said Dr. Oliver A. 
Schaeffer and Dr. John Funkhouser of State Univ. of New York, Dr. 
Joseph Zahringer of Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, and Dr. 
Donald Bogard of msc had measured solar particles trapped in lunar 

288 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 23 

rocks to determine lunar material's age. (Cohn, W Post, 8/24/69, Al; 
upi, W Star, 8/25/69, A4) 

• Ten space pioneers were named to first National Space Hall of Fame. 

Honorees, chosen by Houston City committee, would be feted at first 
annual awards dinner in Houston, Tex., Sept. 27. They included Astro- 
naut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., first American to journey in space; former 
Astronaut John H. Glenn, Jr., first American to orbit in space; late 
Astronaut Edward H. White II, first man to walk in space; Dr. 
Wernher von Braun, msfc Director; late Rep. Albert Thomas 
(D-Tex. ), staunch supporter of space program; Dr. Kurt H. Debus, 
KSC Director; late Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, former NASA Deputy Adminis- 
trator; Dr. Maxime A. Faget, Director of Engineering and Develop- 
ment at MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, msc Director; and late Dr. Robert 
H. Goddard, father of rocketry. Hall was in Albert Thomas Center in 
Houston, (upi, NYT, 8/25/69, 8) 
August 24: This Week published interview with science fiction author 
Arthur C. Clarke: Most important recent outer space discovery was 
pulsars — "It's possible that they might be signals from some higher 
civilization." Scientific surprise in Apollo program was "its immaculate 
perfection. You don't expect that, no matter how carefully you pre- 
pare." Clarke was writing space exploration documentary which would 
show "whole span of human interest in space, back to the Babylonian 
astronomers and on up through the colonization of the solar system." 
It would include Stonehenge which was "as big a burden for the prim- 
itive economy that built it — in fact, probably a much bigger burden 
than the Apollo program is for us." (Bradford, This Week, 8/24/69, 
7) 

• Transfer of usaf mol officers to nasa astronaut corps [see Aug. 14] wa9 

criticized in Washington Sunday Star by William Hines: "With the 
initial moon landing now an accomplished fact, the pace of manned 
space operations has slowed down to three flights per year. This means 
that no more than nine men can fly annually, and with 54 astronauts 
now on board, this, in turn, means an average of six years between 
flights." Though pace might accelerate in time and future space sta- 
tions would increase annual number of crew assignments, "the glamor 
and glory of being an astronaut — particularly a nonflying one — no 
longer compensates for the enforced idleness imposed by the modified 
flight schedule." (W Star, 8/24/69, D4) 
August 25: Postmaster General Winton M. Blount announced that "First 
Man on the Moon" postage stamp would be issued Sept. 9 in Washing- 
ton, D.C., in conjunction with National Postal Forum. Printed from 
master die carried to moon on Apollo 11 mission (July 16—24), 10- 
cent airmail stamp would be 50^ larger than conventional commemo- 
rative stamps and would be dedicated in special ceremony attended by 
Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and 
Michael Collins. Post Office had received 500,000 first-day cover re- 
quests within three weeks after stamp was announced July 9 and was 
still receiving 60,000-80,000 requests daily — one-fifth from foreign 
countries. ( PO Dept Release 130) 

• Dr. Harry H. Hess, Chairman of NAS— NRC Space Science Board and 

member of nasa's Science and Technology Advisory Committee for 

289 



August 25 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Manned Space Flight since 1963, died of heart attack suffered while 
attending Board meeting at Woods Hole, Mass. Dr. Hess, Blair pro- 
fessor of geology at Princeton Univ., was one of scientists who had 
analyzed Apollo 11 lunar samples. In 1960 he had advanced theory 
that volcanic activity on ocean floor caused continental drift. He had 
been past president of Mineralogical Society of America and of Geo- 
logical Society of America, chairman of site-selection committee for 
nsf's Project Mohole, and adviser to numerous other Federal agencies. 
(upi, W Post, 8/27/69, A10; Science, 8/29/69, 882) 

• Robert E. Bernier, former ComSatCorp systems engineer for Intelsat III 

program, became NASA European Representative in Office of Inter- 
national Affairs. He replaced Clotaire Wood, who would return to 
Office of Advanced Research and Technology at nasa Hq. Bernier 
would begin his duties at American Embassy in Paris in early October. 
(nasa Release 69-125) 

• Scientist-astronaut Dr. William E. Thornton, who had been grounded in 

spring, received usaf clearance to continue jet pilot training. Thornton 
had had difficulty landing because of distortion of vision called anisei- 
konia, which reduced his depth perception. Vision had been corrected 
with special glasses, (upi, W Star, 8/26/69, A3; W Post, 8/26/69, A9) 

• Washington Post published results of July 30— Aug. 4 Harris survey of 

1,577 U.S. households to determine attitude toward spending $4 billion 
annually for decade to explore moon and other planets. While 53% of 
those polled approved funding for lunar landing, narrow plurality of 
47% was opposed to further $4 billion annually; 44% favored. Per- 
sons under 30 favored extension of space program 60% to 34% but 
those over 50 opposed it 59% to 30%. Black citizens were opposed 
68% to 19%. (W Post, 8/25/69) 
August 25—30: Eighth International Symposium on Space Technology, first 
major international space meeting since Apollo 11 launch, was held in 
Tokyo. In opening speech, general chairman Tsuyoshi Hayashi ex- 
pressed world's appreciation to U.S. for making "a great leap for man- 
kind" but said many other nations had contributed to scientific 
knowledge that made lunar landing possible. He asked recognition of 
moon as international territory. 

Among 400 scientists from 19 countries attending meeting were NASA 
Apollo Applications Program Director William C. Schneider; Dr. 
Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., msc Director of Flight Operations, and M. P. 
Frank from msc; Herbert A. Wilson, Jr., Chief of Applied Materials 
Div., from LaR,C; ogo Project Manager Wilfred E. Scull from gsfc; 
Dr. Thomas Vrebalovich from JPL; and Leon C. Hamiter, Jr., msfc 
engineer. Hamiter presented paper on increased computer capacity and 
lighter weight flight hardware. Prof. Masahiko Kido of Japan's Ehime 
Univ. said legal status should be developed for moon before disputes 
arose over lunar real estate. Other participants urged steps to outlaw 
military use of moon. 

Dr. Werner J. Kleen, Director of European Space Research and 
Technology Center, said ESRO had been given permission to put comsat 
into orbit and would start work in autumn. Japan announced its space 
development corporation would begin operations Oct. 1 and would 
launch MS— 4 three-stage rocket in early 1970, followed by comsat 

290 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 25-30 

launch. ( Shabecoff, NYT, 8/26/69, 11; msfc Release 69-181; nasa 
Int Aff) 
August 26: Moon landing would change human lives, British novelist and 
scientist C. P. Snow said in Look. "I am afraid that in the long run, 
perhaps a generation, perhaps longer, it will have a bad effect. It will 
give us the feeling, and the perfectly justified feeling, that our world 
has finally closed in. This is forever the end of the mortal frontier." 
Space enthusiasts thought lunar landing would liberate human imagi- 
nation but "I believe . . . that human imagination is going to be re- 
stricted — as to an extent it was when the last spots on the globe had 
been visited, the South Pole and the summit of Everest. Nowhere on 
earth for adventurous man to go. Very soon, there will be no place in 
the universe for adventurous man to go." (Look, 8/26/69, 68-721 

• NASA announced award by LaRC of $2.5-million contract to Ling-Temco- 

Vought Aerospace Corp. to design, develop, and flight-qualify larger 
lst-stage solid rocket motor for Scout booster. New Algol III motor 
would have 44- or 45-in dia, 4 or 5 in wider than Algol IIB, and 
would enable Scout to place 400-lb payload, 100 lbs more than IIB 
capacity, into orbit with 300-mi altitude, (nasa Release 69/126) 

• Bright red lights, believed by observers to be meteors, flashed across Cali- 

fornia, Nevada, and Arizona at 8:50 pm PDT. North American Air De- 
fense Command Inorad) later identified lights as parts of Soviet 
booster burning during reentry. Booster had launched Cosmos CCXCIV 
Aug. 19. ( AP, W Star, 8/27/69, A5; later ed, A13) 
August 27: NASA's 148-lb drum-shaped Pioneer E failed on 5:29 pm EDT 
launch from ETR by Thrust-Augmented Improved Thor-Delta (DSV- 
3L) booster. Satellite had been intended for solar orbit to collect 
scientific data on electromagnetic and plasma properties of inter- 
planetary medium near earth's orbital path during six or more passages 
of solar activity centers. 

Jettison of three strap-on solid-propellant rockets, lst-stage Thor en- 
gine cutoff, and 2nd-stage ignition occurred as planned but vehicle 
began gyrating, veered off course, and was destroyed by Range Safety 
Officer at 8 min 2 sees GET. Pioneer E and tetr c test and training 
satellite, carried as secondary payload to test Apollo communications 
network, splashed into Atlantic about 300 mi southeast of Barbados. 
Preliminary analysis of data indicated loss of hydraulic pressure during 
lst-stage burn had permitted engine nozzle to develop uncontrolled gim- 
baling and vehicle gyrations. Investigation would be conducted to de- 
termine exact cause and action to prevent recurrence. 

Pioneer E was last in series of five spacecraft designed to provide 
continuing measurements over the solar cycle at widely separated 
points in interplanetary space. Pioneer VI (launched Dec. 16, 1965), 
Pioneer VII (launched Aug. 17, 1966), Pioneer VIII (launched Dec. 
16, 1967), and Pioneer IX (launched Nov. 8, 1968) had received 
25,000 commands from ground and were still producing useful data 
from widely scattered positions in heliocentric orbits. Most recent Pio- 
neer missions had provided new information on functions of magneto- 
sphere, additional data on finding that diffuse solar plasma regions 
appeared to have attraction of their own, measurements of cosmic dust 
populations, data on changes in electrical and magnetic characteristics 

291 



August 27 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

of solar corona, and targets for precision radar tracking which led to 
establishment of reliable value for earth-moon-mass ratio and sun-earth- 
mass ratio. Pioneer program was managed by arc under OSSA direction. 
(nasa Proj Off; nasa Release 69-116; SBD, 8/29/69, 213) 

• Moon was twin planet of earth, formed from same whirling gas cloud, in 

early view of two lrl scientists studying Apollo 11 samples. Dr. S. 
Ross Taylor of Astri National Univ., Canberra, Australia, said, 
"Moon's composition is unlike the earth's. But it is not outside our ex- 
perience. It is like the material you would expect if the earth and moon 
were formed as a double planet." He thought moon was younger twin, 
while Dr. Oliver A. Schaeffer of State Univ. of New York thought it 
might be equally old. 

Age of two lunar rocks had been estimated at 3.1 billion yrs, "give 
or take . . . 200 million years," by measuring proportion of argon 40 
to potassium in rocks, Dr. Schaeffer said. Lunar highlands might be 
4.5 billion yrs old. Moon, he thought, never grew big enough to melt 
internally and produce geologic activity to change lunar surface and 
leave younger rocks. Dr. Taylor's studies had shown unusually high 
amounts of refractory material and absence or low concentration of 
volatile materials, implying volatile material had boiled away in melt- 
ing process. He inferred rock chemistry was different from deep mantle 
of earth and from cosmic abundances — distribution of elements that 
would be expected in distant, more primitive planet captured by earth. 
(Cohn, W Post, 8/28/69, Al) 

• msc Deputy Director George S. Trimble announced his resignation, effec- 

tive Sept. 30, after 2^/2 yrs with NASA. He had been Director of Ad- 
vanced Manned Missions Program in NASA Office of Manned Space 
Flight before appointment to MSC post Oct. 13, 1967. (msc Release 
69-70; W Post, 8/28/69, A8; nasa Ann, 10/13/67) 

• NASA announced selection of RCA Service Co. to receive two-year, cost- 

plus-award-fee contract with one-year option for logistic support to 
Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (stadan), Manned 
Space Flight Network (msfn), and nasa Communications Network 
(nascom). Contract was expected to exceed $17 million, (nasa Release 
69-127) 

• American Airlines began showing NASA color film of Apollo 11 and dis- 

tributing free copies of CBS News recording "Man on the Moon" and 
free cut-out lunar modules for children on "Americana" flights between 
East Coast and California through Sept. 23. (NYT, 8/18/69, 23) 
August 28: Leading lunar scientist Dr. Harold C. Urey told conference on 
nuclear energy at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago he was 
"pleased" at discovery that age of lunar rocks might range between 
3 billion and 4.5 billion yrs [see Aug. 23] and had "expected this for 
a long time. . . . But I'm not making any more bets on the moon's 
origin." He was "puzzled" by once-molten lunar sea material; it might 
have been formed by huge meteor or asteroid impacts rather than 
volcanism and moon might have originated out of cluster of such aster- 
oidal debris. (Cohn, W Post, 8/29/69, A3) 

• Fiftieth anniversary of International Air Transport Assn. (iata), 

founded in Amsterdam Aug. 28, 1919. International flying under iata 
auspices in 1919 amounted to 3,500 passengers; in 1969 it was ex- 
pected to total 300 million. Organization was still devoted to original 

292 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 August 28 

principles: promotion of safe, regular, and economical air transport; 
collaboration among international carriers; processing of technical 
matters and common fares; and functioning as clearinghouse for settle- 
ment of member airline accounts. From original membership of six 
airlines, iata had 103 participating members. (Bamberger, NYT, 
8/24/69, 86) 
August 29: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCVI from Baikonur into orbit 
with 299-km 1 185.8-mi) apogee, 227-km ( 141.1-mi) perigee, 89.6- 
min period, and 64.9° inclination. Satellite reentered Sept. 6. (GSFC 
SSR, 8/31/69; 9/15/69; SBD, 9/3/69, 9; UN Public Registry) 

• Some plants treated with lunar dust in early August were showing unex- 

pected responses. Treated plants — including seedlings of several com- 
mon food plants like wheat, tomatoes, cucumbers, and limes — were 
generally huskier and slightly greener than untreated plants. NASA state- 
ment said: "The seedlings challenged with lunar materials uniformly 
look better than the controls (untreated plants). Germination in the 
presence of lunar soil indicates that it is behaving like a source of 
nutrients." Plant cells in tissue culture showed "some evidence of subtle 
change as a result of lunar inoculation." Dr. J. A. Vozzo, plant pa- 
thologist at Lunar Receiving Laboratory, emphasized that changes were 
minor and could not yet be positively attributed to lunar dust. (Cohn, 
W Post, 8/30/69, Al ) 

• NASA selected General Electric Co. to receive three-year, $4-million, cost- 

plus-award-fee contract with two-year option to provide engineering 
and mission-related support to LaRC for Viking Project — -series of 
planetary probes which would begin softlanding on Mars in 1973. 
( nasa Release 69-128) 

• New determination of abundance of water in Mars atmosphere was re- 

ported in Science by Illinois Institute of Technology astronomers 
Tobias Owen and Harold P. Mason. New spectrograms of planet had 
been obtained in region of water-vapor band at 8,200 A during Febru- 
ary and March 1969. Amount of precipitable water was found to be 
about 15 [i. Abundance reaffirmed that some water was present at cur- 
rent epoch but otherwise had little bearing on evolution of Martian 
atmosphere. Water vapor did not imply liquid water existed on Martian 
surface. (Science, 8/29/69, 893-5) 
August 31: Washington Post Sunday supplement Potomac published profile 
of Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb, head of 8-Foot Tunnels Branch at LaRC. 
He had won 1954 Robert J. Collier Trophy for design of "coke bottle" 
aircraft fuselage configuration that enabled aircraft to pass through 
mach 1 with increased power. More recently he had devised supercriti- 
cal wing, which would permit subsonic jet aircraft to approach mach 1. 
If adopted by commercial aircraft manufacturers, wing would cut 
nearly one hour from current five-hour transcontinental flights. (Po- 
tomac, 8/31/69, 1,5-7) 

• dod internal, classified memoranda suggested Government would waste 

money buying additional Lockheed C— 5A aircraft, Washington Post 
article said. Central conclusion was that most efficient and least costly 
transportation network to support two major and one "brushfire" war 
"for which military wants to be prepared consists of the existing three 
squadrons (58) [of] C— 5As plus smaller carriers like the C— 141 and 
modern freighters." ( Nossiter, W Post, 8/31/69, Al) 

293 



During August ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

During August: Pace magazine published articles by Vice President Spiro 
T. Agnew, also nasc Chairman, and by NASA Administrator, Dr. 
Thomas 0. Paine. 

Dr. Paine said, "To improve conditions in our society we need to 
create more wealth through greater productivity based on new tech- 
nology. We should be restless and dissatisfied with our slowness in 
overcoming social ills, and I hope that the space program will con- 
tinue to spur us onward here. If we can go to the moon, why can't we 
build great and shining cities? Why can't we eliminate ignorance, 
crime and poverty? If our space program highlights such questions and 
helps form a national commitment to find new solutions, it will have 
served the nation well. Our space advances should embolden the nation 
to proceed forward with increased confidence in these other areas. Our 
Apollo program has demonstrated anew what Americans can accom- 
plish given a national commitment, capable leadership and adequate 
resources. 

"Man's future in space is limitless. We have embarked on a new 
stage of evolution that will engage all future generations of men. We 
face the unknown in countless areas: What are the effects of sustained 
zero and artificial gravity? Of time-extending flight at nearly the ve- 
locity of light? Of societies genetically selected for extraterrestrial 
living? 

"We must find the answers. We must move vigorously forward in 
space. The practical benefits alone justify this venture, but there are 
many other compelling human reasons. Progress in space should con- 
tinue to spur us onward to find new solutions to our age-old problems 
here on Spaceship Earth. We must make the blue planet Earth a home 
base, worthy of men who will set forth one day on journeys to the 
stars." 

Vice President Agnew said: "With the remarkably successful Apollo 
moon-landing program on the verge of culmination, we are now faced 
with a need to define just what we should proceed to do to make use 
most effectively of the results of our past and continuing space-explo- 
ration investment. Wealthy as our economy is, rich as our technology 
has become, we must plan carefully in order to meet a wide range of 
urgent national requirements. ... It is our hope that, with a carefully 
reasoned set of goals adequately funded by the people through their 
Congress, the nation and the world will reap the maximum possible 
benefit from mankind's most ambitious undertaking. We must keep our 
horizons wide and our sights high. Despite its many internal domestic 
priorities, this nation should never turn inward, away from the oppor- 
tunities and challenges of its most promising frontier." (Pace, 8/69, 
2-4) 

• Four hundredth anniversary of Mercator's map of the world, published 

in Rhenish city of Duisberg in 1569 by Gerhard Kremer (known by 
his Latin name Gerardus Mercator). Map translated earth's sphere into 
plane on chart on which straight line drawn by navigator cut across 
all meridians at same angle. Mercator projection was still standard for 
worldwide sea navigation and for aeronautical charts despite its distor- 
tion of northern latitudes. (NYT, 8/17/69; EH) 

• "Technologically and managerially, Apollo was difficult," Englebert 

Kirchner said in Space/ Aeronautics editorial. "Politically and socially, 

294 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During \ugusl 

it was simple. Just the reverse is true about the great problems of our 
society. What is making these so hard to solve is not technology but 
serious disagreement about goals and priorities, about what is good 
for whom, who is to get what and who should pay for it. The space 
program does not hold the answer to these questions. Trying to find 
them in Apollo will only distort and therefore belittle an incomparable 
achievement. Apollo took us to the moon, to that shining disk in the 
sky that looks so unbelievably distant. Isn't that enough?" iS/A, 8/69, 
27) 
• afsc Newsreview editorial commented on Apollo 11: "If, like the early 
Vikings or Columbus at the shores of the New World, Amundsen at 
Antarctica, Hillary at the peak of Mt. Everest — our astronauts stood 
alone with their thoughts on unknown soil, they were not alone. With 
them was the invisible presence of the most extensive, highly trained, 
professionally competent, and thoroughly dedicated task force we have 
known. We in the Air Force Systems Command salute the astronauts on 
their accomplishment. We are proud that we have been able to con- 
tribute to their magnificent achievement." (afsc Newsrevietv, 8/69, 2) 



295 



September 1969 



September 1: l/g Samuel C. Phillips, NASA Apollo Program Director, be- 
came Commander of Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization 
(samso). Gen. Phillips had been Director of Minuteman program be- 
fore assignment to NASA in January 1964 as Deputy Director of Apollo 
program. He was succeeded by Rocco A. Petrone [see Aug. 22]. (NASA 
Ann, 7/31/69) 

• S. Paul Johnston retired as Director of Smithsonian Institution's National 

Air and Space Museum. He would represent aiaa on nrc. I A&A, 9/69, 
15) 

• Scientific Research article commented on attitude toward science of Pres- 

ident Nixon and Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presidential Science Adviser: "If 
there's a Nixon-DuBridge science policy it is this: to revitalize federal 
support of basic research . . . and to point government-financed applied 
research toward the solution of the country's many social ills." (Scien- 
tific Research, 9/1/69, 11-12) 
September 2: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCVII from Plesetsk into orbit 
with 309-km (192.0-mi) apogee, 204-km (126.8-mi) perigee, 89.6- 
min period, and 72.8° inclination. Satellite reentered Sept. 10. (gsfc 
SSR, 9/15/69; SBD, 9/3/69, 8) 

• Qatron Corp. announced it had received $275,000 contract from gsfc 

to build several recorder-receiver switching and preprogrammable 
patch systems for Apollo program. (W Star, 9/2/69, A16) 
September 3: NASA's HL— 10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by NASA test pilot 
William H. Dana, reached 81,000-ft altitude and mach 1.42 after air- 
launch from B— 52 aircraft west of Rosamond, Calif. Primary objective 
of flight, 24th in series and first with new engine, was to obtain sta- 
bility, control, and engine data, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Tokyo Univ. scientists successfully launched four-stage Lambda rocket in 

preparation for launch of Japan's first satellite in late September, (upi, 
W News, 8/4/69; Harrison, W Post, 9/24/69, A9) 

• MSFC announced contract awards: McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. 

was awarded $97,340,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee/award-fee contract to pro- 
vide for two Saturn V Workshops — one for launch in 1972 and second 
for backup. McDonnell Douglas also received $87,450,000 cost-plus- 
fixed-fee/award-fee contract modification for continued work on two 
airlock modules for Apollo Applications (aa) program cluster, includ- 
ing tests, checkout, documentation, and logistics support. 

Boeing Co. received $25,130,376 contract modification extending 
period for completion of Saturn V 1st stage (S-IC-15) from June 30, 
1970, to June 30, 1971. (msfc Releases 69-199, 69-200, 69-201) 

• Swedish aircraft constructor Has Fancher had said that in 1944 Adolf 

Hitler took delivery of first Junkers 390 aircraft with 14,400-hp en- 
gine constructed specially to bomb New York, Washington Daily Ncivs 
reported. Fancher, pilot on aircraft's nonstop test flight between Ger- 

297 



September 3 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

many and South America, said plane weighed 93 tons with bombs and 
had planned range for nonstop flights from Bordeaux in occupied 
France to New York and return. Aircraft, delivered too late for use in 
war, had been burned by Germans. Comparable aircraft was not built 
until 1956, Fancher said. (W News, 9/3/69) 

September 4: Some NASA scientists were helping their communities and hid- 
ing their aid projects "as tho they were sinful," Ray Cromley said in 
Washington Daily News. Scientists were using space-acquired skills "to 
help their fellow men in ways they were uniquely qualified." Projects 
included applying systems analysis to air pollution problem, planning 
school expansion to meet population expansion, applying systems con- 
cept to town management and to city police force problems, developing 
new concepts for airport planning and new technique for vandalism 
prevention, developing improved communications systems for city 
emergency departments, and helping an agency develop ways of evalu- 
ating proposals for study and development contracts with private in- 
dustry. (W News, 9/4/69, 23) 

September 5: First measurement of Mars uv dayglow, made during Mariner 
VI Mars flyby July 31, was reported in Science by Univ. of Colorado 
astrogeophysicists C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, J. B. Pearce, K. K. Kelly, 
A. I. Stewart, G. E. Thomas, and G. P. Anderson; Johns Hopkins physi- 
cist W. G. Fastie; and JPL's 0. F. Raper. Emission features from ion- 
ized carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were measured in 1,900 A 
to 4,300 A spectral region. Lyman alpha 1,216 A line of atomic hydro- 
gen and 1,304 A, 1,356 A, and 2,972 A lines of atomic oxygen were 
observed. Prime objective of experiment was to search for nitrogen in 
Martian atmosphere. First analysis had shown no evidence of nitrogen 
emissions in UV spectrum of upper atmosphere (Science, 9/5/69, 
1004-5) 

• Aerobee 170 sounding rocket was launched by NASA from WSMR carrying 

Naval Research Laboratory payload to conduct solar physics studies. 
Mission was unsuccessful, (nasa Proj Off) 

• September 6: Astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and 

William A. Anders were named winners of 1969 Harmon International 
Astronaut's Trophy for December 1968 Apollo 8 mission. Maj. Jerauld 
R. Gentry (usaf) was awarded Aviator's Trophy for testing NASA's 
HL— 10 lifting-body vehicle. Harmon trophies were awarded annually 
to world's outstanding pilots for feats of individual piloting skill, (upi, 
W Star, 9/7/69, A7) 

• Apollo 11 astronauts attended celebrations in their hometowns. In Wapa- 

koneta, Ohio, Neil A. Armstrong was cheered by crowd estimated at 10 
times normal 7,000 population, addressed teen-age rally, and led pa- 
rade including Gov. James A. Rhodes, Dr. Albert D. Sabin (developer 
of oral polio vaccine) , and comedian Bob Hope — all Ohioans. Edwin E. 
Aldrin, Jr., on second visit to hometown as astronaut, presented Mont- 
clair, N.J., Library with autographed photo of plaque left on moon; 
Library named its science collection in his honor. Astronaut Michael 
Collins, who was born in Rome, Italy, visited New Orleans, La., as his 
adopted hometown. He attended luncheon in his honor and visited 
nasa's Michoud Assembly Facility. [W Post, 9/7/69, A3) 
September 7: Self-testing-and-repairing (star) computer to direct un- 
manned spacecraft of multiyear missions to outer planets and inter- 

298 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 7 

galactic space had passed preliminary tests and would begin full-scale 
ground operation at JPL during week, JPL announced. Believed first 
computer capable of detecting its own failures and repairing itself, 
star had been developed by Dr. Algirdas A. Avizienis, JPL computer 
expert, who was trying for 90% probability that it would last 15 yrs, 
to control operations to Neptune or Pluto in solar system Grand Tours 
scheduled for late 1970s. During 9-to-ll-yr minimum lifetime, STAR 
would automatically switch on up to three backup units to replace de- 
fective parts. By 1974, more modest model might replace defective parts 
twice for use on shorter missions like one to Jupiter, star could also 
aid in hospital and supersonic-aircraft automation, (jpl Release 532) 
September 8: NASA's 363-ft-tall Saturn V launch vehicle, tipped with Apollo 
12 spacecraft scheduled to carry astronauts toward moon Nov. 14, was 
placed on launch pad at ksc. (AP, W Post, 9/9/69, A2) 

• msfc announced selection of McDonnell Douglas Corp. to receive 11-mo, 

$2,899,986 contract for preliminary design and planning for 12-man 
earth-orbital space station for possible mid-1970 launch. Station — 
initial element of large space base and means of investigating effects of 
long-duration space flight on man — would have 10-yr lifetime, subject 
to expendables resupply and crew rotation. Parallel effort was being 
conducted by MSC and North American Rockwell Corp. (msfc Release 
69-204) 

• Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz announced in Coahuila, Mexico, 

that President Nixon had accepted invitation for Apollo 11 astronauts 
to start round-the-world tour in Mexico. He repeated congratulations 
to Government and U.S. people on Apollo 11 success: "The United 
States gave proof of its greatness when it achieved this triumph, but it 
became even greater when they understood it and accepted it as a 
triumph of all humanity." President Nixon was in Mexico to attend 
dedication of Amistad Dam on Rio Grande. {PD, 9/15/69, 1241) 
September 9: NASA's X-24A lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld 
R. Gentry (usaf), reached mach 0.6 after air-launch from B-52 air- 
craft at 40,000-ft altitude over South Rogers Lake Bed, Calif. Purposes 
of unpowered flight, fourth in series, were to evaluate stability and 
control derivatives at upper flap positions, determine handling qualities, 
and obtain flow visualization motion pictures of tufts on vehicle's aft 
portion, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket, launched by nasa from wsmr with 

VAM-20 booster, carried Cornell Univ. payload to 97.8-mi (157.4- 
km) altitude to examine sky in far infrared (5 ^.-1,600 /*), using 
copper-doped-germanium, two gallium-doped-germanium, and indium- 
antimonide detectors. Loss of residual helium at 162 sees disabled 
attitude-control system. Timing failed in experimental payload and no 
useful scientific data were obtained. Some useful engineering data were 
collected, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• FRC announced award of $1.8-million nasa contract to North American 

Rockwell Corp. for construction of new supercritical aircraft wing. 
Wing, which utilized airfoil shape with flat top and rear edge curved 
downward, had been developed by Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb and tested 
at LaRC. Wind tunnel tests indicated new shape could allow highly 
efficient cruise flight at nearly 600 mph at 45,000-ft altitude. By in- 
creasing cruise speeds without increasing power, wing might signifi- 

299 



September 9 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

cantly reduce operational cost of subsonic jet transport flights and 
allow faster travel, lower fuel consumption and costs, increased opera- 
tional range, or increased payload. Wing would be mounted on modi- 
fied Navy f— j fighter aircraft at frc for flight testing, (frc Releases 
4-69, 15-69) 

• Former nasa Apollo Program Director, l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf), 

received Distinguished Service Medal from Secretary of the Air Force, 
Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., in Pentagon ceremonies. Award was for 
achievements with NASA from December 1964 to August 1969. Gen. 
Phillips had left NASA to become commander of USAF Space and Missile 
Systems Organization (samso) in Los Angeles. (AFJ, 9/27/69, 8) 

• At Apollo 11 splashdown party at Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. 

— attended by Apollo 11 astronauts and wives — NASA Administrator, 
Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, announced new Apollo Achievement Award of 
lapel button and certificate. He presented awards to NASA Associate 
Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. Mueller; former 
Apollo Program Director, l/g Samuel C. Phillips (usaf) ; and former 
Deputy Director of Apollo Program George H. Hage. (Beale, W Star, 
9/10/69, Fl) 

• At first day ceremonies for commemorative moon landing stamp in 

Washington, D.C., Postmaster General Winton M. Blount presented 
Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and 
Michael Collins and NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, with 
albums containing 32 stamps each. He said: "In the largest sense we 
pay tribute today to the spirit of man. We cannot separate the accom- 
plishments of Apollo 11 from those of Vostok 1; we cannot separate 
the contributions of Michael Collins, or Edwin Aldrin or Neil Arm- 
strong from those of Goddard and Einstein, Kepler and Newton, Coper- 
nicus and Galileo. We know this. And in the knowing again we find 
hope. For if men of all nations, together, can achieve dominion over 
the heavens, men of all nations, together, can achieve peace on earth 
for men for all time." 

Armstrong said astronauts had deferred cancellation of stamps until 
they were reunited in CM, July 22. They had then grasped canceler 
simultaneously and pressed it upon die-proof version of commemorative 
stamp affixed to unaddressed envelope. Cancellation date remained July 
20, day of lunar landing. (PO Dept Release 135; Shandler, W Star, 
9/10/69, A3) 
September 10: Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wal- 
lops Station carried Univ. of Illinois and GCA Corp. payload to 
127.4-mi (205-km) altitude to measure electron density, collision fre- 
quency, and temperature in lower ionosphere on quarterly world day. 
Payload included dual-frequency propagation experiment. Rocket alti- 
tude was nominal but range was only one-fourth that predicted. Instru- 
ment performance was excellent and good data were expected from all 
experiments, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• Paul G. Dembling, nasa General Counsel since January 1967, became 

NASA Deputy Associate Administrator. Dembling, who had joined NACA 
in 1945, had been principal drafter of bill which became National 
Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and had received NASA Distin- 
guished Service Medal in 1968 for contributions to development of 

300 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 10 

legal framework of U.S. aeronautical and space activities. (NASA Re- 
lease 69-131) 
Study of lunar samples was "bringing to light as many mysteries as it 
unravels," New York Times editorial said. Theorists were cautious, 
with evidence from one small area, Tranquility Base. "It is likely that 
the picture will become still more complex when a representative col- 
lection of samples becomes available from ten, twenty or thirty areas 
spread over the entire lunar surface. But even the limitations of the 
present data suggest strongly that the moon is very different from 
earth, and therefore has much to teach human science about the origin 
and evolution of the solar system. The case for intensive scientific study 
of the moon — conducted in part by geologists and other scientists sent 
there for on-the-spot investigation— is strong." (NYT, 9/10/69, 40) 
September 11: Press conference on results of Mariner VI (launched Feb. 
24) and Mariner VII (launched March 27) was held at NASA Hq. Some 
200 TV pictures of Mars were taken by two Mariners, including 57 
high- and medium-resolution views of selected Martian surface areas 
from altitude of only few hundred miles. Spacecraft measured Martian 
atmospheric temperature, pressure, and chemical constituency and 
measured surface temperatures in effort to correlate thermal charac- 
teristics with features observed in TV pictures. Data indicated Mars 
was heavily cratered, bleak, cold, dry, nearly airless, and generally 
hostile to any earth-style life forms. 

Dr. Robert B. Leighton of Cal Tech said: "We got nine times the 
number of far encounter pictures that were originally proposed [few 
years ago], 20 per cent more near encounter pictures than were pro- 
posed, and 1,100 digital pictures which were entirely impossible ac- 
cording to schemes at the time of the proposal. . . . After Mariner 4 
Mars seemed to be like the moon. At last Mariners 6 and 7 have shown 
Mars to be like Mars and have brought out Mars' own characteristic 
features, some of them unknown and unrecognized elsewhere in the 
solar system." 

Dr. Robert P. Sharp of Cal Tech said Martian terrain could be di- 
vided into three types — crater, featureless, and chaotic. Cratered ter- 
rain was widespread and common on Mars and resembled moon. 
Featureless terrain was represented by Hellas area, which appeared to 
be upland area, 150-mi-wide zone that gently sloped into flat feature- 
less floor. Chaotic terrain had series of "short ridges, little valleys, and 
irregular, jumbled topography." Chaotic and featureless terrain ap- 
peared to be distinctly Martian, suggesting "that on Mars we have 
either a difference in processes that are operating on the surface or 
within the crust or we have a difference of material from one place to 
another on Mars and different than on the moon, or, more likely, a 
combination of both. . . . We also have good reason for believing that 
the evolutionary history has been somewhat different. Again, there are 
scars on the face of Mars that we do not see on the face of the moon. 
And there have perhaps been episodic events in Martian history that 
are unique to the planet Mars. We end up with the conclusion that 
Mars is its own planet." 

Dr. George C. Pimentel of Univ. of California at Berkeley said re- 
evaluation of initial data from infrared spectrometer had shown infra- 

301 



September 11 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

red spectral features earlier ascribed to methane and ammonia were 
actually due to previously undiscovered absorptions of solid carbon 
dioxide. Reflection peak recorded three times in atmosphere off Mars' 
bright limb showed presence of solid carbon dioxide at high altitudes 
and at latitudes north of polar cap. Broad absorption near 9 /x recorded 
on bright limb was ascribed to solid silica or silicate material and 
broad absorptions near 12 jx recorded near dark limb were tentatively 
ascribed in part to solid carbon dioxide above ground. Further experi- 
mental work was in progress to refine thermal map. 

Initial results of uv spectrometer experiment were detection of ion- 
ized carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, atomic hydrogen, and oxygen. 
Nitrogen and nitric oxide were not detected and no evidence was found 
of clouds, blue haze, or any appreciable atmospheric absorption of uv 
radiation. Dr. Charles A. Barth of Univ. of Colorado said important 
point "is that the atmosphere of Mars is different than the atmosphere 
of the earth. If I showed you a spectrum taken the same way from the 
upper atmosphere of the earth, we would see a plentiful number of 
nitrogen bands. We could see emissions from nitric oxide. We could 
see emissions from atomic nitrogen. None of those features is present 
in the atmosphere of Mars. . . ." 

Dr. Norman H. Horowitz of JPL presented biological implications of 
Mariner 1969 results. "There is nothing in the new data that encour- 
ages the belief that Mars is a body of life. But the results don't exclude 
this possibility. . . . The Mariner 6 and 7 data strengthen the previous 
conclusion that the scarcity of water on Mars is the most serious limit- 
ing factor for life. . . . Mars is a cold desert by terrestrial standards. If 
there is life on Mars, it must be a form of life that can utilize water in 
the form of water vapor or ice." (Transcript; nasa News Release) 

• Aerobee 150 sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR carried Har- 

vard Univ. payload to conduct solar studies. Rocket and instruments 
functioned satisfactorily. (NASA Proj Off) 

• President Nixon announced intention to nominate Secor D. Browne to 

be member of Civil Aeronautics Board for remainder of term expiring 
Dec. 31, 1974. He would replace John H. Crooker, who had resigned 
effective Sept. 30. Browne would also be designated cab Chairman. 
( PD, 9/15/69, 1249) 
September 12: NASA began distribution, at msc, of about 18 lbs (8.2 kgs) 
of lunar material to 106 U.S. scientific investigators and 36 in eight 
other countries for university, industrial, and governmental laboratory 
analyses. Lot comprised one-third of lunar samples returned by Apollo 
11. Another 15% would be kept as examples of Tranquility Base 
material. Remainder would be held for later scientific experiments, with 
small amount possibly available on loan for public display. Material 
had been quarantined in lrl since its July 25 return; tests on animal 
and plant life had shown no ill effects. Interagency Committee on Back 
Contamination had approved release of samples to principal investi- 
gators or their representatives whose plans for safeguarding material 
had been approved by msc officials. 

Preliminary LRL examinations had disclosed two basic rock types, 
compacted lunar soil and igneous rocks. Rocks had been on lunar sur- 
face from 10 to 150 million yrs; igneous rocks had crystallized from 
3 to 4 billion yrs ago. Approximately 3 kgs of samples would be de- 

302 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AKRONAUT1CS, 1%9 



September 12 




September 12: nasa began distribution of 18 pounds of lunar material to scientific 
investigators in the United States and eight other countries for anaysis. The rock 
above, one of the samples collected by Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. 
Aldrin, Jr., on the moon July 20, was studied at MSC's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. 



stroyed during experiments; residues and remaining 5.1 kgs would be 
returned to NASA. Results of analyses were to be reported early in 1970. 
Among measurements to be made were those of physical properties 
of rocks or soil to help in understanding optical observations of moon 
from earth and future seismic experiments; mineralogy and petrology 
to show mineral content, amount of water present when rocks crystal- 
lized, and how surfaces were eroded by particles; chemical composition 
of rocks and fines to determine concentration of 92 elements occurring 
on earth and in meteorites, times of crystallization of igneous rocks, 
and periods rocks had lain on lunar surface. Studies of rare gases in 
soil would furnish first data on isotopic compositions of solar materials. 
Biologists and organic chemists would determine structures and abun- 
dances of carbon compounds in and on lunar surface and their origin, 
catalog microstructures in terms of organized elements and micro- 
fossils, and define presence or absence of viable lunar organisms. ( NASA 
Release 69-130) 
Nike-Apache sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wallops Station 



303 



September 12 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

carried Univ. of Illinois and gca Corp. payload to 117.4-mi (189-km) 
altitude to measure electron density, collision frequency, and tempera- 
ture in lower ionosphere at midnight. Secondary objective was to test 
mechanical delay igniter and monitor its performance. Simultaneous 
launch from Chamical, Argentina, studied particle precipitation and 
transport effects across equator. Rocket and instruments functioned 
satisfactorily, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• Spencer M. Beresford, former special counsel of House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, was appointed NASA General Counsel suc- 
ceeding Paul G. Dembling, new NASA Deputy Associate Administrator 
[see Sept. 10]. (nasa Release 69-173) 

• White House announced President's Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. Du- 

Bridge, would visit four Western and two Eastern European countries 
in September and October to discuss arrangements for international 
scientific and technological cooperation and explore specific possibilities 
for strengthening existing arrangements. {PD, 8/15/69, 1251) 

• Reuters said NASA had accepted offer of French sculptor Marcel Recher 

to build 140-ft "Platform for the Conquest of the Cosmos" at ksc as 
memorial to first lunar landing. Recher was looking for sponsor to 
contribute $145,000 for project. (W Post, 9/11/69, A3) 

• Dec. 15 debut of Boeing 747 would be delayed six to eight weeks, Boeing 

Co. said. Pratt & Whitney Div. of United Aircraft Corp. had en- 
countered problems in meeting performance goals in 362-passenger 
aircraft's engines. (NYT, 9/13/69, 46) 
September 13: Aerospace Corp. announced election of Dr. T. Keith Glennan, 
President Emeritus of Case Institute of Technology and first NASA 
Administrator (1958—1961), as Chairman of Board of Trustees. Sher- 
rod E. Skinner retired as Chairman and l/g James H. Doolittle (usaf, 
Ret.), Vice Chairman, also retired during annual meeting of Board of 
Trustees. Skinner and Gen. Doolittle were awarded usaf Exceptional 
Service Award by Under Secretary of the Air Force John L. McLucas 
in El Segundo, Calif., ceremony Sept. 12 (Aerospace Release; CR, 
9/25/69, E7813) 

• Smithsonian Institution Curator of Meteorites, Dr. Kurt Fredriksson, 

arrived in Washington, D.C., carrying 10 gr of lunar material from 
lrl in nitrogen-filled plastic bag inside steel briefcase. One of six men 
in U.S. who had studied lunar samples, he later said Smithsonian sci- 
entist Dr. Bryan H. Mason would receive another 10-gr set. (Conroy, 
W News, 9/16/69, 5) 

September 14: NASA announced availability of Earth Photographs from 
Gemini VI Through XII (nasa SP-171), collection of best 250 pic- 
tures taken between 1965 and 1967 from altitudes between 99 and 850 
mi as Gemini spacecraft orbited earth. First and last views were of 
Cape Kennedy, with views of principal areas within 30° latitude of 
equator between, (nasa Release 69—129) 

September 15: Space Task Group presented report The Post-Apollo Space 
Program: Directions for the Future to President Nixon at White 
House. It recommended basic goal of balanced manned and unmanned 
space program conducted for all mankind, with emphasis on increased 
utilization of space capabilities for services to man through expanded 
space applications program; enhancement of U.S. defense posture for 
world peace and security through exploitation of space techniques for 

304 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 15 

military missions; continuing strong program of lunar and planetary 
exploration, astronomy, physics, and earth and life sciences; develop- 
ment of new systems and technology for space operations, emphasizing 
commonality, reusability, and economy through development of new 
space transportation capability and space station modules; and promo- 
tion of world community through program of broad international 
participation and cooperation. 

As focus for development of new capability, Task Group recom- 
mended U.S. accept long-range goal of manned planetary exploration 
with manned Mars mission before end of century. Activities leading 
to goal should include initial concentration on exploiting existing capa- 
bility and developing new one while maintaining program balance 
within available resources; operational phase using new systems and 
capabilities in earth-moon space, with men living and working in that 
environment for extended periods; and manned exploration missions 
out of earth-moon space, using experience of earlier two phases. Sched- 
ule and budgetary implications of phases were subject to Presidential 
choice, with detailed program to be determined in normal annual 
budget and program review. 

Report outlined three possible NASA programs for manned Mars 
landing before century's end. Option I would launch manned mission 
in mid-1980s and would establish orbiting lunar station, 50-man earth- 
orbiting space base, and lunar surface base. Funding would rise from 
current $4-billion level to $8- to $10-billion level in 1980. Decision 
to proceed with development of space station, earth-to-orbit shuttle, 
and space tug would be required in FY 1971. Option II would include 
Mars mission launch in 1986, allowing for evaluation of unmanned 
Mars mission results before final designation of landing date and 
require about $8-billion maximum annual expenditure in early 1980s. 
Option III would include initial development of space station and 
reusable shuttles, as in Options I and II, but would defer decision on 
manned Mars landing date while maintaining goal of after 1980 but 
before close of century. Concurrent development of space transportation 
system and modular space stations would require rise in 1976 annual 
expenditures to $5.7 billion, while their development in series would 
entail $4- to $5-billion funding level. 

Recommended DOD options were: (A) program of full military space 
capability in case of overt threat to national security, (B) develop- 
ment of efforts to counter known and accepted projections of security- 
threat and increase in development activities if threat increased, and 
(C) program of lower level system deployment with technology and 
support effort necessary for contingency planning on assumption that 
lessening of world tensions would reduce emphasis on national defense. 

At White House briefing following presentation, press secretary 
Ronald L. Ziegler said President Nixon had concurred in Task Group's 
rejection of two other, extreme space programs, one to land men on 
Mars as soon as possible, regardless of cost, and one to eliminate 
manned flight program after completion of Apollo. He did not know 
when President would make decision on course to follow, but budgetary 
considerations would be major factor. (Text; PD, 9/22/69, 1291; 
NYT, 9/16/69, 1 ) 
• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCVlll from Baikonur into orbit with 

305 



September 15 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

162-km (100.7-mi) apogee, 127-km (78.9-mi) perigee, 87.3-min period, 
and 49.6° inclination. Satellite reentered same day. (gsfc SSR, 
9/15/69; SBD, 9/19/69, 81) 
• Lunar Rock Conference was held at Smithsonian Institution, with par- 
ticipation of Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator; Dr. Henry J. 
Smith, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator (Science) ; and Lunar 
Receiving Laboratory scientists. During conference NASA released PET 
Summary of Apollo 11 Lunar Samples, report of 60-day preliminary 
examination of 48 lbs of Apollo 11 lunar samples in lrl by university 
and Government scientists on NASA Preliminary Examination Team 
(pet). 

Report confirmed existence of unexplained erosion process on lunar 
surface indicated in Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor photos, 
"unlike any process so far observed on earth"; said unique chemical 
composition (that of silicate liquid) of Tranquility Base fines and 
igneous rocks "implies either the composition of the rock from which 
the liquid was derived differs significantly from that of the mantle of 
the earth, or that the mechanism by which the liquid was formed 
differs from analogous terrestrial processes"; and concluded there was 
"very good chance that the time of crystallization of some of the 
Apollo 11 rocks may date back to times earlier than the oldest rocks 
on earth." 

Samples could be divided into fine- and medium-grained crystalline 
of igneous origin, breccias of complex origin, and fines. Crystalline 
rocks differed from any terrestrial rock and from meteorites in modal 
mineralogy and bulk chemistry. Erosion had occurred on lunar surface 
but there was no evidence it was caused by surface water. Probable 
presence of assemblage iron-troilite-ilmenite and absence of any 
hydrated phase indicated crystalline rocks were formed under ex- 
tremely low partial pressures of oxygen, water, and sulfur. Absence of 
hydrated minerals suggested absence of any surface water at Tran- 
quility Base since rocks were exposed. Rocks and fines showed evidence 
of shock or impact metamorphism; all rocks displayed glass-lined 
surface pits possibly caused by impact of small particles; and fine 
material and breccia contained gases that indicated they were derived 
from solar wind. Measurements on igneous rock indicated crystalliza- 
tion 3 billion to 4 billion yrs ago. Rocks had been within one meter of 
surface for 20 million to 160 million yrs. Level of indigenous volatiliz- 
able and/or pyrolyzable organic material was extremely low. All rocks 
and fines were generally similar chemically. Major and minor constitu- 
ents were same as in terrestrial igneous rocks and meteorites, but dif- 
ferences in composition were significant. Elements that were enriched 
in iron meteorites were not observed or were very low in occurrence. 
No evidence of biological material had been found. Tranquility Base 
soil was fine grained, granular, cohesive, and incompressible, with hard- 
ness increasing at six-inch depth. It was similar in appearance and 
behavior to soil at Surveyor landing sites. (Program; Text; Science. 
9/19/69) 
• NASA announced withdrawal of three Apollo range instrumentation ships 
— usns Redstone, Mercury, and Huntsville — from tracking network 
supporting Apollo flights. Remaining tracking ship, usns Vanguard, 
would be continued on station in Atlantic about 1,000 mi southeast of 

306 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 15 

Bermuda. NASA said reduction of Apollo ship support was based on 
high success of Apollo missions, particularly their excellent "launch on 
time" record, (nasa Release 69-133) 

• House passed H.J.R. 775, to authorize President "to award appropriate 

medals honoring those astronauts whose particular efforts and contri- 
butions to the welfare of the Nation and of mankind have been excep- 
tionally meritorious." \CR, 9/15/69, H7870-2) 
September 16: Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and 
Michael Collins reported on Apollo 11 mission to joint session of Con- 
gress called in their honor. Astronaut Armstrong said: "Several weeks 
ago I enjoyed the warmth of reflection on the true meanings of the 
spirit of Apollo. I stood in the highlands of this Nation, near the Con- 
tinental Divide, introducing to my sons the wonders of nature and 
pleasures of looking for deer and for elk. In their enthusiasm for the 
view they frequently stumbled on the rocky trails, but when they 
looked only to their footing, they did not see the elk. To those of you 
who have advocated looking high we owe our sincere gratitude, for 
you have granted us the opportunity to see some of the grandest views 
of the Creator. To those of you who have been our honest critics, we 
also thank, for you have reminded us that we dare not forget to watch 
the trail." 

Astronaut Aldrin said: "Our steps in space have been a symbol of 
this country's way of life as we open our doors and windows to the 
world to view our successes and failures and as we share with all 
nations our discovery. The Saturn, Columbia, and Eagle, and the ex- 
travehicular mobility unit have proved . . . that this Nation can pro- 
duce equipment of the highest quality and dependability. This should 
give all of us hope and inspiration to overcome some of the more diffi- 
cult problems here on earth. The Apollo lesson is that national goals 
can be met where there is a strong enough will to do so." 

Astronaut Collins said: "We have taken to the moon the wealth of 
this Nation, the vision of its political leaders, the intelligence of its 
scientists, the dedication of its engineers, the careful craftsmanship of 
its workers, and the enthusiastic support of its people. We have brought 
back rocks. And I think it is a fair trade. For just as the Rosetta stone 
revealed the language of ancient Egypt, so may these rocks unlock the 
mystery of the origin of the moon, of our earth, and even of our solar 
system." 

Astronauts presented Congress with two U.S. flags which previously 
had flown over Senate and House of Capitol and had been carried to 
moon aboard Apollo 11 spacecraft. (CR, 9/16/69, H7937-9) 

• At Smithsonian Institution ceremony attended by Apollo 11 astronauts, 

Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, presented two-pound, gray, 
lunar rock of igneous, breccia type to Smithsonian Secretary, Dr. S. 
Dillon Riply, for Smithsonian collection. It would be sealed in nitro- 
gen-filled container covered by three-foot glass bubble and displayed 
to public beginning Sept. 17 for indefinite period in Arts and In- 
dustries Building. At presentation, Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
said: "Every human being, every animal who has looked up into the 
heavens has seen that rock. It is a fortunate time for mankind to look 
up and be able to say, 'here is the moon.' " ( Smithsonian Release 
SI-1 50-69; Shelton, W Post, 9/17/69, Bl) 

307 



September 16 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Senate passed H.J.R. 775, "to authorize the President to award, in the 

name of Congress, Congressional Space Medals of Honor to those as- 
tronauts whose particular efforts and contributions to the welfare of 
the Nation and of mankind have been exceptionally meritorious." 
(CR, 9/16/69, S10630) 

• New York Times editorial commented on Apollo 11 and Mariner VI and 

VII: "The unprecedented advances in the study both of the moon and 
of Mars during the past few weeks have produced a stunning crop of 
surprises about both celestial bodies. On the closest examination yet, 
these neighbors in space have proved far more complex and strange 
than previous theories have led men to believe. And the magnificent, 
lifeless desolation of the lunar and Martian surfaces emphasizes more 
than ever how wonderful it is and how little science understands why 
it is that this third planet from the sun is so uniquely green, vibrant 
and overrunning with life." (NYT, 9/16/69, 40) 
September 17: Space Task Group report to President on post-Apollo space 
program [see Sept. 15] was released at White House press conference 
by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew and Space Task Force Group 
members Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator; Dr. Robert C. 
Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force; Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Presi- 
dential Science Adviser; and William A. Anders, nasc Executive Sec- 
retary. Vice President Agnew said Task Group had rejected "crash 
program of the magnitude that would turn loose every bit of our tech- 
nological ability" to achieve quickest possible manned Mars landing 
because "there are competing priorities in a difficult time of inflation." 
Task Group had also rejected "foregoing the substantial benefits that 
have come out of the Apollo program, the benefits of National 
prestige." 

Dr. Paine said all three options recommended to President in report 
would enable NASA to "hold together the team" and provide "major 
challenge." 

Dr. DuBridge said all three options held "heavy emphasis on earth 
applications, satellites, for studying the geology, the geography, the 
atmosphere of the oceans of the earth and bringing space technology 
directly and immediately to the benefit of the people on earth. All three 
programs also . . . include heavy emphasis on scientific programs, to 
extend our scientific knowledge of the earth itself, of the moon, 
through additional lunar expeditions, interplanetary space and addi- 
tional scientific information about the moon and the planets." He also 
cited emphasis on international collaboration. (Transcript) 

NASA released Americas Next Decade in Space: A Report for the 
Space Task Group. Major points had been incorporated in Task Group 
report. (Text) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket was launched by NASA from WSMR with 

VAM-20 booster. Rocket carried afcrl payload to 135.5-mi (218-km) 
altitude to calibrate Harvard College Observatory spectrometer on 
board orbiting Oso VI by telemetering, grazing incidence, scanning 
euv monochromator to study active regions of sun simultaneously at 
300 to 1,400 A. Pointing was marginal but data were 100% satisfac- 
tory, (nasa Rpt srl) 

• AH— 56A helicopter, under development by Lockheed California Co. for 

308 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 17 

USA, was destroyed when it broke loose and moved downwind inside 
wind tunnel at arc. Flying debris punctured steel wall and injured two 
men in control room. (NASA Release 69—154) 

• First day of public display of lunar rock at Smithsonian Institution at- 

tracted 8,200 visitors, including former NASA Administrator James E. 
Webb. Webb said: "The rock represents all the work and all the sub- 
mergence of personal ambitions that thousands put into the space 
effort. It proves we have the scientific, technical and managerial capa- 
bility of expanding our space values for use under the sea, on the land 
and in the air." (Schaden, W Star, 9/18/69, B4) 

• Senate adopted by 85—0 vote amendment offered by Sen. William Prox- 

mire (D-Wis.) to S. 2546, FY 1970 military procurement authoriza- 
tion, which would require study and review by Comptroller General of 
profits made by Government agencies, including NASA, on contracts for 
which there had been no formally advertised competitive bidding. 
{CR, 9/17/69, SI 0743-52) 

• Rep. George A. Goodling (R-Pa.) introduced H.R. 13838 "to provide for 

the distribution to the several States, for display to the public . . . 
samples of the lunar rocks and other lunar materials brought back by 
the Apollo 11 mission." (CR, 9/17/69, H8098) 

• New York Times editorial: "The space age is here to stay, but the precise 

contours of how far and how fast this nation will go in the decades 
ahead will have to be determined on a pragmatic basis, almost year by 
year and Administration by Administration." ( NYT, 9/17/69, 40) 
September 18: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCXCIX from Baikonur into orbit 
with 219-km (136.1-mi) apogee, 207-km (128.6-mi) perigee, 89.2- 
min period, and 64.9° inclination. Satellite reentered Sept. 22. (GSFC 
SSR, 9/30/69; SBD, 9/19/69, 81) 

• nasa's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by nasa test pilot John A. 

Manke, reached 79,000-ft altitude and mach 1.39 after air-launch from 
B— 52 aircraft west of Rosamond, Calif. Purpose of flight, 25th in 
series and 12th using engine, was to obtain stability and control data at 
various angles of attack in speed range around mach 1.2. (NASA Proj 
Off) 

• NASA and aec announced successful completion of NERVA nuclear experi- 

mental rocket engine (XE) testing in Jackass Flats, Nev. Tests, from 
March through August, had included 28 successful engine startups and 
3 hrs 48 min cumulative operating time, with 3.5 min at full power 
( 55,000-lb thrust ) . XE program had explored wide variety of operat- 
ing modes and pressure and temperature conditions, demonstrated 
automatic startups using bootstrap techniques, demonstrated stability 
of nuclear rocket engine performance, and validated design and opera- 
tion of engine test stand No. 1. XE engine runs concluded series of 
successful technology tests over several years. Design and development 
of flight-rated 75,000-lb-thrust nerva rocket was being initiated on 
basis of information produced. Nuclear rocket program was managed 
by aec-nasa Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, (nasa Release 69-134; 
aec-nasa Release M-216) 

• President Nixon addressed 24th session of U.N. General Assembly: "Of 

all man's great enterprises, none lends itself more logically or more 
compellingly to international cooperation than the venture into space. 

309 



September 18 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 



Here, truly, mankind is one: as fellow creatures from the planet Earth, 
exploring the heavens that all of us enjoy. The journey of Apollo 11 
to the moon and back was not an end, but the beginning. 

"There will be new journeys of discovery. Beyond this, we are just 
beginning to comprehend the benefits that space technology can yield 
here on earth. And the potential is enormous. For example, we are 
now developing earth resource survey satellites, with the first experi- 
mental satellite to be launched sometime early in the decade of the 
seventies. Present indications are that these satellites should be capable 
of yielding data which could assist in as widely varied tasks as these: 
the location of schools of fish in the oceans, the location of mineral 
deposits on land, the health of agricultural crops. 

"I feel it is only right that we should share both the adventures and 
the benefits of space. As an example of our plans, we have determined 
to take actions with regard to earth resources satellites. . . . The pur- 
pose ... is that this program will be dedicated to produce information 
not only for the United States, but also for the world community. We 
shall be putting several proposals in this respect before the United 
Nations. These are among the positive, concrete steps we intend to 
take toward internationalizing man's epic venture into space — an ad- 
venture that belongs not to one nation but to all mankind." (PD, 
9/22/69, 1275-81) 

September 18: Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai (left), Chairman of the Indian Space Research 
Organization, and Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, nasa Administrator, signed an agreement at 
NASA Headquarters for a cooperative experiment to broadcast educational TV programs 
from nasa's planned ats-f satellite direct to 5,000 small Indian villages. 




310 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AKRONAUTICS, 1969 September 18 

• Dr. Thomas (). Paine, NASA Administrator, and Dr. Vikram A. Sarab- 

hai, Chairman of Indian Space Research Organization, on behalf of 
India and U.S. signed agreement at NASA Hq. to provide direct TV 
broadcasts from satellite to some 5,000 small Indian villages. Broad- 
casts would be first from satellite to small receivers without ground 
relay. Experiment would utilize ATS— f, sixth in NASA series of Applica- 
tions Technology Satellites, scheduled for mid-1972 launch. India 
would use experimental ground station at Ahmedabad and others to 
transmit TV programs to satellite, which would relay them to village 
receivers. Increased onboard power and deployable satellite antenna 
with high pointing accuracy made direct broadcast possible, (nasa 
Release 69-135) 

• Senate began consideration of H.R. 11271, FY 1970 NASA authorization 

bill passed by House June 10 and reported with amendment in form 
of substitute bill by Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences June 24. Sen. William Proxmire ( D-Wis. ) introduced new 
Section 7: "Of the funds authorized . . . $300,000,000 . . . earmarked 
for operation of the Apollo missions shall not be obligated or expended 
until the Administrator, in consultation with the State Department, has 
fully explored the possibilities of international cooperation and cost- 
sharing in space exploration, and has reported to Congress on the re- 
sults of these efforts." Efforts should include possibility of establishing 
international consortium with NASA as manager of operations or possi- 
bility of bringing space exclusively within U.N. jurisdiction and con- 
trol, establishing "United Nations Space Council modeled after the 
World Health Organization." ( CR, 9/18/69, S10895-907) 

• List of U.S. attempts during 1969 to effect cooperative space agreement 

with U.S.S.R. was entered in Congressional Record: 

April 30, NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, forwarded copy 
of Opportunities for Participation in Space Flight Investigations to 
Academician Dr. Anatoly A. Blagonravov and assured him that pro- 
posals by Soviet scientists of experiments to fly on NASA spacecraft 
would be welcomed. Supplements to NASA document were to be sent 
routinely to Soviet Academy. 

May 29, Dr. Paine invited Academician Blagonravov to attend 
Apollo 11 launch and to discuss, informally, mutual interests in coop- 
erative space projects. Dr. Blagonravov had declined. 

August 21, Dr. Paine invited Academician Prof. Mstislav V. Keldysh 
to send Soviet scientists to Sept. 11—21 briefing at NASA Hq. for inves- 
tigators who might wish to propose experiments for 1973 Viking mis- 
sions to Mars. Dr. Paine suggested meeting serve as opportunity for 
discussion of planetary exploration plans contributing to coordinated 
efforts beneficial to both countries. Prof. Keldysh had declined, but 
asked for copies of meeting materials so Soviet scientists might develop 
proposals. He had suggested possibility of later discussions. I CR, 
9/18/69, S1095-6) 

• Post Office Dept. announced delay in delivery of moon landing stamp 

first day covers because of "unprecedented number of requests." Proc- 
essing crew of 100 — more than twice number normally employed — 
were working longer shifts with more special canceling equipment than 
ever before to handle "response from people all over the world." (PO 
Dept. Philatelic Release 50 I 

311 



September 18 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

• Senate swore in Sen. Ralph T. Smith (R-Ill.) to serve unexpired term of 

late Sen. Everett M. Dirksen (R-IU.) and adopted resolution assigning 
him to Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences to re- 
place Sen. Charles McC. Mathias (R-Md.), reassigned to Government 
Operations Committee. (CR, 9/18/69, S10763) 

• Senate passed by voice vote S. 1857, FY 1970 nsf authorization of 

$487,150,000. (CR, 9/18/69, S10764-70) 

• Senate passed by record vote of 81 to 5, S. 2546, FY 1970 military pro- 

curement authorization which included amendment requiring study 
and review by Comptroller General of profits on Government contracts 
for which there had been no advertised competitive bidding [see Sept. 
17]. (CR, 9/18/69, S10888-91) 
September 19: Canadian Black Brant IV sounding rocket was launched by 
NASA from Barreira do Inferno, Natal, Brazil, carrying MSC and Univ. 
of California payload to provide detailed scientific measurements of 
charged particle environment in South Atlantic Anomaly region. Sec- 
ondary objectives were to measure magnetic field strength and flight- 
evaluate payload telemetry-system performance. Rocket reached 532-mi 
(856-km) altitude, with performance higher than expected. All experi- 
ments performed satisfactorily and data were obtained on all channels. 
(nasa Rpt srl) 

• Senate passed by voice vote H.R. 11271, FY 1970 NASA authorization of 

$3,716 billion, allocating $3,020 billion for R&D, $58.2 million for con- 
struction of facilities, and $637.4 million for research and program 
management. Total was $250.85 million less than had been passed by 
House June 10 [see also June 24]. Senate insisted on its amendments 
and requested conference with House. {CR, S10977— 99, 11002; Text) 

• White House announced Apollo 11 astronauts would make 22-nation 

tour starting Sept. 29, to stress U.S. willingness to share space knowl- 
edge. Itinerary would include Mexico City; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos 
Aires, Argentina; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Las Palmas, Canary Islands; 
Madrid; Paris; Amsterdam and Brussels; Oslo; Cologne, Germany; 
Berlin; London; Rome; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Ankara, Turkey; Kin- 
shasa, Congo; Teheran, Iran; Bombay, India; Dacca, Pakistan; Bang- 
kok, Thailand; Darwin and Sydney, Australia; Guam; Seoul; Tokyo; 
Honolulu; and return to Houston, Tex., Nov. 5. Additional trip to 
Ottawa and Montreal, Canada, was planned for December, (upi, NYT, 
9/20/69, 5) 

• U.K.'s first lunar samples — 3 oz of moon dust in 16 contamination-proof 

boxes — arrived in London and were shown to scientists and press at 
Science Research Council. Dr. S. O. Agrell of Cambridge Univ. and 
Dr. P. E. Clegg of London Univ. had flown to MSC to collect them. 
They would be examined by 14 British research teams. (AP, Kansas 
City Times, 9/20/69) 

• French scientists, using "world's most powerful laser" at Limeill Weap- 

ons Research Center of French Atomic Energy Commission near Paris, 
had generated succession of tiny thermonuclear explosions, Walter Sul- 
livan said in New York Times. It was important step toward taming 
hydrogen bomb energy. It also underlined concern of some scientists 
that lasers might simplify design of devastating nuclear weapons. 
( NYT, 9/19/69, 1) 

• Report of President Nixon's Task Group on Space [Sept. 15] and Apollo 

312 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 19 

astronauts' speeches to Congress [Sept. 16] had brought some "ration- 
ality back to the discussion of whither the space program," Washington 
Post editorial said. Acceptance by President of recommendation "would 
eliminate talk of abandoning manned space flight, which would be a 
foolish course of action, or of proceeding toward Mars in a crash effort 
to get there as quickly as possible." It was important "for the nation 
to push ahead on the immediate recommendations of the Task Group — 
exploring the moon, developing the tools that are needed for system- 
atic exploration of our space travel capability, and extracting from 
the space program more benefits for those of us who are earthbound." 
( W Post, 9/19/69) 

September 20: Economist commented on lunar investigation : "Scientists, 
unlike engineers, are not at this stage interested in whether the moon 
can be made habitable; but this, rather than its age, or peculiarities of 
its composition, is what the astronauts went out to the moon to find. 
The results are more encouraging than anyone but the confirmed star 
gazers could have hoped. Space is not unfriendly; nor is the moon, 
superficially barren though it looks. What we need are more assurances 
about sources of water which space planners continue to be convinced 
is trapped in, and can be extracted from, the rocks. Also more data on 
those surprising experiments where plants have thrived on moon soil. 
. . . And some idea about whether it will be possible to protect man 
from ultraviolet radiation up there, without having to put him in a 
protective pressure suit." (Economist, 9/20/69, 17) 

September 21: Washington Sunday Star commented on display of moon 
rocks at Smithsonian Institution: "The lunar chunk does indeed look 
like something that, if it turned up in a Bethesda [Md.] backyard, 
would not draw a second glance. And yet it is something that, until 
two months ago, no man had seen before. ... It is a promise of un- 
imagined things to come." Judging by crowds queued up, "Smith- 
sonian has booked its best act since the Mona Lisa came to town six 
years ago." (W Star, 9/21/69, CI) 

• Bert Greenglass, former head of Apollo Program Control Office at KSC 

and later Deputy Director of Management Systems Div. in NASA Office 
of Technology Utilization, joined hud as Director of Management In- 
formation and Program Control Systems. (W Star, 9/24/69; HUD 
pio) 

• Parade magazine called for establishment of July 4, 1976 — 200th anni- 

versary of U.S. — as national deadline for conquering some of earth's 
social problems. "Having harnessed our special strengths — money, 
men, materials and the organizational genius to control them — we con- 
quered space before 1970. Why can we not conquer some of our social 
problems on earth by 1976?" (Parade, 9/21/69, 1) 

• "The notion has occurred to more than one person that NASA, having 

reached the moon and now fearing its way to the planets possibly 
blocked by budgetary obstacles, might find the requisite new worlds to 
conquer right here, at home," William Hines said in Washington Sun- 
day Star. It was "fundamental precept of modern technology that any- 
thing which can be imagined can be accomplished. A cure for cancer, 
an end to poverty, a cleanup of the environment, termination of the 
Vietnam war, even effective nuclear disarmament? If it is conceivable 
it is achievable." While NASA could be depended on to give good ac- 

313 



September 21 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

count of itself in scientific and engineering situations, "its ability to 
handle problems with a big 'people' component is largely untested." 
Since "people-problems" were predominant these days, maybe NASA 
wouldn't work out so well after all. "But on the second thought, no 
other government agency is showing much flair for coping with the 
human element, either." (W Star, 9/21/69, C4) 
September 22: usaf launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg 
afb by Thorad-Agena booster. First entered orbit with 157.2-mi 
(252.9-km) apogee, 110.0-mi (177-km) perigee 88.7-min, period, 
and 85.0° inclination and reentered Oct. 12. Second entered orbit with 
308.2-mi (495.9-km) apogee, 305.1-mi (490.9-km) perigee, 94.4- 
min period, and 85.1° inclination, (gsfc SSR, 9/30/69; 10/15/69; 
upi, W Post, 9/23/69, A20; Pres Rpt 70 [69]) 

• Japan failed in fifth attempt to launch satellite when four-stage, unguided 

Lambda booster malfunctioned. (Harrison, W Post, 9/24/69, A9) 

• President Nixon announced appointment of NAS President, Dr. Philip 

Handler, to President's Science Advisory Committee. He would replace 
Dr. Frederick S. Seitz, President of Rockefeller Univ. in New York. 
(PD, 9/29/69, 1335; W News, 9/23/69, 44) 

• President Nixon announced establishment of series of Presidential task 

forces, including Task Force on Oceanography, to review public and 
private efforts in oceanography and suggest actions to accelerate de- 
velopment of "increasingly important area of exploration"; and Task 
Force on Science Policy, to review present policy and make recom- 
mendations for future scope and direction. {PD, 9/29/69, 1304) 
September 23: U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCC into orbit with 189-km 
(117.4-mi) apogee, 183-km (113.7-mi) perigee, 88.2-min period, 
and 51.5° inclination. Satellite reentered Sept. 27. (GSFC SSR, 
9/30/69; SBD, 9/25/69, 106) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket, launched by NASA from WSMR with 

VAM-20 booster, carried Univ. of Hawaii payload to 108.4-mi 
(174.4-km) altitude. Objectives were to obtain high-resolution spectra 
of solar disc from 1,800 to 2,000 A, using high-resolution echelle- 
grating spectrograph pointed by Univ. of Colorado biaxial pointing 
control. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily and photo- 
graphic spectra were obtained on both camera cycles, (nasa Rpt SRL) 

• President Nixon announced decision to continue development of SST. 

"The supersonic transport is going to be built. The question is whether 
in the years ahead the people of the world will be flying in American 
supersonic transports or in the transports of other nations . . . whether 
the United States, after starting and stopping this program . . . finally 
decides to go ahead. ... I have made the decision that we should go 
ahead . . . because I want the United States to continue to lead 
the world in air transport. And it is essential to build this plane if we 
are to maintain that leadership. ... I have made the decision, also, be- 
cause . . . through this plane we are going to be able to bring the world 
closer together in a true physical and time sense. . . . This is a massive 
stride forward in the field of transport." President said prototype 
would be flown in 1972. {PD, 9/29/69, 1309) 
• President Nixon would ask Congress to appropriate $662 million over 
five years to assist in SST development, Secretary of Transportation 
John A. Volpe announced. Federal Government would spend estimated 

314 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 23 

S761 million through FY 1974, including $99 million in funds already 
appropriated, to construct and flight-test two prototype Boeing SST 
models. Total development cost was estimated SI. 5 billion, with $1.3- 
billion Government participation to be repaid from sale of approxi- 
mately 300 aircraft capable of carrying 300 passengers each at 
maximum 1,800-mph speeds, (dot Release 21069) 

• Modified test-pilot pressure suit delivered by arc's Dr. Alan Chambers, 

Hubert Vykukal, and Richard Gallant to Stanford Univ. Hospital 
saved life of Mrs. Mary Phillips, who was hemorrhaging uncontrollably 
after minor surgery. G-suit, worn by pilots to avoid blacking out dur- 
ing high-speed maneuvers, applied pressure to counter draining of 
blood from brain and upper body. Fitted to Mrs. Phillips, suit arrested 
abdominal bleeding during 10-hr application, (nasa Release 69—168) 

• USA Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory helium-filled balloon was success- 

fully launched from wsmr, carrying 70-lb scientific payload to meas- 
ure ozone concentration, cosmic radiation, and atmospheric pressure, 
temperature, and density at 160,000-ft altitude. The 600-ft-tall, 
1,700-lb balloon drifted to New Mexico where it released payload for 
recovery on ground. Data would be used for number of wsmr projects. 
(usaf pio; upi, W News, 9/24/69, 9) 

• Associated Press quoted Col. Edwin E. Aldrin (usaf, Ret.) as saying 

NASA had rejected his proposal to postpone Apollo 12 and run it in 
tandem with Apollo 13 so crews could protect or rescue each other in 
emergency. Aldrin was father of Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, 
Jr., and a NASA safety consultant. NASA Manned Space Flight Safety 
Director Jerome F. Lederer had called proposal impractical, "tremen- 
dously expensive, and I don't know if it could be done." Lederer had 
said there was no question that astronaut rescue capability from lunar 
surface or orbital emergency must be provided, but it was "out of the 
picture for Apollo." I Haughland, AP, W Star, 9/22/69, A4) 

• Federation Aeronautique Internationale posthumously awarded its high- 

est honor- — Gold Medal — to NASA test pilot Joseph A. Walker for "his 
many enduring contributions to the advancement of aviation made 
during a 21-year flight research career marked by extraordinary per- 
fection and valor." Award was received by his widow at Edwards afb 
ceremony. As FRC chief research pilot, Walker had flown X— 15 to its 
highest altitude, 354,200 ft (67 mi) ; was first man to fly LLRV astro- 
naut training craft; was author of 20 technical papers and articles; 
and had taught Apollo 11 commander Neil A. Armstrong at FRC. I FRC 
Release 17-69) 

• MSFC announced award of $19,073,032 modification to IBM contract for 

fabrication, checkout, and delivery of 27 instrument units for Saturn 
IB and Saturn V boosters. Modification revised delivery schedule, ex- 
tended performance period 15 mos, and provided for assessment of 
certain MSFC engineering change requests. (MSFC Release 69-214) 

• faa, Air Transport Assn., and manufacturers McDonnell Douglas Corp., 

Bendix Corp., and Wilcox-Sierra Div. of American Standard, Inc., 
successfully flight-tested three separate but compatible devices compos- 
ing aircraft collision avoidance system (cas) capable of issuing micro- 
second warning. Tests were held at Martin-Marietta Airport, Baltimore. 
CAS included cesium atomic clock so precise that watch of similar con- 
struction would lose only one second in 67 yrs. System operated like 

315 



September 23 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

balloon around aircraft which, when penetrated by similarly equipped 
plane, provided pilots with command to make evasive maneuver. All 
aircraft would need system for it to be effective. Product of $12- 
million, 13-yr R&D, system could be operational by 1971. (Yarborough, 
W Star, 9/24/69, A7) 

• In Paris press conference Presidential Science Adviser, Dr. Lee A. Du- 

Bridge, and French Minister for Industrial and Scientific Development 
Francois X. Ortoli announced plans to increase flow of scientists and 
specialists between France and U.S. to broaden scientific and technical 
cooperation in wide areas, including nuclear research for peaceful 
purposes. (W Post, 9/24/69, A22) 
September 24: Two photometers on board NASA's Ogo V orbiting geophysi- 
cal observatory (launched March 4, 1968) had successfully scanned 
Lyman-alpha radiation, NASA announced. Data were expected to pro- 
vide new information on Lyman-alpha emission from Milky Way and 
to help determine what portion of observed radiation was from geo- 
corona and what portion was from outer space. On Sept. 12 Ogo V 
had pointed at sun and spun slowly while scanning mirror in Univ. of 
Paris experiment rotated, covering 30° of celestial sphere. On Sept. 14 
spacecraft returned to normal three-axis-stabilized operation, where it 
would remain until December when second series of maneuvers would 
be conducted to cover remaining portion of sky and provide first com- 
plete mapping of extraterrestrial Lyman-alpha radiation. Univ. of 
Colorado photometer, which provided broader coverage of Lyman- 
alpha radiation at 180° to Univ. of Paris experiment, would be used 
to confirm measurements and verify calibration levels. 

Ogo V had 18 of 24 onboard experiments still operating. It had 
provided first measurements of electric fields in earth's bow shock and 
comprehensive data on particles and fields in earth's magnetosphere. 
(NASA Proj Off; NASA Release 69-137) 

• U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos CCCI from Baikonur into orbit with 279-km 

(173.4-mi) apogee, 192-km (119.3-mi) perigee, 89.2-min period, 
and 65.4° inclination. Satellite reentered Oct. 2. (gsfc SSR, 9/30/69; 
10/15/69; SBD, 9/25/69, 106) 

• NASA's X-24A lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Jerauld R. Gentry 

(usaf), reached mach 0.62 after air-launch from B— 52 aircraft at 
40,000-ft altitude over South Rogers Lake Bed, Calif. Purpose of un- 
powered flight, fifth in series, was to obtain data on upper-flap control 
effectiveness, handling qualities during change from lower-flap to 
upper-flap control, and effect of rudder position on air flow around 
tail, (nasa Proj Off) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket, launched by NASA from wsmr with 

VAM— 20 booster, carried Univ. of Colorado Laboratory for Atmos- 
pheric and Space Physics payload to 124-mi (199.5-km) altitude. Ob- 
jective was to obtain high-resolution spectra of Carbon IV resonance 
doublet at 1,548 and 1,550 A using high-resolution, narrow-band spec- 
trograph with echelle as principle dispersing element and sparcs solar 
pointing control. Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily. 

(NASA Rpt SRL) 

• Board of Investigation which probed Feb. 17 death of Sealab III Aqua- 

naut Berry L. Cannon had concluded probable cause was carbon di- 
oxide poisoning due to faulty diving gear, USN announced. Gear had 

316 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 24 

lacked substance for filtering carbon dioxide from exhaled breath. 
Associated Press said Sealab III project had been "shelved" because of 
insufficient funds for FY 1970 and quoted usn spokesman as saying it 
would be continued later. Project had been suspended since Cannon 
death, (dod Release 794-69; W Star, 9/24/69, A9) 

• Shawbury, England, innkeeper Jack Warner had asked U.S. Government 

for license to open first pub on moon, Associated Press said. He would 
call it "The Space Inn" or "The Lunatic Tavern." (W Star, 9/24/69, 
A16) 
September 25: Apollo 9 commander James A. McDivitt was appointed Man- 
ager of Apollo Spacecraft Program at MSC, replacing George M. Low, 
who was temporarily on special assignment to MSC Director to plan 
future MSC programs and work on organizational matters. (MSC Re- 
lease 69-66 ) 

• East Germany's People's Chamber unanimously ratified nuclear nonpro- 

liferation treaty. West Germany had not yet signed. {P Inq, 9/25/69) 

• House Committee on Science and Astronautics reported favorably S. 

1287, which authorized appropriations for FYs 1970, 1971, and 1972 
for metric system study. [CR, 9/25/69, H8488) 
September 25—26: National Seminar for Manned Flight Awareness at MSC 
attracted some 400 representatives of NASA, DOD, and aerospace in- 
dustry. MSC Director, Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, said: "I think we are all 
concerned about the period of letdown which tends to occur after a 
great milestone such as has just been completed," but NASA "must con- 
tinue to demonstrate . . . that success can follow success." 

Lee B. James, Director of Program Management at MSFC, said next 
moon flights could suffer from lack of proper employee motivation. 
"We are completing [rocket] stages with welders who know they are 
going to be laid off." Sheet metal workers in plants with termination 
papers were working on vital space hardware. Twenty defects at- 
tributed to human error had been uncovered in single rocket. 

Apollo Program Director Rocco Petrone said future moon landings 
would be even more demanding than first, with astronauts spending 54 
hrs on moon during some. To make missions successful, workers must 
be motivated to pay greatest attention to detail. 

Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George E. 
Mueller, said NASA hoped to cut payload launch costs to $200 per 
pound and reduce number of workers on Saturn V launches from 
20,000 to about number required to get Boeing 747 off ground. ( MSC 
Release 69-65; Maloney, H Post, 9/26/69) 
September 26: Glazing discovered on lunar surface by Apollo 11 astronauts 
was analyzed in Science by Thomas Gold of Cornell Univ., senior in- 
vestigator for close-up photography. Glossy surfaces similar to glass 
found clumped in centers of small lunar craters appeared to have been 
swept in after craters had been formed. Glazed areas were also concen- 
trated toward tops of protuberances and, in some cases, droplets ap- 
peared to have run down inclined surface and congealed on sides. 
Glazing might have originated from effect of exhaust of lm descent 
stage, splashing of liquid drops from larger impact elsewhere, shock 
heating or volcanism on moon, same impact that created craters in 
which glazing was found, or intense radiation heating. Intense radia- 
tion was most probable cause. Gold said. Source could have been im- 

317 



September 26 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

pact fireball on moon, impact fireball on earth, or most likely, solar 
outburst in geologically recent times. (Science, 9/26/69, 1345—9) 

• In address at Clarkson College of Technology in Potsdam, N.Y., Dr. 

Thomas 0. Paine, NASA Administrator, said: "We know that hydrogen 
bombs work (unfortunately) — the Lord made the Universe that way. 
And, of course, we know that (fortunately) fusion energy keeps the 
sun shining every day. Our great visionary dream is to find out how 
to unlock this energy for spaceship propulsion. This is a great challenge 
but consider the new tools that we have available: giant magnetic fields 
with superconducting magnets, tremendous power densities from lasers, 
the great energy of nuclear power, and new high temperature materials. 
These, with new plasma dynamic developments, may usher in fusion 
power in the eighties, the nineties, or in the next century. Harnessing 
fusion power for propulsion is an even farther-out challenge, but it 
could prove to be one of the more direct applications. We won't have 
to convert the fusion energy to electricity; just fuse a couple of deu- 
terium atoms and then let them blast out the back of the vehicle! 

"So fusion remains a tantalizing promise for the future. . . . If we 
ever do achieve such propulsion, we'll be able to move with some ease 
out from our little 8,000-mile-diameter Solar System. All of the 9 
planets, 32 moons and 1600 known asteroids will come within reach 
of our vehicles. And, indeed, if we could achieve high efficiencies in a 
fusion propulsion process, we could talk of eventual relativistic ve- 
locities, of time compression, and of travel to the nearest stars." (Text) 

• Venus, "least understood of the inner planets," should be U.S. space pro- 

gram priority target, Kitt Peak National Observatory physicist Dr. 
Donald M. Hunten and Harvard Univ. physicist Dr. Richard M. Goody 
said in Science. Some fundamental data were available; quantitative 
theories had been stated; questions about atmosphere could be an- 
swered by feasible missions; and geophysicists' interest had been 
aroused and offered specialized knowledge needed to understand com- 
plex processes. But NASA had no present plans for investigation of 
Venus' lower atmosphere. Uncertainty as to Soviet intentions had been 
cited as reason for giving Venus low priority. But until collaboration 
with U.S.S.R. and other European countries could begin, "we have no 
choice but to base our judgment upon our own scientific and technical 
abilities and desires." (Science, 9/26/69, 1317-23) 

• Wall Street Journal editorial: "While there will be debate on the Ad- 

ministration's approval of a go-ahead on the supersonic transport, the 
President plainly picked the proper method for financing further de- 
velopment of the controversial plane. Earlier there had been talk of 
setting up a special SST authority that would raise money by selling 
Government-guaranteed bonds to the public. The idea never had much 
to recommend it. At the moment the SST faces an uncertain economic 
future. ... If the plane is a flop, the Government would be stuck one 
way or the other. . . . the bond plan would ease the current pressure 
on the Federal budget. But it also would fool at least part of the public 
about the financial risk that the Government actually is assuming. . . . 
Whether one especially relishes the notion or not, supersonic travel is 
sure to come sooner or later. In heading toward that development, the 
Administration is wise to avoid financial subterfuge." (WSJ, 9/26/69) 
September 27: Evidence for detection of high-energy cosmic gamma radia- 

318 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 September 27 

tion (above 50 mev) from point source in constellation Sagittarius was 
reported in Nature. Case Western Reserve Univ. and Univ. of Mel- 
bourne (Australia) physicists presented preliminary results from col- 
laborative program in which two high-altitude balloon flights were 
made from Parkes, Australia, Feb. 5—6 and Feb. 26—27. Object was 
first such point source of gamma rays detected in heavens. Research 
was supported by NASA, nsf, and Australian Research Grants Commit- 
tee. (Frye et al, Nature, 9/27/69, 1320-1; Sullivan, NYT, 10/2/69, 
33) 

• Satellite system which combined navigational and air traffic control and 

collision prevention had been proposed to faa and DOD by TRW Inc. 
Systems Group, Washington Evening Star reported. Proposal called for 
four satellites, one in permanent orbit with others revolving around it 
at lower altitudes. Aircraft would radio distinct signal to satellites and 
its position relative to two or more satellites would be determined by 
ground computers that could figure latitude and longitude of aircraft 
within 50 ft. System, based on delicate measurement of time for air- 
craft signals to reach satellite, would cost estimated $100 million, could 
be in operation by mid-1970s, and was also being proposed to avia- 
tion industry. (Lannan, W Star, 9/27/69, All) 
September 28: In telephone call to Apollo 11 commander Neil A. Armstrong 
on eve of Apollo 11 astronauts' round-the-world tour, President Nixon 
asked astronauts to invite foreign countries to become "partners in 
space" with U.S. He also invited astronauts and wives to White House 
dinner Nov. 5. (upi, W Star, 9/29/69, A3) 

• Washington. Post columnist Franklin R. Bruns, Jr., said 10 days after 

issuance of moon landing airmail stamp in Washington, D.C., "an 
already tired city post office crew had just passed the two-million first 
day cover mark." Post Office had gone "all out" to cooperate with 
those of other countries in returning covers and with Voice of America, 
NASA, and regular servicers. There was little doubt that "new first day 
cover record is in the making." [W Post, 9/28/69, F9) 
September 29: Apollo 11 astronauts and wives arrived in Mexico City for 
start of 39-day tour of 22 countries [see Sept. 19]. (AP, B Sun, 
9/30/69, Al) 

• President Nixon approved H.J.R. 775, to authorize President to award 

Congressional Space Medals of Honor to astronauts [see Sept. 15]. 
(CR, 10/6/69, 1362) 

• NASA announced appointment of Daniel J. Harnett as Assistant Adminis- 

trator for Industry Affairs, effective Oct. 1. He would be responsible 
for all NASA relationships with industry. Before his appointment he had 
held executive positions with Northrop Corp. (nasa Release 69-139) 
September 30: usaf launched two unidentified satellites from Vandenberg 
afb by Thorad-Agena I) booster. First entered orbit with 303.2-mi 
(487.9-km| apogee, 299.5-mi (481.9-km) perigee, 93.8-min period, 
and 69.6° inclination. Second entered orbit with 586.0-mi (942.9-km) 
apogee, 574.8-mi (924.9-km) perigee, 103.7-min period, and 70.7° 
inclination. ( gsfc SSR, 9/30/69; SBD, 10/7/69, 162; Pres Rpt 70 
[69]) 

• nasa's HL-10 lifting-body vehicle, piloted by Maj. Peter Hoag (usaf), 

reached mach 0.9 after air-launch from B-52 aircraft at 45,000-ft alti- 
tude over frc. Purposes of flight, 26th in series and first powered flight 

319 



September 30 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

for Maj. Hoag, were to provide pilot training and obtain stability and 
control data. Winds rose from 5 knots at launch to 20 knots at touch- 
down, but did not interfere with flight, (nasa Proj Off) 

• In speech before Chicago Executive Club in Chicago, 111., Vice President 

Spiro T. Agnew said operation of military systems in space "to enhance 
the national defense" must be one objective of U.S. future space pro- 
gram to ensure "there will be no blind reliance on good faith." Vice 
President Agnew was also Chairman of nasc and of President's Space 
Task Group. 

Two questions dominated speculation over national space policy, he 
said: Why space? And Why Mars? "Mars holds the greatest promise 
of a capability to sustain human life. It is a potential resource and re- 
serve. More important for the present is the fact that the mind of 
America functions better when it focuses upon a clear target. Manned 
exploration of the Solar System is too nebulous to capture the public's 
attention. A manned landing on Mars is as understandable a challenge 
to the citizen as it is to the scientist. It is a test that can be put in a 
time frame and its anticipation can be appreciated by all." (Text) 

• MSFC announced selection of Bendix Corp. and Boeing Co. for further 

competitive negotiations on cost-plus-incentive-fee contract for design, 
development, test, and delivery of four manned lunar roving vehicles 
for flight to lunar surface aboard descent stage of Apollo lm [see 
July 11]. First operational vehicle would be delivered in early 1971 
for launch late that year. 

MSFC also had awarded $238,400 contract to Bryson Construction 
and $224,888 contract to Miller and Berry for construction of two clean 
rooms for Apollo Telescope Mount (atm) assembly and test and had 
called for bids for checkout station construction. Bids were due Oct. 21. 
(msfc Releases 69-220; 69-221) 

• Federal Electric Corp., it&t Corp. subsidiary, announced it had received 

$21,321,680 NASA contract for continued work as KSC prime contractor. 
(upi, W Star, 9/30/69, B7) 

• Washington Airlines had terminated first and only STOL service between 

Washington and Baltimore after one year and would liquidate its three 
Dornier aircraft, Washington Post said. Company had lost nearly 
$5,000 weekly and carried 25,000 passengers instead of targeted 
108,000 since inauguration of service Sept. 23—25, 1968. (Samuelson, 
W Post, 9/30/69) 
During September: Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Secretary of the Air Force, 
defended value of Safeguard ABM defense and also discussed use of 
space for strategic deterrence, writing in Air Force/Space Digest: "In 
terms of security, the space age presents dangers — but it also affords 
opportunities for increasing strategic stability." Dangers stemmed 
from weapons placed in orbit: "It might be possible to trigger such 
weapons with very little warning, thus increasing the risk of surprise 
attack." Outer Space Treaty of 1967 might help avoid this danger, 
"while providing us opportunities for other sorts of military systems 
that could strengthen deterrence rather than weaken it." Each gen- 
eration of space vehicles would provide additional improvements in 
monitoring enemy activities. "We are now working on a satellite early- 
warning system that would detect missiles as they are launched from 
land or sea." Dispersed bomber force "would be able to take off from 

320 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 During September 

its bases before the impact of enemy weapons, even if the time of 
flight of the latter were greatly reduced." (AF/SD, 9/69, 61-4) 

• USAF magazine Airman published interview with Secretary of the Air 

Force, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., former NASA Deputy Administrator. 
nasa-USAF X— 15 program had been highly successful in providing 
data for many disciplines and "very good test bed" for atmospheric 
probe instrumentation. XB— 70 program, initiated as manned super- 
sonic bombing system, was "very bold step" in speeds over mach 3. 
When technological difficulties and rising costs resulted in decision 
against XB-70 production, NASA with USAF had initiated experimental 
program. Dr. Seamans felt USAF was not using NASA expertise to fullest 
extent. USAF needed new manned bomber, new fighter, and moderniza- 
tion of air defense. He was not convinced USAF had yet established 
"best relationships with industry to get these things done." (Airman, 
9/69, 7-9) 

• "There appears to be much more to be squeezed from Apollo than just 

the incalculable value of national prestige or scientific discovery," 
Michael Getler wrote in Space/ Aeronautics. "The ability to mine these 
supporting talents, to judge their value outside manned space flight 
and disseminate and apply them may well prove the most telling and 
measurable argument in the debate which is bound to continue over 
Apollo's real value." Apollo had combined "much of what we have 
with what we do best. Though complex, it was manageable. It had 
clear goals, was well funded, enjoyed fairly widespread public support, 
and dangled the element of competition in front of our involuntary 
reflex. Most importantly, it tapped an industrial base and an en- 
thusiasm for gadgetry that are unmatched anywhere. . . . Because many 
of today's challenges confront human nature and not technology, 
Apollo can be made to seem irrelevant. In fact, however, we are not 
left alone with our behavioral troubles. There is still an economy to 
keep sound, industry and commerce to be kept competitive, and a 
government to be made more efficient. Failure to take this extraordi- 
nary project apart, piece by piece, and examine its usefulness in these 
areas would indeed be wasteful." (S/A, 9/69, 42-53) 

• Dr. Mose L. Harvey in Science and Public Affairs, bulletin of atomic sci- 

entists, discussed lunar landing and U.S. -Soviet equation: "The capa- 
bility of the United States to continue in space, and otherwise keep 
pace with the scientific-technological revolution, depends entirely on 
continued public faith in the 'military-industrial complex' and the 
'scientific and technological elite,' if one wishes to keep using these 
unfortunate terms. It was only because we were able effectively to or- 
ganize and use a genuine and mutually rewarding partnership between 
industry, universities and government that we were able to effect the 
moon landing and to do the other near-miraculous things we have 
done in space and in other fields involving advanced science and ad- 
vanced technology. It is precisely on this partnership that the superi- 
ority of the American way over the Soviet way has so far rested." 
{Science and Public Affairs, 9/69, 28-35) 

• Atlas published translation of article in L'Espresso, Rome, by Italian 

novelist Alberto Moravia on implications of Apollo 11. "In Columbus's 
days, men were offered finite goals, like the discovery of America; or 
they were offered spiritual aims, like the search for goodness, truth and 

321 



During September ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

beauty. At that time, no one could have guessed that Columbus's dis- 
covery was only a beginning. That other discoveries would follow, a 
second America, a third, a fourth, and so on through millions of years 
and billions of kilometers. But today that is happening. Compared to 
our new set of goals, the aims of Marx and communism are pure imag- 
ination. For the first time the real and the rational are about to become 
one. We are now at the end of history — and post-history is just be- 
ginning." (Atlas, 9/69, 40-3) 

• Atlas said its "Talk of the World" section had "got a little hoarse" on 

subject of Apollo 11. It quoted "a few of the more unusual moon- 
thoughts" from international press. El Tiempo in Bogota had reported 
Colombian wool fabrics were used in Apollo 11 spacecraft upholstery. 
Canada's Kitchener Waterloo Record had said LM had touched down 
on moon with legs made in Canada by Montreal firm. Oiga, in Lima, 
Peru, had said when Sputnik went into orbit "it was noted that Pedro 
Paulet Mostajo had invented a jet-propelled rocket back in 1895." 
Atlas commented that "this could go on forever." (Atlas, 9/69, 10) 

• In Astrophysical Journal, Princeton Univ. astronomers Jeremiah P. Os- 

triker and Dr. James E. Gunn predicted few pulsars should be found 
with periods more than 1.5 sees, from results of their quarantine ex- 
ploration of pulsar model. (Astro Journ, 9/69, 1395—1417) 

• usaf communications and navigation satellite programs were outlined by 

l/g John W. O'Neill, Vice Commander of afsc, in TRW Space Log. 
AFSC was testing new uhf communication terminal in conjunction with 
Tacsat I tactical comsat and had tested UHF shipboard, jeep, van- 
mounted, and team-pack terminals as receivers for satellite communi- 
cations. Second-generation defense comsats would have earth coverage 
antennas and also steerable narrow-beam antennas to direct energy to 
two "spotlighted" areas on earth's surface, permitting use of small ter- 
minals instead of large ground stations. Proposed navigation satellite 
system would consist of high-altitude satellites transmitting navigation 
signals with worldwide coverage, ground stations to track and com- 
mand satellites, and user receiving equipment. Navsat would provide 
all four armed services with common grid for mobile operations and 
could be used by aircraft, ships, submarines, and foot soldiers. Po- 
tential for aircraft carrier operations was being studied. 

Computer revolution would provide new data processing equipment 
"with infinite potential for influencing satellite design and function" 
in future. "We are pressing hard for progress in laser technology, 
which appears to have excellent potential for communication applica- 
tions. We are also pushing the development of new sources of power 
in space in which a breakaway from our heavy reliance upon the solar 
cell could make future satellite development a whole new game." (TRW 
Space Log, Summer/Fall 69, 3—17) 



322 



October 1969 



October 1: Boreas (Esro IB) satellite — designed, developed, and constructed 
by European Space Research Organization — was successfully launched 
by NASA from wtr by Scout booster. Orbital parameters: apogee, 237.4 
mi (382 km) ; perigee, 180.8 mi (291 km) ; period, 91.3 min; and in- 
clination, 85.1°. Primary NASA mission objectives were to place Boreas 
into planned orbit and provide tracking and telemetry support. Boreas 
was backup for and identical to Aurorae [Esro I A) successfully 
launched by NASA Oct. 3, 1968. It carried eight experiments to study 
aurora borealis (Northern Lights) and related phenomena of polar 
ionosphere, representing six organizations from U.K., Denmark, Swe- 
den, and Norway. 

Boreas was third successful esro satellite launched by nasa. First 
success, Iris I [Esro IIB), had been launched by NASA May 16, 1968, 
to replace esro iia, which had failed to enter orbit May 29, 1967. ESRO 
was responsible for experiment instrumentation, delivery of spacecraft 
to launch site, equipment and personnel necessary to mate spacecraft 
to launch vehicle, and spacecraft testing, nasa provided Scout launch 
vehicle and launch services in second launching on cost-reimbursable 
basis under Dec. 30, 1966, agreement with ESRO. (NASA Proj Off; GSFC 
SSR, 10/15/69; SBD, 10/3/69, 147) 

• Solid-fuel U.K. Falstaff rocket, carrying equipment to measure vibrations 

and temperatures, reached mach 5 after launch from Australian mono- 
rail launcher at Woomera, Australia, in joint U.K. -Australia research 
program. [Interavia, 11/69, 1751) 

• Eleventh anniversary of NASA, established by National Aeronautics and 

Space Act of 1958. ( Space Act) 

• Portrait of James E. Webb, second NASA Administrator (1961-1968), 

was unveiled in anniversary ceremony at Smithsonian Arts and In- 
dustries Building. Painted by Gardner Cox, portrait would eventually 
hang in NASA Hq. (Program; NASA Release 69-140) 

• Lockheed C— 5A Galaxy, world's largest aircraft, took off from Edwards 

afb, Calif., with 410,000-lb load — heaviest ever carried by any air- 
craft, 21,000 lbs heavier than C-5A was expected to lift even under 
wartime conditions, and 28,100 lbs heavier than record it established 
June 16. Aircraft, C-5A No. 3, reached 18.800-ft altitude burning 
21,000 lbs of fuel during climb. \P Inq, 10/2/69, 3; upi Service, 
10/2/69) 

• Sud-Aviation chief test pilot Andre Turcat flew Anglo-French Concorde 

001 supersonic airliner for about nine minutes at mach 1.05 (693 
mph ) , passing sound barrier for first time. Two outer engines were at 
full force and two inner engines at less than capacity force during 
36,000-ft-altitude flight. Concorde flew from Toulouse-Blagnac Air- 
port. (NYT, 10/1/69, 1) 

• Vice President Spiro T. Agnew said at press conference following tour of 

323 



October 1 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 




October 1: nasa launched Boreas, European Space Research Organization satellite, 
to study the aurora borealis and polar atmosphere. In the photo the spacecraft was 
prepared for launch on a four-stage Scout booster from the Western Test Range. 



J PL: ". . . the cities may benefit more from what's happening right 
here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory than they do from what's hap- 
pening in some community action agency. Now, I'm not downgrading 
the need to work closely with people . . . but I think it would be a des- 



324 



ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 Octobei 1 

perate mistake ... to adopt an attitude that we do not challenge the 
unknown, we do not move forward simply because we can't predict 
what we're going to find." Columbus "didn't find what he went for but 
he found something even better. Maybe that applies to the situation 
with regard to the ultimate goal . . . about landing a man on Mars. . . . 
we may do something a lot better." 

In reply to question, he said: "We will never reach a point where 
we'll have enough money for . . . the problems of the cities and of the 
population. . . . we could spend every resource we have and forego 
any scientific exploration and forget the need to research and develop 
new techniques. ... I suppose you come down to the final determina- 
tion that you've got to put some of your effort in the future and not 
all of it in the present. And I don't think the lack of a focus in the 
space program would be a benefit at all to the future of the cities and 
the problems you mention." (Transcript) 

• Daniel J. Harnett was sworn in as NASA Assistant Administrator for In- 

dustry Affairs. He had held executive positions with Northrop Corp. 
since 1964. (nasa Release 69-139) 

• Soviet space scientist Dr. Oleg G. Gazenko said at news conference dur- 

ing meeting of International Academy of Astronautics at Cloudcroft, 
N.Mex., it would be desirable and technically feasible for cosmonaut 
to be member of future Apollo moon-landing crew. ( AP, B Sun, 
10/2/69, A15) 

• Twenty-third anniversary of Naval Missile Center at Point Mugu, Calif., 

usn's principal facility for testing and evaluating air-launched missiles 
and other airborne weapons systems. ( pmr Missile, 10/3/69, 1) 

• William Teir, Saturn IB program manager at MSFC, became deputy di- 

rector for management of Program Management directorate, (msfc 
Release 69-225 1 

• Japan inaugurated semiofficial Space Development Corp. to coordinate 

space activities, including orbiting of two satellites — one in 1972 for 
ionospheric observation and one in 1974 for communications. Corpo- 
ration would replace system under which projects were undertaken 
separately by different ministries. Its 539-million yen (81.5-million) 
capital had been raised by government fund of 500 million yen and 39 
million yen from private industry. (Reuters, NYT, 10/5/69, L27) 
October 2: Astronaut Alan L. Bean described plans for Apollo 12 extra- 
vehicular activities to press at KSC. Mission, to begin Nov. 14, would 
include two 3M>-hr eva periods on moon. For first eva main objective 
was to deploy alsep, deploy TV camera and take photos, deploy lunar 
equipment conveyor, take contingency sample, deploy S-band antenna 
and solar wind experiment, and collect lunar material. 

After rest in LM astronauts would return to lunar surface for second 
eva period, to collect good documented sample and document geologi- 
cally interesting features with photographs, samples, and description. 
"There's not going to be a lot of time to pick up a rock and think 
about it . . . but there's going to be time to look at the craters and try 
to determine what kind they are and where they came from, if this 
one's different from that one, what part of the crater you want to 
sample. . . . We're going to take photographs as we see all of it. And 
when this is finished we're hopefully going to be over near Surveyor." 
Examination of Surveyor III (launched April 17, 1967) was second 

325 



October 2 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

objective. Crew would retrieve parts for evaluation of how materials 
withstood long-term exposure in space. 

Final surface experiment would be conducted after liftoff from moon 
when crew crashed LM ascent stage onto surface. Crash would be re- 
corded by seismometer and was expected to provide data from which 
scientists could make inferences about moon's internal structure. 
(Transcript) 

• Aerobee 150 MI sounding rocket launched by NASA from WSMR with 

VAM-20 booster carried mit payload to 97.9-mi (157.5-km) altitude 
to determine precise position of two or more x-ray sources and evalu- 
ate small photoelectric detector. Rocket and instruments — including 
several bands of proportional counters, slot collimators, modulation 
collimators, aspect cameras, and attitude control system — functioned 
satisfactorily. All collimators gave expected rates and modulation on 
star X— 1 in constellation Scorpius (calibration) and on Sagittarius. 
(nasa Rpt srl) 

• At msfc ceremony, NASA Administrator, Dr. Thomas 0. Paine, presented 

awards to 117 center employees and industry representatives, mostly in 
recognition of exceptional service to Apollo program. Employee awards 
included NASA Medal for Distinguished Service to msfc Director, Dr. 
Wernher von Braun; Deputy Director, Technical, Eberhard F. M. 
Rees; Deputy Director, Management, Harry H. Gorman; Director of 
Science and Engineering Hermann K. Weidner; Vice Commander, 
Aeronautical Systems Div., m/g Edmund F. O'Connor (USAF) ; Direc- 
tor of Program Management Lee B. James; and Deputy Director of 
Science and Engineering Ludie G. Richard. 

NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement was presented 
to James A. Downey, III; Erwin Fehlberg; Gerhard B. Heller; Robert 
J. Nauman; and Joseph L. Randall. Other awards received were NASA 
Medal for Exceptional Service by NASA employees and NASA Certificate 
for Distinguished Public Service by industry personnel, (msfc Re- 
lease 69-222) 
October 3: Ogo VI Orbiting Geophysical Observatory, launched into low- 
altitude polar orbit June 5, was adjudged successful by NASA. Space- 
craft had completed first diurnal cycle and had provided data on global 
characteristics of neutral atmosphere; association of electric fields with 
ionospheric irregularities; airglow emissions associated with oxygen, 
sodium, and molecular nitrogen; and propagation of proton whistlers. 
Performance of Ogo VI subsystems had been excellent and instrumen- 
tation for 23 of 25 experiments was operational. Active three-axis sta- 
bilization had been maintained since initial acquisition and gas usage 
was consistent with one-year operation. To extend attitude-stabilized 
lifetime beyond one year, operations plan had been modified to include 
manual control of gas jet firing, (nasa Proj Off) 

• MSC announced appointment of Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper as Assistant 

for Space Shuttle Program in msc's Flight Crew Operations Directo- 
rate. Cooper would be responsible for flight crew training program, 
astronaut inputs into design and engineering, and directorate's part 
in hardware development and testing for Space Shuttle. He would re- 
main on flight status and eligible for space flight. ( MSC Release 69/67) 

• msfc announced that it had issued $10,751,000 contract to General 

Electric Co.'s Apollo Systems Div. for electrical support equipment for 

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ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 October 3 

Apollo Telescope Mount and launch systems for Saturn V Workshop 
multiple docking adapter and airlock. Work was to be completed 
June 30, 1975. 

msfc had also issued six-month $56,727 contract to Bionic Instru- 
ments, Inc., to develop lunar roving vehicle hazard locator. Locator, 
which would be installed on lunar rover or dual-model vehicle, would 
use laser beam to spot rocks, holes, and other obstacles on lunar sur- 
face and display on screen warning of obstacles hidden from astro- 
nauts' view, (msfc Releases 69-223, 69-224) 

• Spain awarded its Grand Cross of Aeronautic Merit to Apollo 11 Astro- 

nauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins, 
(upi, NYT, 10/4/69, 23) 
October 4: Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched by NASA from Wal- 
lops Station carried 223-lb Cal Tech payload to 146-mi (234.9-km) 
altitude to study intensity, spectrum, and degree of isotropy of dif- 
fuse x-ray background in 0.1- to 20-kev range and to study energy 
spectrum of star X— 1 in constellation Scorpius in 0.1- to 15-kev range. 
Rocket and instruments functioned satisfactorily and good data were 
obtained in all 12 prime data channels. (NASA Rpt srl; WS Release) 

• nasc Executive Secretary William A. Anders, Apollo 8 astronaut, told 

Western Conference of Young Presidents' Organization in Phoenix, 
Ariz., that U.S. lost $13 billion each year in agricultural production 
from insects, disease, and fire. Use of satellite sensors could improve 
surveys of agricultural and forest resources, aid mineral and petroleum 
prospecting, obtain better inventory of earth's water sources, detect 
natural and man-made geography changes, sense ocean currents and 
temperatures to aid fishing industry and improve routing of commercial 
shipping, and study effects of environmental and water pollution. While 
NASA space expenditures were averaging about $4.5 billion annually — 
about 2/3 of 1% of GNP — nearly $4 billion was spent in U.S. for non- 
durable toys and sport supplies, $4.7 billion for foreign travel, and 
over $6.5 billion in amusements. 

Anders urged international harmony through space. "We travel 
through space on a small planet. The Earth looked so tiny in the 
heavens that there were times during the Apollo 8 mission when I had 
trouble finding it. If you can imagine yourself in a darkened room with 
only one clearly visible object, a small blue-green sphere about the 
size of a Christmas tree ornament, then you can begin to grasp what 
the Earth looks like from space. I think all of us subconsciously think 
the Earth is flat or at least almost infinite. Let me assure you that, 
rather than a massive giant, it should be thought of more as the 
fragile Christmas tree ball which we should handle with considerable 
care. . . . From space, the earth is indivisible. There are no flags, no 
national boundaries. Let us on Earth then use the Communications 
Revolution to break down the barriers which separate us, so that all of 
Earth's people will be truly brothers." (CR, 10/6/69, E8190-2; nasc 
pio) 

• Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and 

Michael Collins and wives arrived at Las Palmas, Canary Islands, for 
two-day rest before proceeding to Madrid and meeting with Gen. Fran- 
cisco Franco during 38-day goodwill tour. (AP, NYT, 10/6/69) 

• USAF had awarded three-year, $20-million contract to North American 

327 



October 4 ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, 1969 

Rockwell Corp. Rocketdyne Div. to design new rocket engine to power 
payloads in space, Business Week said. United Aircraft's Pratt & 
Whitney Div. was also working on concept, magazine believed. (Bus 
Wk, 10/4/69) 

October 5: GSFC scientists and Smithsonian Institution ecologist Dr. Helmut 
K. Buechner planned to use female elk named Moe for first experiment 
in tracking animals by satellite, New York Times said. Wearing 23-lb 
instrumentation around neck, elk was expected to migrate from point 
in Wyoming to national elk refuge south of Yellowstone Park at 
Jackson Hole, Wyo.— 100-mi distance. (Teltsch, NYT, 10/5/69,